Princess Jeguk

Princess Supreme Jeguk (Korean제국대장공주; Hanja齊國大長公主; 22 July 1259 – 11 June 1297;[1] lit.'Princess-Aunt of the State of Je'), also known as Queen Jangmok (Korean장목왕후; Hanja莊穆王后) and Queen Mother Inmyeong (Korean인명태후; Hanja仁明太后) was a Yuan imperial princess as the daughter of Kublai Khan who became the first Goryeo queen consort from Yuan. She was the primary wife of Chungnyeol of Goryeo and the mother of his successor, Chungseon of Goryeo. Her personal name was Borjigin Qutlugh Kelmysh (Chinese: 孛兒只斤 忽都魯 揭里迷失).

Princess Supreme of Je State
제국대장공주
齊國大長公主
Grand Queen Mother Inmyeong
(인명왕태후, 仁明王太后)
Princess of Yuan dynasty
Reign?–1274
Queen consort of Goryeo
Tenure1274–1297
Coronation1274
PredecessorPrincess Gyeongchang
SuccessorPrincess Gyeguk
BornBorjigin Qutlugh Kelmysh
22 July 1259
Mongol Empire
Died11 June 1297 (aged 37)
Hyeonseong Temple, Gaegyeong, Kingdom of Goryeo
BurialSeptember 1297
Goreung tomb
Spouse
(m. 1274⁠–⁠1297)
IssueChungseon of Goryeo
Unborn daughter
Unborn son
Names
  • Yuan name: Borjigin Qutugh Kelmysh (Chinese: 孛兒只斤 忽都魯 揭里迷失; pinyin: Bèierzhǐjīn Hūdōulǔ Jiēlǐmíshī)
  • Sino-Korean name: Pae'ajigŭn Holdoro Gerimisil
    (Korean패아지근 홀도로 게리미실; RRPaeajigeun Holdoro Gerimisil)
Regnal name
  • Princess Wonseong (원성공주, 元成公主; from 1275)
  • Princess Anpyeong (안평공주, 安平公主; from 1294)
Posthumous name
  • Given by Goryeo:
    • Queen Jangmok (장목왕후, 莊穆王后)
    • Queen Jangmok Inmyeong (장목인명왕후, 莊穆仁明王后; by King Chungnyeol)
    • Queen Mother Inmyeong (인명태후, 仁明太后)
    • Queen Mother Jeongmin Jangseon Inmyeong (정민장선인명태후, 貞敏莊宣仁明太后; by King Chungseon)
  • Given by Yuan:
    • Imperial Aunt "Princess Supreme of Je State", the Princess Consort (Queen Consort) of Goryeo State (황고 제국대장공주 고려국 왕비, 皇姑 齊國大長公主 高麗國 王妃; given in 1310 by Temür Khan)
HouseBorjigin (by birth)
House of Wang (by marriage)
FatherKublai Khan
MotherChabi Khatun
ReligionBuddhism
Princess Jeguk
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationJeguk Daejang Gongju
McCune–ReischauerCh'eguk T'aech'ang Kongch'u
Qutlugh Kelmysh (Mongolian)
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationKuteulruk Kelmiswi
McCune–ReischauerK'utŭlruk K'elmiswi
Qutlugh Kelmysh (Korean)
Hangul
Revised RomanizationHoldoro Gerimisil, Holdok Geobmisa
McCune–ReischauerHoldoro Kerimisil, Holdok Kŏp'misa

She was the great-granddaughter of Genghis Khan and was known as a princess supreme (daejang gongju, 大長公主) as the aunt of the Emperor.[2][3] She was the aunt of Temür Khan, who later succeeded her father as the Yuan emperor. From all of Mongol consorts in Goryeo, just she who was Yuan Emperor's daughter.

