Paul Gust Vallas Sr. (VAL-iss;[1] born June 10, 1953) is an American politician and former education superintendent. He served as the superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools and the Recovery School District of Louisiana, the CEO of both the School District of Philadelphia and the Chicago Public Schools, and a budget director for the city of Chicago.

Paul Vallas
Vallas in March 2023
Superintendent of Bridgeport Public Schools
In office
January 3, 2012 – November 8, 2013
Acting: January 3, 2012 – June 24, 2013
Preceded byJohn Ramos
Succeeded byFran Rabinowitz (acting)
Superintendent of the Recovery School District of Louisiana
In office
June 2007 – May 1, 2011
Preceded byRobin Jarvis
Succeeded byJohn White
CEO of the School District of Philadelphia
In office
July 2002 – June 2007
Preceded byPhil Goldsmith
Succeeded byThomas Brady (acting)[citation needed]
CEO of Chicago Public Schools
In office
July 10, 1995 – June 26, 2001
Appointed byRichard M. Daley
Preceded byArgie Johnson (Superintendent)
Succeeded byArne Duncan
Personal details
Paul Gust Vallas

(1953-06-10) June 10, 1953 (age 71)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Sharon Vallas
(m. 1984)
EducationMoraine Valley Community College
Western Illinois University (BA, MA)

As a school superintendent, Vallas was noted for his embrace of privatization and charter schools.

A member of the Democratic Party, Vallas has unsuccessfully sought elected office several times. Vallas was the runner-up in the Democratic primary of the 2002 Illinois gubernatorial election. He ran as the Democratic nominee for lieutenant governor in the 2014 Illinois gubernatorial election. Vallas was a candidate in the 2019 Chicago mayoral election. He was also most recently the runner-up in the 2023 Chicago mayoral election. After finishing first in the initial round of that election without securing a majority, Vallas faced Brandon Johnson in a runoff election and was defeated.[2] Multiple media outlets had referred to him as a perennial candidate.[3][4][5]

Early life and career


The grandson of Greek immigrants, Vallas grew up in the Roseland neighborhood on Chicago's South Side. He spent his teen years living in Palos Heights. He graduated from Carl Sandburg High School and attended Moraine Valley Community College and then Western Illinois University, where he received a bachelor's degree in history and political science, a master's degree in political science, and a teaching certificate.[6]

From 1985 until 1990, Vallas led the Illinois Economic and Fiscal Commission. From 1990 until 1993, Vallas served as Chicago's municipal budget director[7] under Mayor Richard M. Daley.



Vallas served as superintendent of school districts in four United States cities. Mitch Smith of The New York Times retrospectively wrote that in these positions, Vallas "cultivated a reputation as a crisis manager and charter school supporter willing to take on hard jobs and implement sweeping changes, an approach that garnered a mix of praise and criticism".[8] In a 2009 article in the Education Next academic journal, Dale Mezzacappa wrote of Vallas's leadership style in his Chicago and Philadelphia superintendencies "His energy level is boundless, his temper legendary, his gangly charm equally so. His style of leadership, the 'Vallas treatment,' is by now well established. Do things big, do them fast, and do them all at once."[9]

CEO of Chicago Public Schools


Vallas served as CEO of the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) from 1995 to 2001.[10] The position of CEO of the Chicago Public School system had been created by Mayor Richard M. Daley after he convinced the Illinois State Legislature to place CPS under mayoral control.[10]

During his tenure at CPS, Vallas led an effort to reform the school system. President Bill Clinton cited his work for raising test scores,[11] balancing the budget, instituting several new programs, including mandatory summer school, and after-school programs, and expanding alternative, charter, and magnet schools.[12] Under Vallas's leadership, the use of standardized testing increased.[13]

Vallas instated zero-tolerance discipline policies. He also expanded the number of non-neighborhood schools, which included selective enrollment high schools, charter schools, and some of the city's first public military schools. He also launched thirteen International Baccalaureate programs in the city's public high schools.[13]

In 1995, CPS faced a projected 1999 deficit of $1.4 billion. To address that deficit, Vallas submitted a plan that he claimed would save $162 million by reducing 1,700 central office staffers, raising cash by selling 20 surplus properties, and eliminating a program, described as "elaborate", to network the district's computers. The plan also reallocated money earmarked for teacher pensions into a general operating budget. This reallocation was implemented. In later years, in tandem, a decrease in returns from the stock market and an increasing number of retirees would cause the CPS to be unable to make their full payments on time. This has been identified as an inciting incident for the subsequent $1 billion budget crisis, attributed largely to spiking pension payments in later years.[14] $666 million in capital bonds that the district took out under Vallas's leadership are anticipated, as of 2023, to ultimately cost the city $1.5 billion when interest is factored in.[13]

