Glossary of Shinto

This is the glossary of Shinto, including major terms the casual (or brand-new) reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject. Words followed by an asterisk (*) are illustrated by an image in one of the photo galleries. Within definitions, words set in boldface are defined elsewhere in the glossary.


AEdit

  • Akomeôgi (衵扇, lit. "Chemise Fan") – A kind of fan held by aristocratic women of the Heian period when formally dressed; it is brightly painted with tassels and streamers on the ends. Held today in Shinto by a Miko in formal costume for festivals. See also Hiôgi (below).
  • Aku (, lit. "Evil") – Evil. The term's meaning is however not limited to moral evil, but includes misfortune, inferiority, and unhappiness.[1]
  • Akuma (悪魔, lit. "Evil, Devil") - A malevolent fire spirit, demon or devil.
  • Akuryō (悪霊, lit. "Evil Spirit") - A malevolent spirit, demon or devil.
  • Akuryō Taisan (悪霊退散, lit. "Evil Spirit Be Gone") – A spell, a command for dispelling a malevolent spirit, demon or devil.
  • Ama (, lit. "Heaven(ly)") – The Divine/Deva realm of incarnation, the highest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See also Sora (below), Ten (below), and Rinne (below).
  • Amagatsu (天児, lit. "Heaven(ly) Newborn") – See Hōko (below).
  • Amakudari (天降 & 天下り, lit. "Heaven(ly) Descent") – A (living) being who is an incarnation of a divine being; an avatar.
  • Amaterasu Ōmikami (天照大神, 天照大御神 or 天照皇大神, lit. "Heaven(ly) Illumination Great Honourable Imperial Divinity") – The Shinto Sun Goddess, tutelary kami and ancestor of the Emperor, enshrined at Ise Shrine.[1]
  • Amano-Iwato (天岩戸, lit. "Heavenly Rock Cave") – In Japanese mythology/Shintoism, Amano-Iwato is the name of the cave where the Kami, Amaterasu, fled after the violent actions of her youngest brother Susanoo caused the death of one of her weavers. Thus, the land was deprived of light, and mononoke from hell were free to roam the lands and wreak havoc. It took the other Kami to lure her out again, restoring the sun to the world.
  • Ama-no-Jaku (天の邪鬼, lit. "Malevolent Spirits from Heaven") – An Oni-like creatures in Japanese folklore; the Ama-no-Jaku is thought to be able to provoke a person's darkest desires, and, thus, an Ama-no-Jaku instigates them into perpetrating wicked deeds. Similar to Ama-no-Zako (below). See also Jaki (below) and Jama (below).
  • Ama-no-uki-hashi (‎天之浮橋, lit. "Floating Bridge of Heaven") – In Shinto, Takamagahara (or Takama no Hara) is the dwelling place of the heavenly gods (the Amatsukami). It is believed to be connected to the Earth by the bridge, Ama-no-uki-hashi. Similar to the Bifröst of Norse mythology.
  • Ama-no-Zako (天逆毎, lit. "[Malevolent Spirit] Opposing Heaven") – A monstrous Megami mentioned in the Kujiki, which states that she originated when Susanoo let his own ferocious spirit (Aramitama) build up inside him until he vomited her out. Similar to Ama-no-Jaku (above).
  • Amatsukami (別天神, lit. "Heavenly Deities") – See Kotoamatsukami (below).
  • Ame-no-Nuhoko (天沼矛, 天之瓊矛 or 天瓊戈, lit. "Jewel(ed) Spear of Heaven") – The name given to the spear in Shinto mythology used by Izanagi and Izanami to raise the primordial land-mass, Onogoro-shima, from the sea; it is often depicted as a naginata.
  • Ame-no-Uzume (天宇受売命 or 天鈿女命, lit. "Shining Heavenly Sky Goddess") – The Shinto goddess of the dawn, mirth, meditation, revelry and the arts, and the wife of fellow-Kami, Sarutahiko Ōkami.
  • An* (, lit. "table", "platform") – A small portable table or platform used during Shinto ceremonies to bear offerings. It may have four, eight or upwards of sixteen legs.
  • Ano-Yo (あの世, lit. "That World") – See Seishinkai (below).
  • Anzen (安全, lit. "Safety", "Security") – A kind of omamori, specifically for safety, particularly safety at work, frequently requested from a kami, and in fact corporations often have a tutelary shrine specifically to ensure their business prospers.[1]
  • Aoi Matsuri (葵祭, lit. the "Hollyhock Festival") – One of the three main annual festivals held in Kyoto, Japan (the other two being the Festival of the Ages (Jidai Matsuri) and the Gion Festival). It is a festival of the two Kamo shrines in the north of the city, Shimogamo Shrine and Kamigamo Shrine. The festival may also be referred to as the Kamo Festival. It is held on 15th of May of each year.
  • Aramitama (荒魂, lit. "Wild Soul") – The rough and violent side of a whole, complete spirit (mitama).[2]
  • Aruki Miko (歩き巫女, lit. a "Wandering Miko") – Aa itinerant Miko who is not in service to a shrine, but who, rather, wanders around the country, performing where needed.
  • Ashihara no Nakatsukuni (葦原の中つ国, lit. The "Middle Country of Reed beds") – In Japanese mythology/Shintoism, this term is applied to the plane of existence that exists between Takamagahara (Heaven) and Yomi (Hell); in other words, the Realm of the Living. In time, the term became another word for the country or the location of Japan itself. The term can be used interchangeably with Toyoashihara no Nakatsukuni.
  • Ayakashi (妖怪, lit. "Strange, Unusual, Supernatural, Paranormal, Extraordinary") – An umbrella term that can cover ghosts, phantoms, phantasms, apparitions and illusions, goblins, monsters, demons, devils and any kind of supernatural beasts and beings; the corporeal and the incorporeal; real or fantasy; specifically, Ayakashi is a term more specific for Yōkai that appear above the surface of some body of water. See also Hitobosu, Hitomoshi, Kitsunebi (below), Rinka, Shiranui, Yōkai (below), and Will-o'-the-wisp & St. Elmo's fire.

BEdit

  • Bakemono (化け物, lit. "Formless Thing") – A monsterous apparition; a monster.
  • Banbutsu (万物, lit. "Ten Thousand Things") – A term used to refer to the whole world.
  • Banshō (万象, lit. "Ten Thousand Likenesses") – A term, meaning "All Things", "All the Universe", and "Every manifestation of nature".
  • Bekkū or Betsugū (別宮, lit. "Separate temple/shrine") – A subsidiary shrine next to the honden, which may however enshrine an equally important kami.[1]
  • Benzaiten (弁才天, 弁財天, lit. "Heavenly-Happy Talents") – Originally a Vedic goddess, Sarasvati, she is now a syncretic goddess, and a member of the Seven Lucky Gods. She is also syncretized with the Shinto Kami, Ichikishima-hime-no-mikoto (市杵島姫命, lit. "Female [goddess] of the Island of Worship").[1]
  • Bettō (別当, lit. "Acting-Division Head") – before the shinbutsu bunri, when the Meiji period law forbade the mixing of Shinto and Buddhism, a bettō was a monk who performed Buddhist rites at a Shinto shrine.
  • Bishamonten – Syncretic deity of Buddhist origin part of the Seven Lucky Gods.[1] A symbol of authority, he protects warriors.
  • Bon Matsuri (, lit. "Votive offering Festival") – A festival celebrated around July 15 in order to console the spirits of the dead. In theory a Buddhist festival, but in practice an ancestor and family festival part of Shinto.[1]
  • Bosatsu (菩薩, lit. "Bodhisattva") – A Bodhisattva. Term of Buddhist origin which however was and is often used for deities of mixed Buddhist/Shinto ancestry such-as Benzaiten and Jizō, Kami such-as Hachiman, and even deified human beings like Tokugawa Ieyasu.[1]
  • Bōrei (亡霊, lit. "Deceased/Vague Spirit") – A term for a ghost, a kind of yūrei, but one whose identity (and grudge) is unknown.
  • Bokusen (卜占, lit. "Divination, Scrying, Fortune-Telling") – The act of divining; a foreseeing or foretelling of future events. See also Futomani (below) and Ukehi (below).
  • Buden (舞殿, lit. "Dancing Hall") – Another word for a Kaguraden, a platform/pavilion or stage dedicated to the performing of the kagura (sacred dance).
  • Bunrei (分霊, lit. a "Division (of a) Spirit/Soul") – A process of division of a kami producing two complete copies of the original (similar to cell division/mitosis), one of which is then transferred to a new shrine by a process called Kanjō (see also Kanjō, below).
  • Bunsha (分社, lit. a "Division (of a) shrine") – A shrine that is a part of a network headed by a more famous shrine, from whence its kami was transferred by an operation called kanjō.[1]
  • Butsudan (仏壇, lit. a "Buddhist image platform") – A Buddhist altar found in Japanese homes, enshrining a family's ancestors.[1]
  • Busshitsukai (物質界, lit. the "Material World") – The Material World, the Physical World, the Corporeal World, the world of the Living, as-opposed-to the spiritual, non-corporeal world that co-exists all around-&-through the material world (Seishinkai (below)), that spirit beings inhabit, but in a different dimension. The realm of the living, great-&-small.
  • Busshitsusekai (物質世界, lit. the "Material World") – See Busshitsukai (above) and Ko-Yo (below).

CEdit

  • Chi (, lit. "Wisdom, Knowledge, Intelligence") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Chigi* (千木, lit. "Thousand Wood(en beams)") – Forked decorations common at the ends of the roof of shrines.
  • Chihara (, lit. "Finishing-Touch Robe") – a kind of ceremonial overcoat with a long white hem worn by a Miko in certain Shinto ceremonies; similar to a Kannushi's Jōe over-robes.
  • Chinju (鎮社, lit. "Garrison Shrine") – The tutelary kami or tutelary shrine of a certain area or Buddhist temple (see also, Chinjusha).
  • Chinjusha* (鎮守社, lit. a local "Garrison Protector Shrine") – a small shrine dedicated to the tutelary kami of an area or building[1] (see also Chinju).
  • Chōchin (提灯, lit. "Portable Lantern(s)") – Paper lanterns always present at Shinto festivals (matsuri).
  • Chikushō (畜生, lit. "Animal/Lifestock Lifetime") – The Mortal/Animal realm of incarnation, the third-lowest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See also Rinne (below).
  • Chōnōryoku (超能力, lit. "Transcending Ability/Abilities") – Psychic ability, such as ESP or PSI.
  • Chōzubachi (手水鉢, lit. "Hand-Washing earthenware-basin") – Usually made of stone, a Chōzubachi is a water bowl, is a vessel used to rinse the hands in Japanese temples, shrines and gardens; see also Chōzuya and Temizuya.
  • Chōzuya (手水舎, lit. "Hand-Washing Pavilion") – A Shinto water ablution pavilion for a ceremonial purification rite known as Temizu or Chōzu (手水, lit. "Hand-Water/Washing"). The pavillion contains a large water-filled basin called a chōzu-bachi; see also Temizuya.
  • Chinkon (鎮魂, lit. "the calming of the spirits", "Requiem") – Shinto ritual performed for converting ara-mitama into nigi-mitama, quelling maleficent spirits, prevent misfortune and alleviate fear from events and circumstances that could not otherwise be explained; i.e. Ara-mitama that failed to achieve deification due to lack of sufficient veneration, or who lost their divinity following attrition of worshipers, became yōkai.
  • Chūgi (忠義, lit. "Duty and Loyalty") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.

DEdit

  • Daijōsai (大嘗祭, lit. "Great Tastes Festival") – A Ceremony marking the beginning of an Emperor's reign in which he offers first fruits to ancestors, including Amaterasu.[1] The Emperor then shares a meal with the goddess.
  • Dai-gongen (大権現, lit. "Great Incarnation") – Also see gongen (below).
  • Daikokuten (大黒天, lit. "Great Black Heavens") – A syncretic god, part of the Seven lucky gods fusing Buddhist god Mahakala and kami Ōkuninushi.[1]
  • Daikyōkan Jigoku (大叫喚地獄, lit. "Hell of Great Screaming") – The 5th level of Jigoku, location for sinners who have committed murder (even the murder of small creatures such as insects), theft, degeneration, drunkeness and lying.
  • Daishonetsu Jigoku (大焦熱地獄, lit. "Hell of Great Burning") – The 7th level of Jigoku, location for sinners who have committed murder (even the murder of small creatures such as insects), theft, degeneration, drunkeness, lying, blasphemy and rape.
  • Dōsojin (道祖神, lit. "Travelling Guardian Divinities") – A group of kami and Buddhist gods, protectors of roads, borders and other places of transition.[1] Comparable to Saint Christopher, the patron saint of travellers.
  • Dojin (土神, lit. "Earth God") – Another name for any Shinto earth deity.
  • Dōtaku (銅鐸, lit. "Copper Bell") – Large Japanese bronze bells smelted from relatively thin bronze and richly decorated. See also Suzu (below).