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Borjigin Qutugh Kelmysh (보르지긴 쿠틀룩 켈미쉬 [홀도로게리미실 or 홀독겁미사], 孛儿支斤 忽都魯揭里迷失) was born on 22 July 1259 in Mongol Empire as the youngest daughter (Imperial Princess) of Kublai Khan and Chabi khatun (阿速眞可敦). [4]

Marriage relation with GoryeoEdit

At 16 years old on 11 May 1274, she married the 39-years-old Crown Prince Wang Geo of Goryeo and after he ascended the throne as the new king, she became his Queen Consort[5] passed his firstly-married wife who was the granddaughter of Duke Yangyang due to when Goryeo became a vassal state of the Mongol Empire, Goryeo's influence was restrained and made Jeongsin must step back from her position to a royal consort.

After came to Goryeo, Qutugh Kelmysh brought her own servants and they continued to practice Mongol customs, Chungnyeol even scolded the priests for not changing their hair in the Yuan style. This made Mongolian customs became prevalent in Goryeo since their country's mother was Mongols's princess. As one of Mongolian custom, Qutugh built a Mongolian-style tent called Gung-ryeo (궁려, 穹廬) and held an amulet rite of her ancestors using white sheep's oil.[6]

Palace lifeEdit

On 6 January 1275, Qutugh was honoured as Princess Wonseong (원성공주, 元成公主; lit.'the Primary and Constructive Princess') while lived in Wonseong Hall, Gyeongseong Palace (경성궁 원성전, 敬成宮 元成殿).[7] Under Chungnyeol's order, a wealth was established for her, named "Eungseon" (응선, 膺善) and royal family was placed there.[8] It was said that the Princess loved to enjoy banquets, even after her mother died. Also, if someone was close with her, they would be released quickly even if committed a serious crime. Jo In-gyu (조인규), who embezzled the State's wealth and acquitted innocent people, quickly released from Guiyang since he close to the princess and later rose to the position of Inspector General (감찰대부).[9]

Want if her peoples live more better, she showed aspects such as urging Chungnyeol, who frequently hunts, to stop hunting and put effort into the affairs of the country and also said to have a very strict and strong, but bright. She didn't forgive anyone among her close associates who made a mistake. In the following year, exactly on 20 October 1275, she gave birth into their first son, Wang Jang (then known as King Chungseon) in Sapan Palace (사판궁, 沙坂宮).[10]

In December, a banquet was held to celebrate the newborn Prince's birth. However, when Chungnyeol ordered that she and his first wife be placed in the same position, she thought that she and his first wife were treated as equals and became very angry with suddenly moved Jeongsin's seat. After a while, Jeongsin knelt down and offered a glass of wine to her, but the King turned around and blinked. Finally, the banquet ended right away.[11]

In May 1276, she and Chungnyeol visited Heungwang Temple (흥왕사) and while she took the gold pagoda from that Temple into the palace, the decorations for the pagoda were stolen by the servants Holadae (홀라대, 忽刺歹) and Samga (삼가, 三哥), who followed her to Goryeo.[12] Qutugh originally intended to dismantle it and use it privately, but when Chungnyeol prevented it, she cried. When they got back to there, Heungwang Temple's members begged her to the return the gold pagoda of the gold tower, but she refused.

In December 1276, someone put an anonymous letter into the residence of Seokmalcheongu (석말천구, 石抹天衢; Darughachi). The person who put in the anonymous letter immediately exclaimed:

"If you have clothes, wear them, and if you have rice, eat them, don't make it someone else's income."
"옷이 있거든 입고 밥이 있거든 먹어 다른 이의 소득이 되게 하지 말라."

The day after it was put in, Seokmalcheongu reported this to Chungnyeol and her. The letter also said that

"Princess Jeonghwa has lost the King's favor, so she has a female shaman to curse the Princess. Also, 43 people, including Duke Jean, plan to do something unpleasant and try to enter Ganghwa-do again."
"정화궁주가 왕의 총애를 잃자 여자 무당을 시켜 공주를 저주하게 하고 있다. 또 제안공을 비롯한 43명이 불궤한 짓을 도모하여 다시 강화도로 들어가려고 한다.")