In June 2001, Vallas announced his resignation. His departure came two weeks after Gery Chico's resignation, the Chicago Board of Education's president. Both of their resignations came soon after several failing standardized testing scores eliminated the improvements to test scores that had been experienced over the previous two years.[15] This loss of progress in test scores had angered Mayor Daley.[16] Vallas's six-year tenure was greater than two-times the average tenure at the time for school superintendents in large U.S. cities.[17]

Many praised Vallas's tenure, crediting him with improving the school district's performance. Martha Woodall of The Philadelphia Inquirer wrote in 2002 that, in Chicago, Vallas attained a reputation of being, a "savvy, hard-working, blunt-speaking manager who insists on doing things his own way".[18] In a 2009 article published in the Peabody Journal of Education, Elizabeth Useem wrote that, as CEO of CPS, Vallas, "developed a reputation for being an energetic leader who could move quickly to carry out a far-reaching program of reform".[19] Among the criticisms detractors had of Vallas's style of leadership in Chicago were characterizations of him as failing to sufficiently collaborate with community groups and showing hostility towards those who gave criticism or questioned his decisions.[18]

CEO of the School District of Philadelphia


In July 2002, Vallas was appointed CEO of the School District of Philadelphia.[19][20] His appointment occurred six months after the state took over the school district. Vallas quickly moved to propose a reform agenda modeled after the actions he took in Chicago.[19]

As CEO, he presided over the nation's largest experiment in privatized management of schools,[20] with the management of over 40 schools turned over to outside for-profits, nonprofits, and universities beginning in Fall 2002.[citation needed] A 2007 RAND study of Philadelphia's privatization found that the achievement gains in Philadelphia's privately managed schools were on average no different from district-wide gains, nor were they substantially greater than those of other low-achieving schools in the state.[21] In particular, schools that stayed under district management but received additional resources similar to those managed by for-profit firms showed directly comparable increases in math.[21]

Vallas converted the school district to a K–8 and 9–12 grade structure, eliminating nearly all city middle schools. Vallas oversaw a standardization of the district's curriculum. Vallas also had the district create new after school programs, as well as new Saturday school and summer school programs, which were mostly run by private companies such as The Princeton Review and Kaplan, Inc. As superintendent, Vallas also undertook a program of new school facility construction and renovation of existing facilities. Vallas's tenure saw the establishment of an increased number of privately operated disciplinary schools and alternative schools. International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement programs were expanded.[9]

Vallas increased the number of International Baccalaureate programs in the city and the number of military academies in the district.[13]

There was a gradual increase in standardized testing scores during Vallas's tenure. However, 11th grade scores remained poor. There was also an increase in schools meeting the Adequate Yearly Progress standards set by No Child Left Behind. Vallas failed to decrease the district's high dropout rate.[9]

Vallas left the job in June 2007 to take a position in Louisiana.[19] After Vallas departed, Thomas Brady served as interim CEO until Arlene Ackerman took office as CEO.[22] Upon Vallas's departure, Vallas was described by Philadelphia magazine as the, "most effective Philadelphia schools chief in a generation".[23] A study published by Harvard's Kennedy School of Government concluded, "the average student at schools managed by for-profit firms learned more in math than would be expected had the schools remained under district management".[24] However, a $73.3 million annual budget deficit had arisen towards the end of his tenure, which proved to be a source of criticism towards Vallas.[9][25] Vallas's addition of a vast number of new initiatives and programs contributed to the district's budget shortfall.[9] Vallas's five-year tenure was longer than the typical tenure length of school superintendents in U.S. cities.[9]

Superintendent Recovery School District of Louisiana


Vallas signed a two-year contract (2007–2008) as superintendent of the Recovery School District of Louisiana. He remained head of the Recovery School District through 2011.[26][27][28][29][30] Vallas greatly increased the system's utilization of charter schools.[25]

Superintendent of Bridgeport Public Schools


In December 2011, Vallas was hired by the board of education for Bridgeport, Connecticut, to become the interim superintendent of Bridgeport Public Schools, effective January 1, 2012.[20]