EEdit

FEdit

  • Fox – See Kitsune (, lit. "Fox"), an animal believed to have magical powers and to be a messenger to kami, Inari.
  • Fuji (Mount) (富士山, lit. "Abundant Earth Mountain") – The most famous among Japan's three sacred mountains, the Sanreizan (三霊山, lit. "Three Spiritual Mountains"), Mt. Fuji is inhabited by a kami called Konohanasakuya-hime.[1]
  • Fūjin (風神, lit. "Wind God") – The Shinto kami of the winds, resembles an Oni and is the brother of the thunder kami, Raijin.
  • Fukkō Shintō (復興神道, lit. "Restoration Shinto") – A term synonymous with kokugaku.
  • Futomani (太占, lit. "Great Fortune-Telling") – A traditional Shinto system of divination, similar to Chinese Oracle bone, but using stag bones instead of bulls bones.

GEdit

  • Gagaku (雅楽, lit. "Refined Entertainment") – Traditional Court music which was introduced into Japan with Buddhism from Korea and China; now played for Shinto rituals and ceremonies.
  • Gaki (餓鬼, lit. "Hungry Ghost") – The "Hungry ghost" realm of incarnation, the second-lowest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See Rinne (below).
  • Gi (, lit. "Righteousness") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Gion Matsuri (祇園祭, lit. the "Earth Spirit Park Festival") – One of the three main annual festivals held in Kyoto, Japan (the other two being the Aoi Matsuri and the Jidai Festival). Gion Matsuri is one of the largest festivals in Japan for purification and pacification of disease-causing-entities. It takes place in the month of July on the 17th and 24th.
  • Giri (義理, lit. "Duty, Responsibility, Obligation, Burden") – One of the seven-plus virtues of Bushido.
  • Go-hei* (御幣, lit. "Great Wand") – A wooden wand decorated with two shide (zigzag paper streamers) and used in Shinto rituals as a yorishiro. Also called Heisoku (幣束, lit. "Wealth Bunch") or Onbe (御幣, lit. "Great Wand").
  • Gokuraku (極楽, lit. "Paradise", "Heaven") – See also Gokuraku Jōdo (below) and Jōdo (below).
  • Gokuraku Jōdo (極楽浄土, lit. "Paradise", "Heaven", the "Pure Land") – See also Gokuraku (above) and Jōdo (below).
  • Gongen (権現, lit. "Current Authority; Incarnation"):
    • A Buddhist god that chooses to appear as a Japanese kami to take the Japanese to spiritual salvation.
    • Name sometimes used for shrines (e.g. "Tokusō Gongen") before the shinbutsu bunri.
  • Gongen-zukuri (権現造, lit. "Current Authority Architecture") – A shrine structure in which the haiden, the heiden and the honden are interconnected under the same roof in the shape of an H.* See also Ishi-no-ma-zukuri.
  • Goryō (御霊, lit. "Great Soul, Honourable Soul") – A soul, angry for having died violently or unhappy, which needs to be pacified through Buddhist rites or enshrinement, like Sugawara no Michizane;[1] vengeful Japanese ghosts from the aristocratic classes, especially those who have been martyred.
  • Gosekku (五節句, lit. the "Five Seasonal Festivals") – The 5 Annual Cultural Ceremonies/Festivals that were traditionally held at the Japanese imperial court. The Gosekku were originally adapted from Chinese practices and first celebrated in Japan in the Nara period in the 8th–10th centuries CE. The festivals were held until the beginning of the Meiji era. Some of them are still celebrated by the public today.
  • Go-Shinboku (御神木, lit. "Great Shinboku") – See Shinboku.
  • Go-Shintai (御神体, lit. "Great Shintai") – See Shintai.
  • Gozu-tennō (牛頭天王, lit. "Powerful Previous Heavenly Emperor") – Buddhist name of the kami Susanoo, considered an avatar of Yakushi Nyorai.[1]
  • -Gū (, lit. "Shrine, Temple") – A suffix of certain shrine names indicating it enshrines a member of the imperial family.[1] hachiman-gū shrines, for instance, enshrine Emperor Ojin.
  • Gunbai (軍配, lit. "Army Positioning") – Short for Gunbai-Uchiwa (below)
  • Gunbai-Uchiwa (軍配団扇, lit. "Army Positioning Uchiwa") – An item associated with leadership and ceremonial significance, back in Ancient Japan; wielded by Royalty, Aristocracy, Daimyō, military leaders and Kannushi; nowadays used by umpires in Sumo.

HEdit

  • Hachiman (八幡神, lit. "Eight Banners Divinity") – A Popular syncretic kami tutelary god of the warrior class. First enshrined at Usa Hachiman-gū, it consists of three separate figures, Emperor Ōjin, his mother and his wife, Himegami[1].
  • Hachiman-zukuri (八幡造, lit. "Hachiman-Architecture") – Shinto architectural style in which two parallel structures with gabled roofs are interconnected on the non-gabled side forming a single building which, when seen from the side, gives the impression of two.[3]
  • Hagoromo (羽衣, lit. "Feather(ed) Clothing") – The feathered Kimono of Tennin, spiritual beings found in Japanese Buddhism; Hagoromo allowed the Tennin wearing them to fly, earning Tennin the moniker of Hiten (飛天, lit. "Flying Heaven").
  • Haibutsu kishaku (廃仏毀釈, lit. "Destroy Buddha, kill Shakyamuni") – Literally "Destroy Buddha, kill Shakyamuni", it was the slogan of a Meiji period anti-Buddhist movement responsible for the destruction of thousands of Buddhist temples.
  • Haiden (拝殿, lit. "Hall of Prayer") – A shrine building dedicated to prayer, and the only one of a shrine open to laity.
  • Hakama (, lit. "Lower-body Robes") – A type of traditional Japanese clothing; originally inspired from trousers used by the Chinese imperial court in the Sui and Tang dynasties, this style was adopted by the Japanese in the form of the Hakama, beginning in the 6th century. Hakama are tied at the waist and fall approximately to the ankles, and are worn over a kimono (hakamashita). There are two main types of Hakama; the Umanori (馬乗り, lit. "Horseback-Riding Hakama") or 'divided' Hakama, like a pair of baggy trousers, and the Andon Bakama (行灯袴, lit. "Lantern Hakama") or 'undivided' Hakama, like a skirt; originally worn by male and female courtiers and ladies-in-waiting of the Heian court; now worn by Kannushi-&-Miko-alike, in both formal-&-non-formal functions of a Shinto Shrine.
  • Haku (, lit. "Soul, Life force, Vitalism") – Stemming from Daoism, haku is that ethereal part of the soul (as opposed to its counterpart, kon (魂)) which is indissolubly attached to the body, and returns down to the earth after death; the supraluminal soul.
  • Hakurei (魄霊, lit. "Vitalism, Spirit, Anima") – The soul or spirit of a person, usually someone who's just died.
  • Hakusan – collective name given to three mountains worshiped as kami and sacred to the Shugendō.[4] Hakusan shrines are common all over Japan.
  • Hamaya (破魔矢, lit. "evil-banishing arrow") – Decorative arrows bought for good luck (as an Engimono) at Shinto shrines at New Year's and kept at home all year.[1]
  • Hama Yumi (破魔弓, lit. "evil-banishing bow") – is a sacred bow first said to have been used in 1103 A.D. in Japan. This yumi-bow is said to be one of the oldest and most sacred of Japanese weapons; the first Emperor Jimmu is always depicted carrying a bow, identified as being an Azusa-wood Yumi.
  • Han-Honji suijaku (本地垂迹, lit. "Native Suspended Tracks") – A theory initiated by Yoshida Kanetomo which reversed the standard honji suijaku theory, asserting Buddhist gods were just avatars of Japanese kami.[1]
  • Hanagasa (花笠, lit. "Flower Hat") – A flowered-hat worn by Miko during festivals (Matsuri).
  • Hanami (花見, lit. "Flower Viewing") – The Japanese traditional festival and custom of enjoying the transient beauty of flowers; flowers ("hana") are in this case almost always referring to those of the cherry ("sakura") or, less frequently, plum ("Ume") and peach ("Momo") trees. From the end of March to early May, cherry trees bloom all over Japan, and around the first of February on the island of Okinawa. The blossom forecast (桜前線, sakura-zensen) "cherry blossom front" is announced each year by the weather bureau, and is watched carefully by those planning hanami as the blossoms only last a week or two.
  • Hannya (般若, lit. "Prajñā") – A female yōkai found in Japanese folklore (and in Kagura and Noh Theater), and is most often described as a monstrous Oni of a female; an Hannya is a yōkai who was originally once a normal mortal human woman, but one who has become so overcome with her jealousy that it has metaphorically consumed her, followed by literally transforming her into a Hannya Oni.
  • Harae (, lit. "Purification") – general term for rituals of purification in Shinto.[1] Methods of purification include Misogi.
  • Haraedo (祓戸, lit. "Place of Purification") – a place where ritual purification is performed.
  • Haraedo-no-Kami (祓戸の神, lit. "Kami of Purification") – Kami of Purification.
  • Haraedo-no-Ōkami (祓戸の大神, lit. "Kami of Purification") – Kami of Purification; amongst the many Kami born when Izanagi performed the Misogi ritual in order to cleanse the netherworld filth on him after he had returned from his futile attempt to retrieve his late consort, Izanami.
  • Haraegushi (祓串, lit. "Purification Wand") – an ōnusa having an hexagonal or octagonal wand.
  • Hassoku-an (八足案, lit. an "8-Legged Table") – See An (above).
  • Hatsumōde (初詣, lit. "First Accomplishment") – The first shrine visit of the New Year. Some shrines, for example Meiji Shrine in Harajuku, Tokyo, see millions of visitors in just a few days.
  • Hatsuhinode (初日の出, lit. "First Rising of the Sun") – The first Sunrise of the New Year. One of a number of "Firsts" activities of the New Year, as it is thought that paying careful attention to all of these firsts, and appreciating them for what they are, will bring one a year of good fortune.
  • Hatsuyume (初夢, lit. "First Dream") – The first dream that a person has on the New Year. In Shinto, it is believed that the subjects of the first dreams of the year are representative of what one’s upcoming year will be like.
  • Heiden (火産霊, lit. "Fire-Born Spirit") – A section of a shrine where offerings are presented to the gods.
  • Heihaku (幣帛, lit. "Wealth Material") – See also go-hei.
  • Heishi (瓶子, lit. "Small Bottle/Vase/Jar/Flasks") – Small bottles used for holding offerings, such as Nihonshū (日本酒, lit. "Japanese Sake"); numbered amongst the Shingu (tools used in shrine alters and home alters) for holding offerings. This only really needs to be offered on special occasions, like New Year’s Day. Be warned though—the size and shape of the heishi make them rather hard to clean, and this, coupled by the fact that they are usually white in colour, means that one should avoid putting in drinks that might stain, like red wine.
  • Hi-Bakama (緋袴, lit. "Red Hakama") – A bright, red-coloured Hakama, specifically a kind of Andon Bakama (行灯袴, lit. "Lantern Hakama") or 'undivided' Hakama, like a skirt; originally worn by female courtiers and ladies-in-waiting of the Heian court; now worn by Miko in both formal-&-non-formal functions of a Shinto Shrine.
  • Himorogi (神籬, lit. "Divine Fence") – Temporary sacred spaces or altars used to worship. Usually, himorogi are simply areas demarcated with green bamboo or sakaki at the four corners supporting sacred border ropes called shimenawa.
  • Hina-Matsuri (雛祭り, lit. "Girls Festival") – A ceremony held on 3 March, celebrating the women of Japan, as well as expressing wishes for their continued good health. Originally celebrated as the "Peach Festival", it became known as Hina-Matsuri during the reign of Empress Meishō.
  • Hi-no-tama (火の玉, lit. "Balls of Fire") – Weird fireballs whose presence indicate supernatural activity (similar to the Will-o'-the-wisp of European culture), and are easily mistaken for hitodama (below), as well as Kitsunebi, Onibi and Shiranui.
  • Hiōgi (檜扇, lit. "[Japanese] Cypress Fan") – A fan used originally by Heian aristocrats. Now by Shinto priests in formal settings.[1] See also akomeôgi (above)
  • Hirairi / Hirairi-zukuri (平入 or 平入造, lit. "Pacify Entry Architecture") – A style of construction in which the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge (non gabled-side). The shinmei-zukuri, nagare-zukuri, hachiman-zukuri, and hie-zukuri styles belong to this type.
  • Hirazara (平皿, lit. "Flat Dish/Plate") – Numbered amongst the Shingu (tools used in shrine alters and home alters) for holding offerings, specifically one for holding rice and one for holding salt; these offerings should be replaced, ideally, once a day, but as little as once a week.
  • Hitobashira (人柱, lit. a "Human Pillar") – A practice now long-since outlawed in Japan, is a human sacrifice, buried alive under or near large-scale buildings like dams, bridges and castles (similar to how Oni heads are are used a type of roof ornamentation found in traditional Japanese architecture, like a Gargoyle, to ward-off negative influences), as a prayer to the gods so that the building is not destroyed by natural disasters such as floods or by enemy attacks. Hitobashira can also refer to workers who were buried alive under inhumane conditions.
  • Hitodama (人魂, lit. a "Human Soul") – The wayward soul of a human-being, but who has already passed-away, observed near graveyards-and-such, and are easily mistaken for Hi-no-tama (above).
  • Hitorigami (独神, lit. a "Monad Kami") – Shinto Kami who came into being alone, as opposed to those who came into being as male-female pairs.
  • Hōhei/Hōbei (奉幣, lit. "Money Offering") – Offerings made to a Kami, usually consisting in heihaku, but sometimes of jewels, money, weapons or other objects.[1]
  • Hōko (這子, lit. "Crawling Child") – A soft-bodied doll given to young women of age and especially to pregnant women in Japan as an amulet to protect both the new mother and the unborn child.
  • Hokora / Hokuraman ( or 神庫, lit. "Kami Warehouse-Shrine"):
    • an extremely small shrine
    • One of the earliest words for shrine
  • Ho-Musubi (火産霊, lit. "Fire-Born Spirit") – Another name for Kagutsuchi (迦具土, lit. "Shimmering Power/Force"), the Shinto Fire God.
  • Honden (本殿, lit. "Main Hall") – Literally a "main hall". Also called shinden (神殿) ("divine hall"), the honden is the most sacred building of a shrine, intended for the exclusive use of the enshrined kami.
  • Honji suijaku (本地垂迹, lit. "Main Ground Suspended Trace") – A theory dominant for centuries in Japan according to which Japanese kami are simply local manifestations of Indian gods.
  • Hongū (本宮, lit. "Main Shrine") – Located only within a jingū, the main shrine enshrining the principal kami, as opposed to betsugū, sessha or massha. The term includes haiden, heiden and honden.[1] See also honsha.
  • Honsha (本社, lit. "Main Shinto Shrine") – The main shrine of a shrine complex. It is followed hierarchically by Sessha and Massha.
  • Hōsōshi (方相氏, lit. "Direction [of] Scrutinization Person") – A term, now obsolete, for the role driving away devils at a certain religious ceremony, or the driver of the hearse carrying the coffin of a deceased emperor, back in ancient Japan; a ritual exorcist fullfilling a role in a funeral, called Tsuina (see below).

