Wikipedia's contents: Religion and belief systems
is the adherence to codified beliefs
that generally involve a faith
in a spiritual nature
and a study of inherited ancestral traditions
related to understanding human life
. The term "religion" refers to both the personal practices related to faith as well as to the larger shared systems of belief.
A belief system can refer to a religion or a world view. A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ([ˈvɛlt.ʔanˌʃaʊ.ʊŋ] (help·info)) Welt is the German word for 'world,' and Anschauung is the German word for 'view' or 'outlook'. It is a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. Additionally, it refers to the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts in it.
Religion – collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and sometimes to moral values.
- World's religions:
- Abrahamic religions:
- Judaism – "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people. Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanach) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, it is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel.
- Jewish law – the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
- Christianity – monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings.
- Bible – the holy text of Christianity
- Eastern Orthodox teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles.
- Catholicism – Catholicism is the largest denomination of Christianity. It holds that its Bishops are the successors of the Apostles of Jesus and its Pope the successor of St Peter, and Mary the mother of Jesus is venerated. The term Catholicism broadly denotes the varying body of traditions, nations, demographics and behaviours generally subscribed to the Faith.
- Protestantism – Protestantism is a broad term, usually used for Christians who are not of the Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Churches. However, some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant, and some consider Radical Reformism not to be Protestant.
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints – The largest denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement, an American restorationist movement. Members are known as "Mormons".
- Book of Mormon – the earliest distinctive scripture of the Latter Day Saint movement.
- Joseph Smith – the founding Prophet of the Latter Day Saint movement.
- Islam – monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of one God, Allah (Arabic: الله Allāh), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of Allah.
- Bahá'í Faith – a monotheistic religion founded by Baha'u'llah in the 19th century, proclaims Spiritual unity of mankind
- East Asian religions:
- Confucianism – a Chinese system of philosophical and "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.
- Shinto – an ethnic religion of the people of Japan.
- Taoism – a religious and philosophical tradition of Chinese origin with an emphasis on living in harmony with, and in accordance to the natural flow or cosmic structural order of the universe commonly referred to as the Tao.
- Indian religions:
- Buddhism – religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one").
- Hinduism – predominant and indigenous religious tradition), amongst many other expressions.
- Ayyavazhi – Henotheistic belief that originated in South India. It is cited as an independent monistic religion by several newspapers, government reports and academic researchers. In Indian censuses, however, the majority of its followers declare themselves as Hindus. Therefore, Ayyavazhi is also considered a Hindu denomination.
- Jainism – an ancient Indian religion.
- Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and ten successive Sikh Gurus (the last teaching being the holy scripture Guru Granth Sahib Ji).
- Contemporary Paganism – a contemporary set of beliefs modelled on the ancient pagan religions (usually of Europe or the Near East).
- Religious debates:
- Creation–evolution controversy – recurring theological and cultural-political dispute about the origins of the Earth, humanity, life, and the universe, between the proponents of evolution, backed by scientific consensus, and those who espouse the validity and/or superiority of literal interpretations of a creation myth. The dispute particularly involves the field of evolutionary biology, but also the fields of geology, palaeontology, thermodynamics, nuclear physics and cosmology.
- Theology – systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.
- Christian theology – enterprise to construct a coherent system of Christian belief and practice based primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as the historic traditions of the faithful. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis, and argument to clarify, examine, understand, explicate, critique, defend or promote Christianity.
- Religious issues:
- Death – end of physical life
- Irreligion – absence of religious belief, or indifference or hostility to religion, or active rejection of religious traditions.
- Atheism – rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is simply the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.
- Secular humanism – embraces human reason, ethics, and justice while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience or superstition as the basis of morality and decision-making.
- Spirituality – can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality; an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of his/her being; or the “deepest values and meanings by which people live.”
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