In June 2013, Vallas became the permanent superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools.[20] In July, Connecticut Superior Court Justice Barbara Bellis ordered Vallas removed from the position after he neglected to complete mandated coursework and certification. The Connecticut Supreme Court overturned the ruling of Bellis and ordered that Vallas be reinstated.[31]

Vallas resigned on November 8, 2013, to run for lieutenant governor of Illinois.[32][33]

Chicago State University


In January 2017, Governor of Illinois Bruce Rauner appointed Vallas to a vacant seat on the board of trustees of Chicago State University. Rauner's appointment of Vallas surprised some, as they had previously been political rivals. Rauner recommended that Vallas be made board chairman, despite the board having already elected a chairman months earlier. Instead, Vallas was made board secretary. Weeks after the appointment, Rauner recommended that Vallas be a crisis manager for the university. This was not done.[34]

After the university announced its intent to hire a new interim president and create and fill the position of chief administrative officer, Rauner recommended Vallas as his choice to serve as the interim president of Chicago State University.[34][35] The board allowed Vallas to apply for the two positions, but only once he stepped down from his position on their board.[34] Objections were raised to the prospect of Vallas serving as president, with criticisms including objections to Rauner's level of involvement in choosing Vallas and other criticism opposing appointing Vallas, who is white, to lead a largely African-American university.[35] In April, the university's board of trustees chose to appoint Rachel Lindsey as interim president, and appointed Vallas to serve as chief administrative officer.[34][35] He served in the position during 2017 and 2018.[36] In late-January 2018, after it became known that Vallas intended to leave the job to run for mayor of Chicago, the university's board dismissed him and expressed anger towards him, accusing him of using his position at the university to bolster his political prospects. Vallas had served only half the time his contract with the university specified.[34]

Other work in education


In 2002, before being appointed CEO of Philadelphia's school district, Vallas was one of several applicants seeking appointment as Illinois superintendent of education.[16]

While working as superintendent in New Orleans, Vallas advised efforts to rebuild Haiti's school system following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.[37][38][39] His work in Haiti led actor Sean Penn to request that Vallas join his J/P Haitian Relief Foundation CORE's board of directors,[40] which Vallas accepted.[41] Vallas also worked in post-earthquake school matters in Chile. His work in Chile and Haiti ultimately lasted several years.[7]

After the 2014 gubernatorial election, Vallas worked with the Bronner Group and the United States Department of Justice to develop a prison education program.[25] He continued to work as a Bronner Group consultant.[42]

Paul Vallas is the co-chair of the Advisory Board for the National Education Support Network.[43] According to them, Vallas was the lead consultant on "a plan to create, finance and operationalize the first publicly funded school system in Haiti".[44] On Thursday, September 9, 2021, "The Arkansas Board of Education ... gave final approval to four open-enrollment charter schools to begin operations in 2022 and 2023."[45] Vallas was "one of the chief planners" for the Arkansas Military and First Responders Academy in Pulaski County, Arkansas. That school was proposed to the Arkansas Department of Education on March 31, 2020, by Rick W. Mills of the National Education Support Network,[46] with a smaller enrollment size than it would eventually be planned to accept, with 800 students being enrolled[47] as opposed to the intended cap of 600 students.[48]

Political career


2002 campaign for governor of Illinois

Logo of Vallas's 2002 gubernatorial campaign

Following his tenure at CPS, Vallas ran for governor of Illinois as a Democrat. Vallas placed second in the Democratic primary in March 2002, losing narrowly to then-U.S. Congressman Rod Blagojevich and finishing ahead of former state attorney general Roland Burris.[49]

Former congressman Glenn Poshard, a conservative Democrat, campaigned on behalf of Vallas.[50] Before launching his gubernatorial campaign, Vallas had been asked by Poshard, who had considered running himself, to run in the Democratic lieutenant gubernatorial primary as Poshard's co-endorsed candidate. Vallas wasn't interested in running for lieutenant governor. Months later, Vallas reflected on this decision by asking, "does anyone really know what the lieutenant governor does?"[51] In addition to Poshard's support, Vallas also received the endorsements of the editorial boards of the Chicago Tribune[52] and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.[53]

The general chairman of Vallas's campaign was Christopher G. Kennedy.[54] Brendan Reilly served as the campaign's communications director.[55]