. Originally a Tang dynasty (618-907) Chinese custom, later adopted by the Japanese during the Heian period (794-1185), along with others.

  • Hotoke (, lit. "Buddha") – A term meaning either Buddha or "dead soul". While Buddhist in origin, the term is used in the second sense by all Japanese religions.[1]
  • Hyakudoishi (百度石, lit. "Hundred-Times Stone") – Sometimes present as a point of reference for the hyakudomairi near the entrance of a shrine or Buddhist temple.
  • Hyakudomairi (百度参り, lit. "Hundred-Times Visits") – Literally "a hundred visits". A worshiper with a special prayer will visit the shrine a hundred times. After praying, he or she must go at least back to the entrance or around a hyakudo-ishi for the next visit to count as a separate visit.
  • Hyōi (憑依, lit. "Possession") – Possession, specifically possession by a spirit or a Kami.

Gallery: A to HEdit

IEdit

  • Ichikishima-hime-no-mikoto (市杵島姫命, lit. "Female [goddess] of the Island of Worship") – See Benzaiten.
  • Ichirei Shikon (一霊四魂, lit. "One Spirit, Four Souls") – A philosophy within Shintoism in which one's mind/heart/spirit/soul consists of a whole spirit called Naohi (直霊, lit. "One Whole Aligned/Harmonius Spirit(s)") that is connected with the heaven and the Shikon (four individual sub-souls, called Aramitama (荒魂), Kushimitama (奇魂), Nigi-Mitama (和魂) and Sakimitama (幸魂)); naohi is the shikon in their positive aspects. However, when naohi does not properly function, the Shikon can turn into Magatsuhi (禍津日, lit. "Spirit of Disaster"), short for Magatsuhijin (禍津日神, lit. "God-Spirit of Disaster"), also-known-as magahi spirits; the shikon in their negative aspects.
  • Ikan (衣冠, lit. "Royal Robes") – A set of official robes/uniform, worn by aristocrats and court officials of the Heian-era court-onwards. Worn today in Shinto by a Kannushi in formal costume for festivals.
  • Ikiryō (生霊, lit. a "Living Spirit", an "Eidolon") – In Japanese popular belief, folklore and fiction, refers to a disembodied spirit that leaves the body of a person who is still living and subsequently haunts other people or places, sometimes across great distances. The term(s) are used in contrast to a Shiryō (死霊, lit. a "Dead Spirit"), which refers to the spirit of those who are already deceased (below).
  • Imi (忌み, lit. "Abhorrent, Detestable") – Something to be avoided or polluting, particularly to a ceremony.[1] See also Kegare (below) and Tsumi (below).
  • Imikotoba (忌み言葉, lit. "Abhorrent/Detestable Words") – Certain, specific words to be avoided in certain occasions. For example, one should not use words such as "cut", "end" and the like at weddings because of bad omen or Buddhist terms at certain Shinto shrines or rites.[1]
  • Inari Ōkami* (稲荷大神, lit. "Fruiting-Rice Great-Divinity") – The Shinto kami of fertility, rice, agriculture, foxes, industry, and worldly success. Inari's shrines can be easily identified by the stone foxes which protect it, like Komainu.
  • In'yō (陰陽, lit. "Yin-Yang") – A concept of dualism, describing how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. In Asian cosmology, the universe creates itself out of a primary chaos of material energy, organized into the cycles of Yin and Yang and formed into objects and lives. Yin is the receptive and Yang the active principle, seen in all forms of change and difference such as the annual cycle (winter and summer), the landscape (north-facing shade and south-facing brightness), sexual coupling (female and male), the formation of both women and men as characters and socio-political history (disorder and order).
  • Ireisai (慰霊祭, lit. "Consoling Spirits Festival") – A festival to remember and pacify the spirits of war dead which take place at Yasukuni Jinja and other shrines built to the purpose.[1]
  • Ise Shrine (伊勢神宮, lit. "The Great Forces Divine Palace") – A shrine in Mie prefecture considered one of the holiest Shinto sites.
  • Ise Shinto (伊勢神道, lit. "The Great Forces Kami Way") – See Watarai Shinto.
  • Itako/Ichiko (神巫, 巫子 & 市子, lit. "Divine Shamaness", "Shameness Child" and "Community Child") – The blind female shamans from North-West Honshu which act as a link between human beings and kami, echoing what was probably the former role of miko in Shinto.[1]
  • Iwakura* (磐座, lit. "Boulder Stand") – A rock where a kami has been invited to descend for worship, and which is therefore sacred. See the article yorishiro.
  • Iwasaka (岩境, lit. "Rockcliff Border/Boundary/Frontier") – A stone altar or mound erected in the distant past to call a kami for worship. See the article yorishiro.
  • Izanagi (イザナギ, lit. "Great Deeds Male") – The brother-husband of Izanami, Izanagi is one of the Japanese creator Kami, according to the Nihongi and Kojiki, gave birth to Japan,[1] and the father of Amaterasu, Tsukuyomi and Susanoo.
  • Izanami (イザナミ, lit. "Great Deeds Female") – The sister-wife of Izanagi, Izanami is one of the Japanese creator Kami, according to the Nihongi and Kojiki, gave birth to Japan,[1] later dying in childbirth with her last child, Kagutsuchi, the fire Kami, burning her alive, sending her to the Underworld, Izanami becomes a Kami of death.

JEdit

  • Jaki (邪鬼, lit. "Malevolent Demons/Spirits") – An Oni-like creatures in Japanese folklore, thought to be able to provoke a person's darkest desires, and, thus, an Ama-no-Jaku instigates them into perpetrating wicked deeds. Similar to the Ama-no-Jaku (above).
  • Jama (邪魔, lit. "Malevolent Demons/Spirits") – A demon or devil of perversity, a hindrance to the practice of Purity in Shinto and the practice of Enlightenment in Buddhism. Similar to the Jaki (above).
  • Jichinsai (地鎮祭, lit. "Ground-Pacifing Ceremony") – A ceremony held by a Shinto priest on a site before the start of construction on behalf of owners and workers to pacify and propitiate local spirits[1].
  • Jidai Matsuri (時代祭, lit. the "Festival of the Ages") – One of the three main annual festivals held in Kyoto, Japan (the other two being the Aoi Matsuri and the Gion Festival. It is a festival enjoyed by people of all ages, participating in its historical reenactment parade dressed in authentic costumes representing various periods, and characters in Japanese feudal history. It is held on October 22 of each year.
  • Jigoku (地獄, lit. "Earth(ly) Prison") – The Shinto-Buddhist version of Hell, not unlike the Buddhist equivalent of Hell, Naraku. Similar to the "Nine Rings of Hell" exhibited in Dante's Inferno, Jigoku has 8 levels:
  1. Tokatsu Jigoku
  2. Kokujo Jigoku
  3. Shugo Jigoku
  4. Kyokan Jigoku
  5. Daikyokan Jigoku
  6. Shonetsu Jigoku
  7. Daishonetsu Jigoku
  8. Mugen Jigoku
  • Jikininki (食人鬼, lit. "Human-Eating Ghost") – In Japanese Buddhism, Jikininki ("human-eating ghosts"; pronounced Shokujinki in modern Japanese), are the spirits of those greedy, selfish or impious individuals who are cursed after death to seek out and eat human corpses. See also Gaki (above).
  • Jin (, lit. "Benevolence, Compassion") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Jingi (神祇, lit. "Divine Earth Spirit") – See Kami (below).
  • Jingikan (神祇官, lit. "Divine Land Spirits Governmental Office") – In the ritsuryō system, the part of government responsible for matsuri.[1]
  • Jingū (神宮, lit. "Divine Palace/Shrine") – A shrine enshrining a member of the Imperial family, as for example Meiji Jingū which enshrines the deified spirits of Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shōken.
  • Jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. "Divine Palace/[Shinto] Shrine/[Buddhist] Temple") – A temple whose existence is supposed to help the soul of the Kami the shrine next to it enshrines. This kind of association was common up-until the Meiji period.[1]
  • Jinja* (神社, lit. "Divine [Shrine] Ground") – the most general name for a shrine, as in Yasukuni Jinja.
  • Jinja-Bukkaku (神社, lit. "Divine [Shrine] Ground & [Temple] Pavilion")Shinto Shrines and Buddhist Temples, especially a combined shrine/temple complex.
  • Jinja Fukkyū (神社復旧, lit. "Jinja Restoration") – A reversal of the Meiji period's Jinja Gappei (lit. "jinja merger". Not to be confused with jinja fukushi.[1]
  • Jinja Fukushi (神社福祉, lit. "Jinja Welfare") – A form of unofficial, and therefore illegal, restoration of a merged shrine. See Jinja Gappei.[1]
  • Jinja Gappei (神社合併, lit. "Jinja Merger") – A policy begun in the early '900, when as many as 83 000 shrines (half the total) were merged with the remainder and disappeared.[1]
  • Jinja Honchō (神社本庁, lit. "Jinja Agency-Association") – In English "Association of Shinto Shrines", an association that includes most (but not all) of the Shinto shrines in Japan.[1]
  • Jinja Kaikan (神社会館, lit. "Jinja Hotel-Hall") – A hotel-like building within large shrines used for weddings.
  • Jinja Shinto (神社神道, lit. "Jingja Shinto") – Originally a synonym of State Shinto (Kokka Shinto below), it is now a term criticized by specialists as problematic.[1] When applied to post-war Shinto, it means the beliefs and practices associated to shrines, particularly those associated with the Jinja Honchō.[1]
  • Jisei (自制, lit. "Temperance; Self-control and Self-restraint") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Jisha (寺社, lit. "Temple-Shrine") – A temple's tutelary shrine. See also chinjusha (above) and Jinja-Bukkaku (above).
  • Jōdo (浄土, lit. the "Pure World") – In Buddhism, the term 'Pure Land', refers to the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism; Nirvana.
  • Jōdo Bukkyō (浄土仏教, lit. "Pure World Buddhism") – Also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia. Pure Land is a tradition of Buddhist teachings that are focused on the Buddha, Amitābha.
  • Jōdo-shū (浄土宗, lit. the "Pure World School") – Also known as Jōdo Buddhism, is a branch of Pure Land Buddhism derived from the teachings of the Japanese ex-Tendai monk Hōnen. It was established in 1175 and is the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan, along with Jōdo Shinshū.
  • Jōe (浄衣, lit. "Pure Robes") – A formal over-garment worn by kannushi during religious ceremonies; a silk Kariginu (below).
  • Junpai (巡拝, lit. "Patrol Route") – The custom of visiting a fixed series of 33 or 88 shrines or temples, or shrines-&-temples.[1] A particularly famous Junpai is the 88 temple "Shikoku Pilgrimage" circuit.

