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Petroleum trap

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Fault trap

In petroleum geology, a trap is a geological structure affecting the reservoir rock and caprock of a petroleum system allowing the accumulation of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. Traps can be of two types: stratigraphic or structural. Structural traps are the most important type of trap as they represent the majority of the world's discovered petroleum resources.[1][2]

Structural trapsEdit

Structural traps
Structural trap in an anticline.
Structural trap along a fault plane.
yellow : reservoir rock ; green : cap rock ; red : hydrocarbons

A structural trap is a type of geological trap that forms as a result of changes in the structure of the subsurface, due to tectonic, diapiric, gravitational and compactional processes.[3][4]

Anticlinal trapEdit

 
Anticlinal trap

An anticline is an area of the subsurface where the strata have been pushed into forming a domed shape. If there is a layer of impermeable rock present in this dome shape, then hydrocarbons can accumulate at the crest until the anticline is filled to the spill point - the highest point where hydrocarbons can escape the anticline.[5] This type of trap is by far the most significant to the hydrocarbon industry. Anticline traps are usually long oval domes of land that can often be seen by looking at a geological map or by flying over the land.

Fault trapEdit

This trap is formed by the movement of permeable and impermeable layers of rock along a fault line.[6] The permeable reservoir rock faults such that it is now adjacent to an impermeable rock, preventing hydrocarbons from further migration. In some cases, there can be an impermeable substance smeared along the fault line (such as clay) that also acts to prevent migration. This is known as clay smear.

Stratigraphic trapEdit

Stratigraphic trap
Stratigraphic trap under an unconformity.
Stratigraphic trap in a coral reef (reservoir rock) sealed in mudstones (caprock).
Stratigraphic trap associated with an evaporite diapir (pink).
blue : source rock ; yellow : reservoir rock ; green : cap rock ; red : hydrocarbons

In a stratigraphic trap, the geometry allowing the accumulation of hydrocarbons is of sedimentary origin and has not undergone any tectonic deformation. Such traps can be found in clinoforms, in a pinching-out sedimentary structure, under an unconformity or in a structure created by the creep of an evaporite.

Salt dome trapEdit

 
Salt dome trap

Masses of salt are pushed up through clastic rocks due to their greater buoyancy, eventually breaking through and rising towards the surface (see salt dome). This salt is impermeable and when it crosses a layer of permeable rock, in which hydrocarbons are migrating, it blocks the pathway in much the same manner as a fault trap.[7] This is one of the reasons why there is significant focus on subsalt imaging, despite the many technical challenges that accompany it.

UnconformityEdit

Hybrid trapEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Allen P.A. & Allen J.R. (1990) Basin Analysis. pp 373. Publ. Blackwell Publishing
  2. ^ "Petroleum Research Institution". Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  3. ^ "Search Results - Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary". www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  4. ^ Gluyas, J. & Swarbrick, R. (2004) Petroleum Geoscience. Publ. Blackwell Publishing
  5. ^ Sheriff, R. E., Geldart, L. P. (1995). Exploration Seismology (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 351. ISBN 0-521-46826-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "Search Results - Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary". www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  7. ^ "Petroleum Research Institute". Retrieved August 2, 2019.