Infuriated by this, she imprisoned Jeongsin in Najang (나장, 螺匠) and sealed off her obituary.[13] After hearing the earnest appeal of Yu-Gyeong (유경 柳璥), Qutugh was moved and realized something, so she released them all.

In 1277, she gave birth into their daughter, but died not long after that. Then, in July, they went to Cheonhyo Temple (천효사, 天孝寺), but she returned to the palace and saying that there were few attendants, so the King.[14] After his back, she beat him with a staff and her anger was relieved a little, then went back to the Temple. One year later, she gave birth again into their second son, but died early too.

Later, when King Wonjong of Goryeo's 2nd wife, Princess Gyeongchang doing a curse with had her son, Wang Jong married Qutugh Kelmysh and tried to ascend the throne. Upon received this report, Chungnyeol ordered his ministers to studied Gyeongchang and protected Wang Jong. However, in this case, the ministers insisted that the destruction of property should also be directed by the Yuan dynasty, which was the merchant country, so they decided to follow the confiscated policy. Since she strongly insisted on skipping this procedure and confiscating the property, their property was eventually confiscated under her command. Afterwards, under Yuan dynasty's direction, on 16 September 1277, Gyeongchang was deposed from her position and reduced to commoner status and Wang Jong was exiled to Gueum-do (구음도, 仇音島).[15]

On 20 March 1281, Chungnyeol was given Yuan Imperial title Prince Consort [King] of State (부마국왕, 駙馬國王) since he was one of their Princess's husband. In the next year, as the father-in-law, Kublai Khan gave the best medical officer from Song Dynasty to Chungnyeol, named Yeon Deok-sin (연덕신, 鍊德新) and his medicine was said to made strengthens Chungnyeol's stamina. However, Goryeo astronomer O Yun-bu (오윤부) said, "This medicine is not good for the king's body and this make prevent the descendants from prospering." After the King took the medicine, the Princess never became pregnant again.[16][17]

While Chungnyeol enshrined a new deity in ancestor ritual and held a ritual for it, she wasn't allow to participate by claiming that "Ancestor ritual (태묘) is a place where the spirits of ancestors reside" that the princess would participate in the ancestral rites together. Also, hearing that a strange phenomenon appeared in the sky when the princess started the construction of a new palace, O Yun-bu advised he to stop the construction of the palace and cultivate virtue. But, she didn't listen this and instead started building the palace again. She then ordered O to choose a choice, but she refused to do so and they were excommunicated.[18]

Then, on 29 June 1294, Qutugh Kelmysh was given the new title as Princess Anpyeong (안평공주, 安平公主; lit.'the Calm and Peaceful Princess') by her nephew, Temür Khan.[19] During her lifetime, she was said for tried to devote herself to the national affairs and helped her husband in government.

Later life and deathEdit

In 1297, she went to Hyanggak, Sugang Palace (수강궁) and ordered the servants to pick up a peony in full bloom. Then she looked at this peony for a long time and sobbed. After a while, she started fell ill and three days later, she and her husband goes to Hyeonseong Temple (현성사, 賢聖寺), then, died in there at her 37 years old.

She was buried in Goreung Tomb (고릉, 高陵) and then received her Posthumous names in September.[20] Around 1297, her son, murdered his father's concubine, Lady Si and said that his mother's illness was caused by the speculation of the former King's favor. After exiled, killed or imprisoned several people related to his mother, a beautiful widow (later known as Consort Won), was dedicated to King Chungnyeol and shocked by this, he then abdicated his throne to Chungseon and resigned as King Emeritus.