KEdit

  • Kabuto ( or , lit. "Helmet") – A helmet—complete with a suit of armour--sometimes dedicated to shrines, and indicative of a Kami's power to ward-off and protect from negative influences.
  • Kadomatsu (門松, lit. "Pine Gateposts") – New Year decorations placed in pairs in front of homes to welcome the kami of the harvest.
  • Kaeru (かえる, lit. "the Croaking of a Frog") – Because the word kaeru means both "frog" and "return home", many shrines sell small frog figurines as lucky charms.[1]
  • Kagami (, lit. "Mirror") – Often used in Shinto worship; originally bronze mirrors were used (see also Shinkyō, below), having been introduced to Japan from China; the most famous example of mirrors in Shinto is the Yata no Kagami (see below).
  • Kagami (火神, lit. "Fire Deity") – Another name for Kagutsuchi (迦具土, lit. "Shimmering Power/Force"), the Shinto Fire God.
  • Kagome crest (籠目紋, lit. "Lattice Eye Crest") – An Apotropaic symbol featured in Shinto shrines, including the Ise Grand Shrine, to ward-off negative and malevolent influences, evil spirits, etc.
  • Kagura (神楽, lit. "Divine Entertainment"):
    • A type of Shinto dance with deep ties to the Emperor and his family, accompanied by instruments. Also called mikagura (御神楽).
    • A type of Shinto dance performed at shrines during religious rites, with many local variants. Also called satokagura (里神楽).
  • Kagura-den (神楽殿, lit. "Divine Entertainment Platform") – a pavilion or stage dedicated to the performing of the kagura (sacred dance). Also called Maidono or Buden (舞殿).
  • Kagura suzu (神楽鈴, lit. "Divine Enterainment Bells") – a set of twelve bells used in kagura dance. The set consists of three tiers of bells suspended by coiled brass wires from a central handle: two bells on the top tier, four bells on the middle tier, and six bells for the bottom tier. The shape of the bells are thought to have been inspired from the fruits of the ogatama tree (Michelia compressa).
  • Kagari-Bi (篝火, lit. "Hearth Fire Holders")Candle holders, also called Rōsoku-Tate (ローソク立, lit. "Candle Holders"). They are designed for burning tiny white candles (Rōsoku) which are lit whenever you visit the kamidana for prayers (Votive candles). Some people use little electric lanterns, Tōmyō (燈明, lit. "Light Lantern"), instead of candles, due to the lack of fire risks.
  • Kagutsuchi (迦具土, lit. "Shimmering Power/Force") – the Shinto Fire God and patron deity of blacksmiths and ceramic workers; also-known-as Kajin (火神, lit. "Fire God"), Kagami (火神, lit. "Fire Deity") and Ho-Musubi (火産霊, lit. "Fire-Born Spirit").
  • Kajin (火神, lit. "Fire Deity") – Another name for Kagutsuchi (迦具土, lit. "Shimmering Power/Force"), the Shinto Fire God.
  • Kakue (格衣, lit. "Status Robes") – A traditional overcoat-robe worn by Shinto monks.
  • Kakuremi (隠身, lit. "Concealed Form") – A term for a hidden form, invisible form; metaphysical form (of a deity). See also Kakurimi (below).
  • Kakurimi (隠身, lit. "Concealed Form") – A term for a hidden form, invisible form; metaphysical form (of a deity). See also Kakuremi (above).
  • Kakuriyo (隠り世, lit. "Hidden World") – meaning the worlds of kami (Takamagahara) and spirits, or the worlds of the dead (Yomi, Ne-no-kuni, Tokoyo-no-kuni, Meido, etc.)[1].
  • Kamado-gami (竃神, lit. "Kitchen Deity") a kami which lives in people's ovens; a Household deity—the Shinto equivalent to the Chinese Kitchen God, Hestia/Vesta and the Roman's Lares.
  • Kami (, lit. "Spirit, God, Deity, Divinity") – A term broadly meaning "spirit" or else "deity", but having with several separate meanings.
    • deities mentioned in Japanese mythologies and local deities protecting areas, villages and families.[5]
    • unnamed and non-anthropomorphic spirits found in natural phenomena.[5]
    • a general sense of sacred power.[5]
    • According to a famous definition by Motoori Norinaga, a kami is "any thing or phenomenon that produces the emotions of fear and awe, with no distinction between good and evil".
  • Kamiarizuki (神有月, lit. "Month with Kami") – A lunar calendar month corresponding roughly to October. Because it is believed that in that month all kami go to Izumo Taisha, it is called "month with gods" at Izumo.[1] See also Kannazuki (below).
  • Kamidana* (神棚, lit. "Kami Shelf") – A miniature shrine placed or hung high on a wall in some Japanese homes.
  • Kamikakushi (神隠し, lit. "Kami-hidden" or "Spirited-Away") – A term used to refer to the mysterious disappearance or death of a person that happens when an angered god takes a person away. Japanese folklore contains numerous tales of humans abducted to the spirit world by kami.
  • Kamikaze (神風, lit. "Divine Wind(s)") – the 2 major typhoons that dispersed Mongol-Koryo fleets who invaded Japan under Kublai Khan in 1274.
  • Kamimukae (神迎え, lit. "Summoning the Kami") – The first part of a typical festival (matsuri).[1] The spirit is usually invited to a himorogi (altar).
  • Kanai Anzen (家内安全, lit. "Please keep my family safe from harm") – A specific kind of omamori meant to safeguard the safety (well-being) of one's family, peace and prosperity in the household.
  • Kanjō (勧請, lit. "Induced Granted Request") – A process through which a kami (usually obtained dividing in two another Kami through a process called Bunrei (similar to cell division)), and is transferred to a new shrine. See also Bunrei (above).
  • Kansan (汗衫, lit. "Sweat Upper-robes") – A thin jacket for girls of the aristocracy of the Heian period. Now worn by Miko in formal attire for ceramonies and festivals.
  • Kanmuri (, lit. "Crowning Trim") – A kind of formal, traditional headdress worn by the Japanese emperor and by aristocratic men of the Heian period when formally dressed. Today, it in worn in Shinto by a Kannushi in formal costume for formal ceramonies and festivals. See also Eboshi (above) and Kazaori Eboshi (below).
  • Kannagara (惟神, lit. "Path of Kami") – Another word for Shinto, specifically an old form of Shinto.
  • Kannagara (惟神人, lit. "A Kami of Kami") – Another word for a Kami.
  • Kannagara no Michi (惟神の道, lit. the "Way of the Kami") – Another name for Shinto in use before World War II.[1]
  • Kannazuki' (神無月, lit. the "Month without Kami") – See also Kamiarizuki (above).
  • Kannushi* (神主, lit. "Kami Master of Ceremonies") – A Shinto priest; a master of Shinto shrine ceremonies, rituals and festivals.
  • Kariginu (狩衣, lit. "Hunting Robes") – A style of cloak, originally the costume that Heian-era nobles wore when they went out hunting, which gradually became the nobles’ daily casual clothes. Worn today in Shinto by a Kannushi in formal costume for rituals, ceramonies and festivals. See also Jōe (above).
  • Kasoegi (斗木, lit. "Measured Wood") – See also katsuogi (below).
  • Kasuga (春日, lit. "Springtime Sun") – The tutelary kami (Ujigami) first just of the Fujiwara clan, then of the entire Yamato province.[1]
  • Kasuga-zukuri (春日造, lit. "Kasuga Architecture") – The architectural style of Kasuga taisha.
  • Katana (, lit. "Blade") – A sword weapon, sometimes dedicated to shrines (along with other weapons, such as Naginata and Yari), and indicative of a Kami's power to ward-off negative influences.
  • Katashiro (形代, lit. "model substitute") – A traditional Japanese doll, made of materials like paper or straw, used in certain purification rituals, used as a substitute for a person, as the target for a prayer or curse cast against them.
  • Katsu (, lit. "to shout; to call out") – A loud shout, exclamation (or scolding, to scold a student), to help one focus.
  • Katsuogi* (鰹木, 勝男木, 葛緒木, lit. "Reliable Wood") – A style of short decorative poles on a shrine's roof set at a right angle to the roof's ridgepole. See also Kasoegi (above).
  • Kawaya-no-Kami (厠の神, lit. "latrine deity") – The Kami of latrines, toilets, waterclosets and their products.
  • Kazaori Eboshi (風折烏帽子, lit. "Wind-Folding Riding Hatwear") – A kind of pointed hat originally worn by Heian-era aristocrats and Samurai, it is now worn by Kannushi as formal-wear for occasions such as Matsuri (festivals), weddings, etc. See also Eboshi (above) and Kanmuri (above).
  • Kenkai (見界, lit. "Visible World") – The world that one can see without any kind of supernatural gift; the World of the Living.
  • Kenkon (乾坤, lit. "Heaven and Earth") – A term used to refer to the union of opposites; Heaven and Earth, Yin and Yang, Positive and Negative; also representing the |||||| (Qian) and ¦¦¦¦¦¦ (Kun) hexagrams from the I Ching. See also Tenchi.
  • Kenzokushin (眷属神, lit. "Household Ancillary/Retainer Spirit(s)") – A kind of lesser Kami or Yōkai who serves a higher-ranked Kami or Yōkai, such as the Kenzokushin who serve an entity whose status as either a Kami or a Yōkai (or both) is still undecided, Osakabe-hime.
  • Ki ( or , lit. "Spirit, Lifeforce, Vitality, Energy-Flow") – A vital force forming part of any living entity. See also Haku (above).
  • Kijo (鬼女, lit. "Oni Woman; Ogress") – An oni woman from Japanese legends; any Kijo can, either, have started out always as a Kijo, or-else she was an ordinary, mortal woman before being transformed into a Kijo, either can curse or by her-own jealousy. See also Onibabā (below) and Yama-uba (below).
  • Kimon (鬼門, lit. "Oni Gate") – Based on the assignment of the twelve zodiac animals to the cardinal directions, the direction of Northeast, known as the direction of Ushi-Tora (丑寅, lit. "Ox-Tiger"), is also-known-as the direction of Kimon (Oni Gate); one theory is that the Oni's bovine-esq horns and tiger-skin loincloth as-seen-in modern depictions, developed as a visual depiction of this term. According to Chinese Daoism/Taoism and esoteric Onmyōdō (the way(s) of yin & yang), the north-easterly direction is considered an unlucky direction through which evil spirits passed, and, as-such, is termed as Kimon; having to travel in this direction was seen as a bad omen for the journey-in-question.
  • Kegare (穢れ, lit. "Impurity", "Pollution", "Defilement") – defilement due to natural phenomena, for example the contact with dead bodies. The opposite of kegare is Kiyomi. See also Imi (above) and Tsumi (below).
  • Kibitsu-zukuri (吉備津造, lit. "Auspicious Provision Haven Architecture") – The architectural style of Kibitsu Jinja in Okayama prefecture, characterized by a huge honden divided in three parts with an interior painted in vermilion, black and gold.[1]
  • Kirin (麒麟, lit. a "Legendary Auspicious Deer-like Animal") – A mythical creature in Japanese and Asian mythology; in Shinto, the Kirin are considered as messengers of the Kami (along with Shika (see below)).
  • Kisshōten (吉祥天, lit. "Auspicious Heavens") – A Japanese goddess of good fortune, wealth and prosperity. Adapted, via Buddhism, from the Hindu goddess, Lakshmi. Kisshouten is sometimes named as one of the Seven Gods of Fortune (the Fukujin), replacing either Jurōjin or Fukurokuju.
  • Kitsune* (, lit. "Fox") – Statue or image of a fox, animal believed to have magical powers and to be a messenger to kami Inari. Inari shrines are always protected by statues of foxes, sometimes wearing red votive bibs.
  • Kitsunebi (狐火, lit. "Fox Fire") – The atmospheric ghost lights told about in legends all across Japan outside Okinawa Prefecture.
  • Kitsune no yomeiri (狐の嫁入り, lit. "Fox Wedding") – similar to a "monkey's wedding" in English, is a strange event told about in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The "kitsune-no-yomeiri" can refer to several things: atmospheric ghost lights, a phenomenon during which it appears as if paper lanterns from a wedding procession are floating through the dark; what is commonly referred to as a sunshower; and various strange wedding processions that can be seen in classical Japanese Kaidan, essays, and legends. The "kitsune-no-yomeiri" is always closely related to foxes, or kitsune (who often play tricks on humans in Japanese legend) and various Shinto rituals and festive rights relating to the "kitsune no yomeiri" have been developed in various parts of Japan.
  • Kiyome (, lit. "Purity") – The concept of 'Purity' within Shintoism, the state in which all beings start-out as at birth, and can return to again by undergoing acts of harae (purification), such as misogi. The opposite of kiyomi is kegare.
  • (, lit. "Filial piety") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • (, lit. "Lecture, Debate") – A lay worship group focusing on a particular kami or sacred location which may perform pilgrimages and other rites.
  • Kōdō (皇道, lit. the "Imperial Way") – Literally "the Imperial Way", or Shinto as defined by post-Meiji nationalist.[1]
  • Kōgakkan University (皇学館大学, lit. "Imperial Education Mansion University") – A University located near Ise Shrine, together with Tokyo's Kokugakuin University the only one authorized to train Shinto priests.
  • Kojiki (古事記, lit. "Records of Ancient Matters" or "An Account of Ancient Matters") – An early Japanese written chronicle of myths, legends, songs, genealogies, oral traditions, and semi-historical accounts down to 711–712 AD. Similar to the Nihon Shoki.
  • Kokka Shinto (国家神道, lit. "State Shinto") – Japanese translation of the English term State Shinto created in 1945 by the US occupation forces to define the post-Meiji religious system in Japan.
  • Kokoro (, lit. "Heart" & "soul") – The mind, heart, spirit, soul, essence of a thing or being.
  • Kokugakuin Daigaku (國學院大學, lit. "Sinology Court University") – Tokyo university which is, together with Ise's Kōgakkan University, the only one authorized to train Shinto priests.
  • Kokujō Jigoku (黒縄地獄, lit. "Hell of Black Rope") – The 2nd level of Jigoku, location for sinners, who have committed murder (even the murder of small lives such as insects), and theft.
  • Komainu* (狛犬, lit. "Lion Dog") – Stone warden maned-dogs usually present at the entrance of a shrine.
  • Kon (, lit. "Soul/Spirit, Life force, Vitalism") – Stemming from Daoism, kon is that part of the soul (as opposed to its counterpart, haku (魄)) which goes to heaven and is able to leave the body, carrying with it an appearance of physical form; the subliminal self.
  • Konaoshi (小直衣, lit. "Small Vertical Robes") – Attire of the Heian court, now worn by Kannushi in formal functions.
  • Konjin (金神, lit. "Gold/Metals Deity") – An itinerant Kami (spirit) from Onmyōdō (a traditional Japanese cosmology and system of divination based on the Chinese philosophies of Wu Xing (Five Elements) and Yin and yang). Konjin is associated with compass directions, and said to change position with the year, lunar month, and season.
  • Kono-Yo (この世, lit. "This World") – See Busshitsukai (above).
  • Konpaku (魂魄, lit. "Yin-Yang Soul/Spirit, Life force, Vitalism") – Stemming from Daoism, konpaku are together the Duality of souls. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a Kon spiritual, ethereal, yang soul, which leaves the body after death, and also a Haku corporeal, substantive, yin soul which remains, with the corpse of the deceased, disapating down into the earth.
  • Kome (, lit. "Rice") – Offerings of white rice made at Shinto shrines and a household's Kamidana. See also Ō-kome.
  • Kotoamatsukami (別天神, lit. "Distinguishing Heavenly Deities") – The collective name for the first Kami which came into existence at the time of the creation of the universe, according to the Kokiji. They were came into being up in Takamagahara, the divine world of the Heavens, at the time of the creation. Unlike the later gods, these deities were born without any procreation. See also Amatsukami (above).
  • Kotodama/Kototama (言霊, lit. "Word Spirit" or "Spirit Word") – A supernatural power possessed by words capable of influencing matter.
  • Kōrei (交霊 & 降霊, lit. "Bringing-together Spirit(s)") – Spiritualism; invocation and evocation.
  • Kuchiyose Miko (口寄巫女, lit. "Channelling Miko") – A Miko acting in the function as a spirit medium.
  • Kuebiko (久延毘古, lit. "Long-Stretch Help-Old", "Old Long-Extending Border" or "Long Old Helping-Hand") – A Shinto Kami of local knowledge and agriculture, represented in Japanese mythology as a scarecrow, who cannot walk but has comprehensive self-awareness and omniscience.
  • Kuji-in (九字印, lit. "Nine Hand Seals") – A system of mudras and associated mantras that consist of nine syllables.
  • Kuji-kiri (九字切り, lit. "Nine Symbolic Cuts") – A system of mudras and associated mantras that consist of nine syllables, based on Kuji-in.
  • Kumo (, lit. "Cloud(s)") – In the event that a household Kamidana cannot be installed in the highest point of the house, the Kanji for 'Cloud' is written on a piece of paper and affixed above the Kamidana; doing this lets the kami know that, while they should be enshrined at the highest point, circumstances prevent this from being-so.
  • Kunitokotachi-no-mikoto (国之常立神, lit. "Land of Endless Growing Deity") – A kami considered to be the most important by Yoshida Kanetomo and considered important also by Watarai Shinto.[1]
  • Kushimitama (奇魂, lit. "Wise Soul") – The wise and experienced side of a whole, complete spirit (mitama).
  • Kusudama (薬玉, lit. "Medicine Ball") – Originating from ancient Japanese culture, Kusudama were used for incense and potpourri; possibly originally being actual bunches of flowers or herbs. The word itself is a combination of two Japanese words kusuri (lit. "Medicine") and tama (lit. "Ball", "Sphere", "Orb"). They are now typically used as decorations or as gifts.
  • Kuwabara kuwabara (桑原桑原, lit. "Mulberry Field") – A phrase used in the Japanese language to ward off lightning. It is analogous to the English phrase "knock on wood" to prevent bad luck. According to one explanation, there is a Chinese legend that mulberry trees are not struck by lightning.
  • Kyōha Shinto (教派神道, lit. "Sect Shinto") – A label applied to certain sects by the Meiji government to give them an official status.[1]
  • Kyōkan Jigoku (叫喚地獄, lit. "Hell of Screaming") – The 4th level of Jigoku, location for sinners, who have committed murder (even the murder of small lives such as insects), theft, degeneration and drunkeness.

Gallery: I to KEdit

MEdit

  • Magatama* (勾玉 or 曲玉, lit. "Curved Jewel") – A comma-shaped jewel, often used as a yorishiro.
  • Maidono (舞殿, lit. "Dancing Hall") – see Kaguraden.
  • Maikai (冥界, lit. "Dark World") – Another word for Yomi, the Underworld.
  • Maki (魔鬼, lit. "Evil Demon") – A demon ghost; a monster; a devil; an embodiment of evil.
  • Makai (魔界, lit. "Malevolant World") – A World of demons; also another word for Yomi, the Underworld.
  • Makoto (, lit. "Honesty, Sincerity") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Maneki-Neko (招き猫, lit. "Beckoning Cat") – Japanese in origin, the "Beckoning Cat" or "Maneki-Neko", is a protective and good luck talisman, a Engimono (above). This cat figurine with its raised paw brings success, prosperity, good health, and happiness. Beckoning cats come in different colours. Each colour offers a different focus in as to what it invites into your life. A gold cat beckons prosperity, black cats beckon good health, white cats beckon happiness. A Beckoning Cat with its left raised paw is commonly placed in the entry way of a business or near the cash register inviting sales and successes. In the home, a right-pawed Beckoning Cat will typically be placed near the entrance of the home or sits on a window sill to attract happiness and good luck. Smaller likenesses of the Beckoning Cat are worn on the body to ward off illness and protect the wearer from pain and suffering.
  • Massha* (末社, lit. "Descendent Shrine") – A synonym of Sessha.
  • Meido (冥土, lit. "Dark Land"; "Underworld/"Netherworld"") – Another name for Yomi, sometimes considered similar to Ne-no-kuni (below), the Sanzu-no-kawa (below), and the Asphodel Meadows (Greco-Roman mythology), Barzakh, Bardo, Limbo and Purgatory; an 'intermediate state'.
  • Meiyo (名誉, lit. "Honour") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Miko* (巫女, 神子, or , lit. "Shamaness")
    • A woman who helps kannushi in their work.
    • A woman possessing magic powers and capable of giving oracles (shamanness).
  • Mikoshi (神輿, lit. "Divine Palanquin") – A divine palanquin (often improperly translated as portable Shinto shrine).
  • Misogi* (, lit. "Ritual Purification Ablution") – An ascetic practice of ritual ablution purification.
  • Mitama (御魂, 御霊 or 神霊, lit. "Honourable Soul") – The spirit of a kami or the soul of a dead person.[6]
  • Miya (, lit. "Shrine, Palace") – A term that often defines a shrine enshrining a special kami or a member of the Imperial household, for example an Empress, but can also simply mean shrine. See also Ō-miya (below)
  • Miyamairi (宮参り, lit. "Shrine Visit") – A traditional rite of passage for newborns held at a shrine.
  • Mizutama (水玉, lit. "Water Orb") – A small, droplet-shaped vessel, used for holding offerings of fresh water on a kamidama, and is to be changed daily; numbered amongst the Shingu (tools used in shrine alters and home alters) for holding offerings.
  • Momijigari (紅葉狩, lit. "Red-Leaves Hunting") – The Japanese traditional festival and custom of enjoying the transient beauty of leaves changing colour in the Autumn; the Japanese tradition of going to visit scenic areas where leaves have turned red in the autumn; particularly Maple tree leaves.
  • Mononoke (物の怪, lit. "Formless Supernatural") – A monsterous apparition; a monster.
  • Mori ( or , lit. "Trees, Forest") – A wood, a forest, a grove, specifically a grove or forest on shrine grounds. It reflects close relationship between trees and shrines. Tree worship is common in Shinto.
  • Muenbotoke (無縁仏, lit. "Connectionless Departed Soul/Spirit") – The soul/spirit of a departed mortal human with no living connections amongst the living; the dead who have no living relatives); similarly to Gaki (Hungry Ghosts) and Jikininki (Flesh-eating Ghosts/Oni), a Muenbotoke can be appeased by a Sagaki (below).
  • Mugen Jigoku (無間地獄, lit. "Hell of Unending-Suffering") – The 8th and deepest level of Jigoku, location of the guiltiest of guilty sinners, who have committed the crimes such as murder, theft, degeneration, drunkeness, lying, blasphemy and rape, plus parricide and assassination of holy men.