After Wang Won ascended the throne in 1298, he honoured his mother as Queen Mother Inmyeong (인명태후, 仁明太后) along with visited Myoryeon Temple (묘련사, 妙蓮寺), her original temple.[21] At this time, both of King of Jin (진왕, 晉王) and King Go of Dang (고당왕, 高唐王) sent their peoples to mourn and honor her. In 1310, Temür Khan honoured his aunt as Imperial Aunt, the Princess Supreme of Je State (제국대장공주, 齊國大長公主) and enshrined in Chungnyeol's shrine.[22]

OthersEdit

Some scholars evaluated that Princess Jeguk was treated completely differently from the previous Goryeo Queen consorts and that she exercised more powerful authority than the King by putting her status as a Yuan Dynasty Imperial Princess. In addition, there were evaluation that she wasted her national treasury on her immortality because she believed in Buddhism too much.[citation needed]

Based on [1]고려에 시집온 몽골공주들, 남편 편들어 元관리와 맞섰다

FamilyEdit

In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ In Lunar calendar, she was born on 28th days 6th months 1259 and died on 21st days 5th months 1297.
  2. ^ Lee, Lily; Wiles, Sue, eds. (2015). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women. Vol. II. Routledge. p. 609. ISBN 978-1-317-51562-3. An emperor's [...] sister or a favorite daughter was called a grand princess (zhang gongzhu); and his aunt or grand-aunt was called a princess supreme (dazhang gongzhu).
  3. ^ Farmer, Edward L. (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation. Brill. p. 140. ISBN 90-04-10391-0. The emperor's agnatic aunt shall be called Princess Supreme [dazhang gongzhu]. The emperor's sisters shall be called Grand Princesses [zhang gongzhu].
  4. ^ "高麗史/卷八十九 - 维基文库,自由的图书馆". zh.wikisource.org (in Chinese). Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  5. ^ "충렬왕이 원에서 결혼한 쿠투루칼리미쉬공주를 고려로 데려오다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  6. ^ 국역 "고려사".: 열전. 20-28 [National "History of Goryeo".: Biographies. 20-28] (in Korean). National Culture. 2006. p. 100. ISBN 9788982080869.
  7. ^ 동사강목, Volume 10 [Dongsagangmok, Volume 10] (in Korean). University of California: National Culture Promotion Association. 1982. p. 239.
  8. ^ 이야기고려왕조실록 (하) [Stories of the Annals of the Goryeo Dynasty (Bottom)] (in Korean). Korean History Research Institute: Taoreum. 2009. ISBN 9788996200840.
  9. ^ "최세연이 충렬왕의 총애를 믿고 방자하게 굴다 순마소에 수감되다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  10. ^ "충선왕의 출생". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  11. ^ "원성공주가 충선왕 탄생의 축하잔치에서 정화궁주와 위상문제로 다투다". History of Goryeo (in Korean). Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  12. ^ "제국대장공주의 케링구인 인후가 고려에서 권력을 휘두르다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  13. ^ "정화궁주가 공주를 저주하고 왕숙 등이 반역을 꾀한다는 무고가 올라오다". History of Goryeo (in Korean). Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  14. ^ "원성공주가 질병의 요양으로 천효사에 가던 충렬왕과 다투다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  15. ^ "왕제 종을 구음도에서 소환하다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  16. ^ "오윤부가 제국대장공주에게 궁실 축조의 중지를 건의하다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  17. ^ "오윤부가 천문 변화현상에 대해 국왕의 수신을 건의하다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  18. ^ "오윤부의 성품과 관력". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  19. ^ 읽기 쉬운 고려왕 이야기 [An easy-to-read story of the King of Goryeo] (in Korean). Korean History Research Institute: Taoreum. 2009. ISBN 9788996200888.
  20. ^ "공민왕릉(서울경제, '21.4.5)". Cultural Heritage Administration (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  21. ^ "제국대장공주의 기일에 왕과 공주가 분향하다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  22. ^ "원이 왕의 3대 조상을 추증하다". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved October 9, 2021.

External linksEdit