NEdit

  • Nagashi-bina (流し雛, lit. "Doll Floating") – Ritual purification ceremonies are held around Japan, where participants make dolls out of materials such as paper, straw, etc., and send them on a boat down a river, carrying one's impurities and sin with them.
  • Naginata (薙刀, lit. "Weeding Blade") – A polearm weapon, sometimes dedicated to shrines (along with other weapons, such as Katana and Yari), and indicative of a Kami's power to ward-off negative influences.
  • Namahage (生剥, lit. "Raw Peel") – In traditional Japanese folklore is a demon-like being, portrayed by men wearing hefty Oni (ogre) masks and traditional straw capes (Mino) during a New Year's ritual.
  • Nanareizan (七霊山, lit. the "Seven Spiritual Mountains") – Seven mountains revered as sacred in Shinto and Buddhism; these 7 mountains are Mount Fuji (富士山, lit. "Abundant Earth Mountain"), Mount Haku (白山, lit. "White Mountain"), Mount Tate (立山, lit. "Upright Mountain") (the mountains Fuji, Haku and Tate are also known as the Sanreizan, mentioned below), Mount Ōmine (大峰山, lit. "Great Peak Mountain"), Mount Shakka (釈迦ヶ岳, lit. "Sakyamuni's Great Mountain"), Mount Daisen (大山, lit. "Great Mountain"), and Mount Ishizuchi (石鎚山, lit. "Stone Hammer Mountain")
  • Naraku (奈落, lit. "Fall [from] Grace") – The Hell realm of incarnation, the lowest and worst realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See Rinne (below).
  • Ne-no-kuni (根の国, lit. "Land of Roots" or "Land of Origin") – A term referring to a Netherworld or Limbo in Japanese mythology, like the Sanzu-no-kawa and Meido. It is sometimes considered to be identical to Yomi, another netherworld in the myths, but more dark, as well as with Tokoyo-no-kuni, also another netherworld in the myths, but more light, being considered an immortal utopia (similar to Avalon in Arthurian legend, and the Asphodel Meadows & Elysium in Greco-Roman mythology). However, there is no clear consensus on the relationship between these three realms.
  • Nigi-Mitama (和魂, lit. "Tranquil Soul") – The friendly and co-operative side of a whole, complete spirit (mitama).
  • Nihon Shoki (日本書紀, lit. "Sun Origin Written-Account") – An early Japanese written chronicle of myths, legends, songs, genealogies, oral traditions, and semi-historical accounts down to 720 AD. Similar to the Kojiki.
  • Ningen (人間, lit. "Human Society") – The Mortal/Human realm of incarnation, the third-highest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See Rinne (below).
  • Norito (祝詞, lit. "invocation scripts")liturgical texts or ritual incantations in Shinto, usually addressed to a given kami.
  • Norito (, lit. "Spell, Blessing") – Written spells for blessings.
  • Noroi (, & , lit. "Spell, Curse") – Written spells for curses.
  • Nusa (, lit. "streamered wand") – See ōnusa; a wooden wand used in Shinto rituals. It is decorated with many Shide (zig-zagging paper streamers).

OEdit

  • Obake (御化け or お化け, lit. "Formless-Thing") – An apparition, a spectre.
  • Ō-fuda (御札 or お札, lit. "Great Note") – written paper spells, amulets and talismans. See also, Omamori.
  • Ō-kome (御米, lit. "Rice") – Offerings of white rice made at Shinto shrines and a household's Kamidana. See also Kome.
  • Ōkuninushi (大国主神, lit. "Master of the Great Land" or "Great Master of the Land") – see Daikokuten.
  • Ōmagatoki (逢魔時 and 大禍時, lit. "Time [of] Rendezvous [with] Evil Spirits/Demons" and "Time [of] Great Calamity") – A a Japanese term referring to the moment at Tasogare (, lit. "Dusk", "Sunset", "Twilight"), when the sky grows dark. The opposite of Tasogare is Akatsuki (, lit. "Dawn", "Sunrise", "Daybreak"), Ōmagatoki has specific meanings for the two ways of writing it: first, "the time of meeting Yōkai, Yūrei, and other-such dark creatures"; and second, "the Time of Great Calamity"; Ōmagatoki is the time when Chimimōryō, the evil spirits of the mountains and rivers, attempt to materialize in the World of the Living.
  • Ō-mamori (お守り, lit. "Great Protection")amulets and talismans available at shrines and temples for particular purposes, for example health or success in business. Understand they are not 'sold' but traded for money.
  • Omigoro (小忌衣, lit. "Small Mourning Robes") – An overcoat robe used for Shinto services.
  • Ō-miki (御神酒 or 神酒, lit. "Sacramental Sake/Wine") – Offerings of Ō-miki/white rice-wine made at Shinto shrines and a household's Kamidana. Ō-miki is often consumed as part of Shinto purification rituals. See also Sake (below).
  • Ō-mikuji* (御御籤 or 御神籤, lit. "Sacred Lots") – oracles written on strips of paper often found at shrines wrapped around tree branches.
  • Ō-miya (御宮 & お宮, lit. "Great/Grand Shrine/Palace") – See Miya (above).
  • Oni (, lit. "Ogre", "Troll", "Demon", "Monster") – In one interpretation of an Oni, they're a kind of Yōkai, where-as another interpretation of an Oni is as something completely separate from a Yōkai (although both are supernatural monsters), as an Oni often puts-across the image of a lumbering monster, like an Ogre and a Troll, with horns, tusks, either a red, green or blue-skin-tone, a tiger-fur/pelt loincloth, and armed with a Kanabō club. In the World of the Living, the nearest western parallels to the Japanese Oni is the Demon, Ogre, Troll; a big, towering, corporeal monster; where-as in Jigoku/Naraku, Oni serve as the wardens and torturers of Hell. Some of the worst Oni didn't start-out as Oni but as humans, even as monks who had turned their backs on their temple's teachings, rejecting them; a particularly prominant example of such is Shuten-dōji, the "King of the Oni". See also Jikininki (above) and Gaki (above).
  • Onibabā (鬼婆, lit. "Oni Crone; Ogress") – An Oni woman from Japanese legends; any Onibabā (or Kijo) can, either, have started out always as a Kijo, or-else she was an ordinary, mortal woman before being transformed into a Kijo, either can curse, by having committed terrible deeds, or by her-own jealousy. See also Kijo (above) and Yama-uba (below).
  • Onibi (鬼火, lit. "Oni Fire") – A type of atmospheric ghost light in legends of Japan; according to folklore, they can be anything from fires caused-by Oni, to the spirits born from the corpses of humans and animals. They are also said to be resentful people that have become fire and appeared. Also, sometimes the words "will-o'-wisp" or "jack-o'-lantern" are translated into Japanese as "Onibi". See also Kitsunebi (above).
  • Onigawara (鬼瓦, lit. "Oni Tile(s)") – a type of roof ornamentation found in Japanese architecture. They are generally roof tiles or statues depicting a Japanese ogre (Oni) or a similarly-fearsome beast. Prior to the Heian period, similar ornaments with floral and plant designs (Hanagawara) preceded the Onigawara. The present-day design is thought to have come from a previous architectural element, the Oni-ita, which is a board painted with the face of an Oni and was meant to stop roof leaks. During the Nara period, the tile was decorated with other motifs, but later it acquired distinct ogre-like features and even becoming strongly tri-dimensional. Onigawara are most often-than-not found on Buddhist Temples than on Shinto Shrines, but not exclusively. The tile's name notwithstanding, the ogre's face may be missing-altogether, but still be called an Onigawara.
  • Oni-wa-Soto! Fuku-wa-Uchi! (鬼は外! 福は内!, lit. "Demons Out! Luck In!") – A Mantra shouted-out, repeatedly; a command for driving-off malevolent spirits, demons or devils that cause ill-fortune, so-as to allow good fortune to work un-impeded.
  • On'yō (陰陽, lit. "Yin-Yang") – See In'yō (above).
  • Onmyō (陰陽, lit. "Yin-Yang") – See In'yō (above).
  • Onmyōdō (陰陽道, lit. "YinYang Way") – A traditional Japanese esoteric cosmology, a mixture of natural science and occultism, based on Wu Xing (five elements) and yin and yang.
  • Onmyōji (陰陽師, lit. "YinYang Practitioner") – A Practitioner of Onmyōdō, a traditional Japanese esoteric cosmology, a mixture of natural science and occultism, based on Wu Xing (five elements) and yin and yang.
  • Onryō (怨霊, lit. "Vengeful Spirit") – A kind of vengeful spirit; a poltergeist.
  • Ō-nenju (念珠 or 数珠, lit. "Great Garland") – A rosary; a string of prayer beads commonly used in Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Shintō for the spiritual practice known in Sanskrit as japa.
  • Ō-nusa (大幣, lit. "Sacramental Sceptre") – wooden wands used in rituals. Decorated with many shide, they are waved left and right during ceremonies. See also Haraegushi (祓串, above).
  • Ō-shio (, lit. "Sacramental Salt") – In Shinto, salt is used for offerings at Shinto shrines and a household's Kamidana, ritual purification of locations and people (a form of harae, specifically shubatsu), and small piles of salt are placed in dishes by the entrance of establishments for the two-fold purposes of warding off evil and attracting patrons.
  • Ō-Toso (御屠蘇, lit. "Great Revival Sacrifice ") – A spiced medicinal sake, traditionally drunk during New Year celebrations in Japan. See also Toso.
  • Ō-yashiro (大社, lit. "Great Shrine") – See also Taisha (below).
  • Ozen (お膳, lit. "Great Tray") – A traditional Japanese four-legged tray, used to bear food offerings (see sanbō, below).

Gallery: L to OEdit

REdit

  • Raijin (雷神, lit. "Thunder God") – The Shinto kami of thunder and lightning, resembles an Oni and is the brother of the wind kami, Fūjin.
  • Rei (, lit. "Respect, Manners, Etiquette") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Rei or Ryō or Tama (, lit. "Spirit", "Soul" & "Mysterious") – The soul or spirit of someone or something.
  • Reibai (霊媒, lit. "Spirit Mediator") – A person who can sense the presence of spirits and other supernatural/paranormal phenomena; a 'ghost whisperer'; another term for a Reinōsha.
  • Reikai (霊界, lit. "Spirit World") – See Seishinkai (below).
  • Reikan (霊感, lit. "Spirit Sensing") – The ability to sense the presence of spirits and other supernatural/paranormal phenomena; the term for psychics in Japan is Reinōsha (霊能者, lit. "Spiritual Ability Person").
  • Reiki (霊鬼, lit. "Malevolent Spirit") – The soul or spirit of someone or something dead, particularly malevolent.
  • Reikon (霊魂, lit. "Spirit, Soul") – The soul or spirit of a person, usually someone who's just died.
  • Reikon (霊能力, lit. "Spiritual Ability/Prowess") – The soul or spirit of a person, usually someone who's just died.
  • Reinō (霊能, lit. "Spirit Sensing Prowess") – The ability to sense the presence of spirits and other supernatural/paranormal phenomena; the term for psychics in Japan is Reinōsha (霊能者, lit. "Spiritual Ability Person").
  • Reinōryoku (霊能力, lit. "Spirit Sensing Prowess") – The ability to sense the presence of spirits and other supernatural/paranormal phenomena; the term for psychics in Japan is Reinōsha (霊能者, lit. "Spiritual Ability Person").
  • Reizan (霊山, lit. "Spirit Mountain") – A Holy Mountain, such as the Sanreizan and the Nanareizan (see below and above).
  • Rinne/ Rinne (輪廻, lit. "Cycling Worlds") – The concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence"; the beginning-less cycle of repeated birth from amongst 6 realms of re-incarnation, mundane existence and dying again. See also Tensei (below), Ama (above), Chikushō (above), Gaki (above), Naraku (above), Ningen (above), Shura (below), Sora (below) and Ten (below).
  • Ryōjin (龍神, lit. "Dragon God") – Another name for Ryūjin (see below).
  • Ryūjin (龍神, lit. "Dragon God") – The tutelary deity of the seas and oceans in Shinto mythology.

SEdit

  • Saikigū (祭器具, lit. "Offerings-Vessel Tools") – The utensils used in religious ceremonies, including the following: sanbō, oshiki, hassoku-an, takatsuki.
  • Sakaki* (, lit. "Prosperity Tree" or "Sacred Tree") – A type of flowering evergreen tree native to Japan, and which is sacred in Shinto; the kanji for sakaki is in fact made up of the characters for tree 木 and kami 神. Cuttings of Sakaki, called Tamagushi (see below), are often offered as offerings to the Kami at shrines and in rituals. Cuttings of Sakaki are also displayed on either side of a Kamidana as offerings (see above).
  • Sakaki Tate (榊立, lit. "Sakaki Stands") – A pair of small, white vases, used for displaying cuttings of Sakaki are displayed on either side of a Kamidana as offerings (see above), and at rituals. In cases where real plants are used, the water in the sakaki-tate should be changed regularly and the plants should be disposed as soon as they start to wither.
  • Sake (, lit. "Rice Wine") – An alcoholic beverage made by fermenting polished/white rice. Despite the name Japanese rice wine, Sake (and indeed any East Asian rice wine, such as huangjiu and cheongju), is produced by a brewing process more akin to that of beer—where starch is converted into sugars which ferment into alcohol—whereas in wine, the alcohol is produced by fermenting sugar that is naturally present in fruit, typically grapes. See alsoŌ-miki (above).
  • Sakimitama (幸魂, lit. "Love Soul") – The happy and loving side of a whole, complete spirit (mitama).
  • Sanbō (三方, lit. "Three Sides/Directions") – A stand used to bear food offerings, usually made of unpainted hinoki (Japanese cypress).
  • Saisen (賽銭, lit. "Shrine/Temple-Visit Money [Offerings]") – Offerings of money made by worshipers. The box collecting the offerings is called a Saisen-Bako (賽銭箱, lit. a "Saisen box"), usually situated near the entrance, or in front of the halls of a shrine, as well as of a Buddhist temple.
  • Sandō* (参道, lit. "Coming Gate") – The approach leading from a torii to a shrine. The term is also used sometimes at Buddhist temples too.
  • Sanpai Sahō (参拝作法, lit. "Coming [to] Worship Action Method") – The way in which the Japanese worship at shrines, bowing twice, clapping twice, then bowing one last time.
  • Sanreizan (三霊山, lit. "3 Spiritual Mountains") – Three mountains revered as sacred in Shinto; these 3 mountains are Mount Fuji (富士山, lit. "Abundant Earth Mountain"), Mount Haku (白山, lit. "White Mountain"), and Mount Tate (立山, lit. "Upright Mountain"). The Sanreizan are also included amongst the Nanareizan (see above).
  • Sanzu-no-kawa (三途の川, lit. "River of Three Crossings") – A mythological river, similar to the River Styx in Greco-Roman mythology, said to act as a boundary between the lands of the Living and the Dead. Sometimes considered similar to Ne-no-kuni, Meido, Barzakh, Bardo, Limbo and Purgatory.
  • Sarubobo (さるぼぼ, lit. "Monkey Baby") – A kind of Japanese amulet, particularly associated with the town of Takayama in Gifu Prefecture. Sarubobo are red human-shaped dolls, with no facial features, made in a variety of sizes. Traditionally, Sarubobo are made by grandmothers for their grandchildren as dolls, and, likewise, for their daughters as a charm for good marriage, good children and to ensure a well-rounded couple
  • Segaki (施餓鬼, lit. "Feeding/Appeasing the Hungry Ghost") – A ritual of Japanese Buddhism, traditionally performed to stop the suffering of the Gaki (Hungry Ghosts), Jikininki (Flesh-eating Ghost/Oni) and Muenbotoke (the spirit of a departed mortal human with no living connections amongst the living; the dead who have no living relatives); ghosts tormented by insatiable 'hunger'. Alternatively, the ritual may be performed so-as to force them to return to their portion of hell, or-else keeps the spirits of the dead from falling into the realm of the Gaki in the first place. The Segaki may be performed at any time, but it is traditionally performed as part of the yearly Ō-Bon Festival services in July to remember the dead and the Segaki ritual for offering alms to specifically Gaki &/or Muenbotoke, but not for the spirits of one's ancestor.
  • Sei (, lit. "Essence", "Lifeforce", "Vitality") – The vim-&-vigour, vitality, energy, life-force, the energy of living things, the emotions, minds, &/or souls of things and beings, the soul or spirit of a thing, particularly when appearing on its own (such as a fairy or a sprite).
  • Seichi (聖地, lit. "Hallowed ground") – A term for hallowed ground. Also another word for Jōdo.
  • Seijin-no-Hi (成人の日, lit. "Day of Coming of Age") – A Japanese holiday held annually on the second Monday of January. It is held in order to congratulate and encourage all those who have reached or will reach the age of maturity between April 2 of the previous year and April 1 of the current year, and to help them realize that they have become adults. Similar such Coming of age ceremonies, such as Genpuku, have been celebrated in Japan since at least 714 CE. See also Shichi-Go-San.
  • Seirei (精霊, lit. "Essence, Spirit, Soul") – A general umbrella term for the essence, spirit or soul of a none-specific thing. In Buddhism, this term is used when referring to the soul of someone who has just died.
  • Seisatsu* (制札, lit. "System Board") – A signboard containing announcements and rules for worshipers.
  • Seishinkai (精神界, lit. the "Spirit[ual] World") – A spiritual, non-corporeal world that co-exists all around-&-through the material world (Busshitsukai (above)), that human beings inhabit, but in a different dimension. The real of the spirits, great-&-small.
  • Seishinsekai (精神世界, lit. the "Spirit[ual] World") – See Seishinkai (above), Ano-Yo (above), and Reikai (below).
  • Sessha* (摂社, lit. "Auxiliary Shrine") – A smaller shrine housing a kami having a strong relationship with that of the honsha (the main shrine). A synonym of Massha.
  • Setsubun (節分, lit. "Seasonal Divide") – A ceremony, held on the 3rd of Febuary, celebrating the beginning of spring in Japan.
  • Shaku (, lit. "Negation Baton") – A flat baton often seen in portraits of noblemen and samurai, but also used by kannushi. The Shaku has a purely decorative function.
  • Shamusho (社務所, lit. "Shrine Business Establishment") – A shrine's administrative office. It often sells omamori and other goods.
  • Shichi-Go-San (七五三, lit. "Seven-Five-Three" / "7-5-3") – A traditional rite of passage and festival day in Japan for 3-&-7-year-old girls and 5-year-old (and less commonly 3-year-old) boys, held annually on November 15 to celebrate the growth and well-being of young children. As it is not a national holiday, if it doesn't already on a weekends, it is generally observed on the nearest weekend.
  • Shide* (, 紙垂 and 四手, lit. "Hanging", "Paper Hanging" and "Four-Hands") – A zigzag-shaped paper streamer, indicitive of a lightningbolt (as a symbol of divine power), often attached to a Shimenawa and to Tamagushi and used in rituals.
  • Shigai (絲鞋, lit. "Silken Footwear")Moccasin-like footwear, made from silk with leather soles. Originally worn by children and young woman of the aristocratic-class, it is now (or, at-least was) worn by Miko in Shinto rituals.
  • Shika (鹿, lit. "Deer") – An animal, a Deer; in Shinto, the Shika are considered as messengers of the Kami (along with Kirin (see above)).
  • Shikome (黄泉醜女, lit. "Hag(s) of the Underworld") – The 1–8 hags who were sent by the now-dead kami, Izanami, to pursue her brother-husband, the kami, Izanagi, for shaming her by breaking promise not to see her in her decayed form in the Underworld (Yomi-no-kuni). Their numbers differ between the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki.
  • Shinbai (神媒, lit. "Divine Mediator") – A divine spiritualist or medium.
  • Shinboku (神木, lit. "Divine Tree") – A tree considered divine, as a kind of Shintai, usually surrounded by a shimenawa. A forest with a shinboku amongst its numbers is safe from deforestation. Known trees that can consecrated as shinboku include sugi trees.
  • Shingu (神具, lit. "Divine Tool") – A term for the items displayed upon a Kamidana (see above), specifically the vessels holding offerings.
  • Shinidama (死魂, lit. "Dead Soul") – The soul of a dead person (see also Hitodama and Shirei).
  • Shinkan (神官, lit. "Divine Official") – A person serving a certain God or working as a government official at a facility where God is worshipped. Shinkan is also used as a term designating a Shinto priest (a person involved in religious services and office work in a shrine), and it is still used as common name for Shinto priests in everyday talk, as well as for priests of Shinto shrines outside of Japan. Priests and clergyman of other religions are also referred-to-as Shinkan (see also Jinkan and Kannushi, above).
  • Shinko (神狐, lit. "Divine Fox") – Similar to Komainu, Shinko are twin dual statues of foxes, usually depicted as having white fur, who serve Inari Ōkami as messengers, and as guardian statues of shrines dedicated to Inari Ōkami, along with many hundreds of fox statues and figurines donated by devotees.
  • Shinkyō (神鏡, lit. "Divine Mirror") – A "Sacred mirror" often included in shrine alters and home alters (Kamidana); they are believed to represent the Kami-themselves, as mirrors are often used in Shinto shrines as a Yorishiro--an object into which a kami can be attracted-to. As it reflects back the devotee’s reflection, the mirror is also said to play the role of reflecting the devotee’s sincerity to the kami.
  • Shinsōsai (神葬祭, lit. "Burial", "Internment") – A Shinto funeral service.
  • Shio (, lit. "salt") – In Shinto, salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people (harae, specifically shubatsu (修祓)), and small piles of salt are placed in dishes by the entrance of establishments for the two-fold purposes of warding off evil and attracting patrons.
  • Shimenawa* (標縄, 注連縄, 七五三縄, lit. an "Enclosing Rope") – A length of braided rice straw rope used for ritual purification.
  • Shinbutsu bunri (神仏分離, lit. "Kami-Buddha Separation") – The forbidding, by law, of the syncretism of Shinto and Buddhism, and the effort to create a clear division between Shinto and Buddhism on one side, and Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines on the other.
  • Shiryō/Shirei (死霊, lit. "Dead Spirit") – The spirit of a dead person (see also Hitodama and Shinidama). The term(s) are used in contrast to a Ikiryō (生霊, lit. a "Living Spirit", an "Eidolon"), which refers to a disembodied spirit that leaves the body of a person who is still living and subsequently haunts other people or places, sometimes across great distances (above).
  • Shintai (神体, lit. "Divine Body") – A sacred object, usually a mirror, a jewel, or a sword, but also natural objects such as trees and mountains, which represents the kami for worship.
  • Shrine – The English word which translates several more specialized Japanese words (see article Shinto shrine). Any structure housing ("enshrining") a Kami. See also hokora (extremely small shrine), Jinja, jingū, Massha (subordinate shrine, a synonym of sessha), Miya, Mori (shrine grove), Taisha, Yashiro.
  • Shinbutsu kakuri (神仏隔離, lit. "Kami-Buddha Isolation") – The tendency in medieval and early modern Japan to keep particular kami separate from any form or manifestation of Buddhism.
  • Shinbutsu shūgō (神仏習合, lit. "Kami-Buddha Syncretism") – The syncretism of Buddhism and local religious beliefs, the normal state of things before the shinbutsu bunri.
  • Shōdo (聖土, lit. "Hallowed ground") – A term for hallowed ground. Also another word for Jōdo (see above) and Seichi (see above).
  • Shonetsu Jigoku (焦熱地獄, lit. "Hell of Burning") – The 3rd level of Jigoku, location for sinners, who have committed murder (even the murder of small lives such as insects), theft, and degeneration.
  • Shugo Jigoku (衆合地獄, lit. "Hell of Crushing") – The 6th level of Jigoku, location for sinners, who have committed murder (even the murder of small lives such as insects), theft, degeneration, drunkeness, lying and blasphemy.
  • Shuin (朱印, lit. "Vermillion Seal") – A commemorative seal stamp given to worshippers and visitors to Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in Japan. The seal stamps are often collected in books called Shuinchō (see below) that are sold at shrines and temples.
  • Shuinchō (朱印帳, lit. "Vermillion Seal Book") – A book used to collect Shuin in (see above).
  • Shūha Shintō (宗派神道, lit. "Sect Shinto") – see Kyōha Shintō, above.
  • State Shinto (Kokka Shintō (国家神道, lit. "State Shinto")) – A term first used after World War II to broadly classify Shinto ideals, rituals and institutions created by the pre-War government to promote the divinity of the emperor and the uniqueness of Japan (kokutai).
  • Shura (修羅, lit. "Cultivated Gauze") – The Semi-Divine/Ashura realm of incarnation, the second-highest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See also Rinne (above).
  • Sora (, lit. "Heaven(ly)") – The Divine/Deva realm of incarnation, the highest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See also Ama (above), Ten (below), and Rinne (above).
  • Sugi (, lit. "Hair Tree")Cryptomeria; the Japanese cedar or Japanese redwood.
  • Suijin (水神, lit. "Water God") – Another name for Ryūjin (see above).
  • Suikan (水干, lit. "Keeping-off the Water") – An informal garment, like a tunic, worn by males of the Japanese nobility in the Heian period, as outerwear; an informal garment, like a tunic, worn by males of the Japanese nobility in the Heian period, as outerwear.
  • Suzu (, lit. "Bell") – A round, hollow Japanese Shinto bell that contains pellets that sound when agitated. At large shrines, large Suzu drape over entrances, as it is said that ringing them calls the kami, allowing one to acquire positive power and authority, while repelling evil. Handheld clustered Suzu, Kagura suzu, similar to jingle bells, are used musically at Shinto ceremonies. See also Dōtaku and Kagura suzu.

Gallery: P to SEdit

TEdit

  • Taisha (大社, lit. "Great Shrine") – A term usually used as a part of the official name of a shrine, as for example in Izumo Taisha.
  • Taisha-zukuri (大社造, lit. "Great Shrine Architecture") – The oldest style of shrine architecture used for example at Izumo Taisha and thought to resemble that of ancient habitations.
  • Takamagahara (高天原, lit. "Plains of the High Heaven") – In Shinto, Takamagahara (or Takama no Hara) is the dwelling place of the heavenly gods, the Amatsukami/Kotoamatsukami; not to mistaken with Tendō/Tengoku. It is believed to be connected to the Earth by the bridge, Ama-no-uki-hashi.
  • Takarabune (宝船, lit. "Treasure Ship") – A mythical ship piloted through the heavens, manned by the Seven Lucky Gods during the first three days of the New Year. A picture of the ship forms an essential part of traditional Japanese New Year celebrations; said-picture is placed under one's pillow during the days of New Year, invites Hatsuyume the "First Dream(s) of the New-Year", which have divinational-signifigance for the dreamer.
  • Tamagaki (玉垣, lit. "Jewel Fence") – The fence delimiting the sacred soil of a shrine.
  • Tamagushi* (玉串, lit. "Jewel Skewer") – A form of offering made from a sakaki-tree branch and strips of paper, silk, or cotton.
  • Tanzaku (短冊, lit. "Short Writable Object") – A small strip of paper that wishes can be written on, especially those hung on bamboo or other trees during Tanabata.
  • Tatari (祟り, lit. "Disaster Spirit") – A kind of curse, specifically one placed upon the victim by gods or spirits such as Tatarigami (below), powerful spirits of which bring all sorts of calamity, such as death and destruction, fire and famine, plague, war.
  • Tatarigami (祟り神, lit. "Disaster Spirit") – Powerful spirits of which bring all sorts of calamity, such as death and destruction, fire and famine, plague, war.
  • Tate ( & , lit. "Shield") – A shield, sometimes dedicated to shrines, and indicative of a Kami's power to ward-off and protect from negative influences.
  • Tei (, lit. "Fraternity") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Temizuya* (手水舎, lit. "Hand Water/Washing Hut") – A fountain near the entrance of a shrine or at a Buddhist temple where worshipers can cleanse their hands and mouths before worship.
  • Ten (, lit. "Heaven(ly)") – The Divine/Deva realm of incarnation, the highest realm on the Wheel of Re-incarnation. See also Ama (above), Sora (above), and Rinne (above).
  • Tenchi (天地, lit. "Heaven and Earth") – A term used to refer to the union of opposites; Heaven and Earth, Yin and Yang, Positive and Negative, and all things with them; a term referring to the Whole World. See also Kenkon (above).
  • Tendō (天堂, lit. "Heaven(ly) Hall")Heaven, not unlike Nirvana, the Buddhist equivalent of Heaven or Enlightenment (Spiritual Enlightenment). Another word for Tengoku, mentioned below.
  • Tengoku (天国, lit. "Heaven(ly) Domain")Heaven, not unlike Nirvana, the Buddhist equivalent of Heaven or Enlightenment (Spiritual Enlightenment).
  • Tenjin (天神, lit. "Sky God") – The deification of Sugawara no Michizane (845–903), the famous scholar, poet and politician of the Heian period. Originally worshiped as a weather kami, Tenjin later became a Patron deity of academics, scholarship, of learning and education, and patron of the Intelligentsia. On 25 February (Sugawara no Michizane's birthday), at Kitano Tenmangū (a shrine built and dedicated to him), the Baikasai (the Plum/Ume blossom-viewing festival), commemorating Sugawara no Michizane's birthday and love of the Ume/Plum blossom.
  • Tennin (天人, lit. "Divine Being" or "Heavenly Being")spiritual/divine beings found in Shinto and Japanese Buddhism that are similar to Western angels, nymphs or fairies. They were seemingly imported from Chinese Buddhism, which was itself influenced by the concepts of heavenly beings found in Indian Buddhism and Chinese Taoism.
  • Tennyo (天女, lit. "Divine Women" or "Heavenly Maidens") – Female Tennin: wives, daughters, or handmaidens of the Kami and the Buddha.
  • Tensei/Tenshō (転生, lit. "Moving/Shifting Life") – The concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence"; the beginning-less cycle of repeated birth from amongst 6 realms of re-incarnation, mundane existence and dying again; transmigration of a soul into a new body: reincarnation, metempsychosis and rebirth. See also Rinne (above).
  • Tenshi (天使, lit. "Divine Messenger" or "Heavenly Messenger") – Messenger Tennin.
  • Teru teru bōzu (照る照る坊主 or てるてる坊主, lit. "Shine-Shine Monk") – A small traditional handmade doll made of white paper or cloth that Japanese farmers began hanging outside of their window by a string. This talisman is supposed to have magical powers to bring good weather and to stop or prevent a rainy day.
  • Tokatsu Jigoku (等活地獄, lit. "Hell of Revival") – The 1st and shallowest level of Jigoku, location for sinners, who have committed murder (even the murder of small creatures such as insects).
  • Torii (鳥居, lit. "Bird Perch") – The iconic Shinto gate at the entrance of a sacred area, usually a shrine. Also serves as the symbol for Shintoism.
  • Tōrō (灯籠, lit. "[Stone] Lamp Case") – A lantern at a shrine or Buddhist temple.
  • Toso (屠蘇, lit. "Revival Sacrifice") – A spiced medicinal sake, traditionally drunk during New Year celebrations in Japan. See also Ō-Toso.
  • Totsuka-no-Tsurugi (十拳剣, lit. the "Sword of Ten Hand-Breadths") – A sword that is 'Ten Hand-Breadths-long'; this term does not necessarily refer to any-one-sword, specificly, but is a common noun for any sword of this length. In Japanese mythology, numerous deities own a sword of this kind. Four well-known examples of 'Totsuka-no-Tsurugi' were owned by Izanagi (×1), Susanoo (×2), and Takemikazuchi (×1).
  • Tsuina (追儺, lit. "[Ceremony of] Driving-Away Evil Spirits/Demons [Exorcism]") – A term for a kind of ritual of exorcism, specifically one performed during a funeral, by a Hōsōshi (above), in-order to keep-away flesh-eating, corpse-stealing Yōkai away from the body being buried. Tsuina shares its origins with Setsubun in Nuo rituals from China, thenselves influenced by Taoism.
  • Tsukimi (月見, lit. "Moon Viewing") – A festival held honouring the autumn moon, a variant of the Mid-Autumn Festival. The celebration of the full moon typically takes place on the 15th day of the eighth month of the traditional Japanese calendar; the waxing moon is celebrated on the 13th day of the ninth month. These days normally fall in September and October of the modern solar calendar.
  • Tsukumogami (付喪神, lit. "Tool Kami")Yōkai who came to being from tools that have acquired a Kami or spirit. According to an annotated version of The Tales of Ise, titled Ise Monogatari Shō, there is a theory originally from the Onmyōki (陰陽記) that foxes and tanuki, among other beings, that have lived for at a hundred years and changed forms are considered tsukumogami. In modern times, the term can also be written 九十九神 (literally "ninety-nine Kami"), to emphasize the agedness.
  • Tsumairi or Tsumairi-zukuri (妻入 or 妻入造, lit. "Spouses Structure") – A style of construction in which the building has its main entrance on the side which runs perpendicular to the roof's ridge (gabled side). The taisha-zukuri, sumiyoshi-zukuri, ōtori-zukuri and kasuga-zukuri architectural styles belong to this type.
  • Tsumi (, lit. "Crime", "Offence", "Sin", "Vice", "Fault", "Accountability", "Culpability") – A violation committed against legal, social or religious rules. It is most often used in the religious and moral sense. See also Imi (above), Kegare (above), and Miasma (bloodguilt).

UEdit

WEdit

  • Wara-Ningyō (藁人形, lit. "Straw/Hemp Doll") – Depending-upon their intended use, Wara-Ningyō can be used either for cleansing a person of sins/impurities (like a Katashiro (above) and a Teru teru bōzu (above)), casting spells to protect &/or empower (like an Ō-mamori (above)), or-else to perform a curse upon another person (usually someone who has wronged the person performing the curse), via ritual impalement. Originating from Daoist rituals (i.e. strengthening bindings over an captured Jiangshi), in Japan, they're nailed to trees to curse people, during Ushi-no-Toki-Mairi, which explains the nail in its design and in Curse. Similar to a Poppet, a Corn dolly, a Corn husk doll and a Voodoo doll, etc.

YEdit

  • Yama (, lit. "Mountain") – In Shinto, mountains are often seen as sacred places and are referred to as Shintai (the corporeal form of a Kami).
  • Yama (夜摩, lit. "Underworld") – In Shinto, Yama is another name for Enma-Ō (閻魔王, lit. "Evil Gates King"), the Kami who oversees the land of the dead; the afterworld, the underworld; specifically over Naraku (Shinto-Buddhist Hell).
  • Yama-Jijī (山爺, lit. "Mountain Geezer") – A male yōkai found in Japanese folklore (and Noh Theater), and is most often described as a monstrous crone.
  • Yama-Uba/Yama-Babā (山姥, lit. "Mountain Crone") – A female yōkai found in Japanese folklore (and Noh Theater), and is most often described as a monstrous crone; a most famous example of a Yama-uba is the one who found and raised Kintarō. See also Kijo and Onibabā.
  • Yamawaro (山童, lit. "Mountain Child") – A child-like yōkai found in Japanese folklore (and Noh Theater).
  • Yata no Kagami (八咫鏡, lit. the "Eight Ta Mirror") – A sacred mirror that is part of the Imperial Regalia of Japan. It is said to be housed in Ise Grand Shrine in Mie Prefecture, Japan. The Yata no Kagami represents "Wisdom" or "Honesty", depending on the source. Its name literally means "The Eight Ta Mirror", a reference both to its size (1 ta equals about 8 cun, and 1 cun equals about 3cm) and to its octagonal shape. Mirrors in ancient Japan represented truth because they merely reflected what was shown, and were a source of much mystique and reverence (being uncommon items). Japanese folklore is rich in stories of life before mirrors were commonplace.
  • Yari (, lit. "Spear") – A spear weapon, sometimes dedicated to shrines (along with other weapons, such as Katana and Naginata), and indicative of a Kami's power to ward-off negative influences.
  • Yashiro (, lit. "Holy Ground") – A generic term for shrine, similar to jinja.
  • Yōkai (妖怪, lit. "strange, unusual, supernatural, paranormal, extraordinary") – An umbrella term that can cover ghosts, phantoms, phantasms, apparitions and illusions, goblins, monsters, demons, devils and any kind of supernatural beasts and beings; the corporeal and the incorporeal; real or fantasy; the term, Yōkai can also be used when referring to humans, animals, objects (i.e. the Tsukumogami (above)), and even used when referring to Kami (above); some are even the servants of Kami (i.e. the Kitsune, who serve Inari-Ōkami).
  • Yōma (妖魔, lit. "Supernatural Evil Being") – A kind of ghost or phantom, apparition, monster and/or demon.
  • Yomi (黄泉, lit. "Underworld") – In Shinto, Yomi is the land of the dead; the afterworld, the underworld: according to Shinto mythology, as related in Kojiki, this is where the dead go in the afterlife. Once one has eaten at the hearth of Yomi, it is (mostly) impossible to return to the land of the living. Yomi in Japanese mythology is comparable to Hades (specifically the Asphodel Meadows) or Sheol and is most commonly known for Izanami's retreat to that place after her death.
  • Yorishiro (依り代, lit. "Substitute Inhabitat") – An object capable of attracting kami for a ceremony. Trees, rocks, magatama, gohei, even persons can be a yorishiro.
  • Yorimashi (憑坐, lit. "Possession Mount") – A human yorishiro, in particular a child or woman, used by a faith healer for oracles.
  • Yoroi (, lit. "Armour") – A suit of armour, sometimes dedicated to shrines, and indicative of a kami's power to ward off and protect from negative influences.
  • (, lit. "Courage") – One of the seven-plus Virtues of Bushido.
  • Yūkai (幽界, lit. "Dark World") – A term referring to the "invisible world" that one cannot see without any kind of supernatural gift; also another word for Yomi, the Underworld. See also Kenkai (above).
  • Yūki (幽鬼, lit. "Dark Spirit") – A kind of demonic ghost or phantom; a demonic poltergeist. An onryō is a kind of yūki.
  • Yūrei (幽霊, lit. "Dark Spirit") – A kind of ghost or phantom. An onryō is a kind of yūrei.

ZEdit

Gallery: T to ZEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-1051-5.
  2. ^ Yonei, Teruyoshi. "Aramitama". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  3. ^ JAANUS, Hachiman-zukuri accessed on December 1, 2009
  4. ^ Nogami, Takahiro: "Hakusan Shinkō". Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University, retrieved on August 8, 2011
  5. ^ a b c Smyers (1999:219)
  6. ^ Iwanami Kōjien (広辞苑) Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition (2008), DVD version

ReferencesEdit

  • Basic Terms of Shinto, Kokugakuin University, Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Tokyo 1985
  • Ono, Sokyo, Shinto: The Kami Way, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo 1992, ISBN 0-8048-0525-3
  • Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University, accessed on April 2, 2009
  • Iwanami Kōjien (広辞苑) Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition (2008), DVD version
  • Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology accessed on April 2, 2009
  • Smyers, Karen Ann (1999). The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. OCLC 231775156. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)