2010 prospective candidacies


During his tenure as superintendent in Louisiana, he floated the possibility of running for office back in Illinois, but ultimately did not pursue either race. On April 28, 2008 he appeared before the City Club of Chicago and on Chicago news shows discussing a possible run for governor in 2010.[26][27][56] In February 2009, Vallas gave an interview to Carol Marin in the Chicago Sun-Times and stated that he planned to return to Cook County, Illinois in 2009 and run as a Republican for president of the Cook County Board of Commissioners in the 2010 race. Vallas went as far as forming an exploratory committee for such a prospective candidacy.[29] On June 11, 2009, Vallas announced that he would not be a candidate for president of the Cook County Board of Commissioners in 2010. Vallas stated that he could not "begin a political campaign while trying to finish what he started—rebuild the school system there in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina".[30]

2014 campaign for Illinois lieutenant governor

Quinn-Vallas 2014 campaign logo

In November 2013, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn tapped Vallas to be his running mate in the 2014 election after incumbent lieutenant governor Sheila Simon chose to run for comptroller instead of seeking reelection.[57] In his announcement, Quinn praised Vallas saying "he's never been shy about fighting for education, reform and opportunities for working people".[58] Quinn's choice of Vallas was seen as surprising by many, including U.S. Senator Dick Durbin, who nonetheless called Vallas his friend.[59] During the campaign, Vallas played the role of the campaign's "attack dog", heavily criticizing Bruce Rauner.[60]

Quinn and Vallas lost the election to the Republican ticket of Bruce Rauner and Evelyn Sanguinetti. During Vallas's 2023 mayoral campaign, Quinn endorsed U.S. Representative Chuy García's campaign over his campaign at first,[61] however eventually endorsed Vallas in the run-off election.[62]

In April 2023, at a rally for Brandon Johnson's mayoral campaign, Illinois State Representative Theresa Mah and Cook County Commissioner Josina Morita, who are both of Chinese-American ancestry and who both worked as interns for Quinn 2014's campaign, claimed to a crowd that, "every single weekend, at a campaign event or a parade, [Vallas] would confuse us", thereby alleging that Vallas had had difficulty telling the two Asian-American interns apart.[63]

2019 Chicago mayoral candidacy

Vallas marching in the 2019 Chicago Pride Parade

In March 2018, Vallas formally filed to become a candidate in the 2019 Chicago mayoral election.[64]

When he entered the race, Vallas was seen as a potentially strong opponent to incumbent Rahm Emanuel, seeking reelection at the time.[65][66][67] In September, Emanuel dropped out of the race, and the field for mayor grew, with many more high-profile candidates entering the race.[68] After Emanuel withdrew his planned candidacy, a large number of prominent political figures adjoined the field running for mayor of Chicago. Among the contenders to enter the race at this point was Gery Chico, Vallas's one-time political ally with whom he had previously overseen the Chicago Public Schools.[69][70][71] Vallas had previously endorsed Chico for mayor in 2011.[72] Despite this history, Vallas did not hesitate to criticize Chico as a mayoral opponent.[69]

Vallas staked a large part of his candidacy on his record as head of Chicago Public Schools, arguing that he helped to turn around the school system and that his leadership left the system in better shape.[73] Vallas claimed that the Chicago Public Schools were healthier under his leadership than they were in 2019.[73] PolitiFact rated this claim as "mostly true".[74]

Vallas in December 2018

As a candidate, Vallas pledged to combat political corruption in Chicago's City Hall.[75]

Vallas's campaign logos for his 2019 mayoral bid

Vallas was endorsed by Deborah Lynch, former president of the Chicago Teachers Union.[76] Rocky Wirtz, chairman of the Chicago Blackhawks, was a major campaign donor to Vallas.[77] Vallas also received a rare mayoral endorsement from the Chicago Republican Party.[78][79] Chicago Republican Party Chair Chris Cleveland called Vallas the "lesser of 13 evils". Vallas welcomed the endorsement, commenting, "This is a non-partisan election and I'm running for mayor to represent all Chicagoans. I've traveled to every ward and met with every constituency. The crisis that Chicago faces affects all citizens. I thank the Republican committee for their confidence in my candidacy."[79] Former governor Bruce Rauner, a Republican, commented in an interview that, of those running, Vallas, "might make the best mayor".[80]

Vallas's campaign sent unsolicited text messages.[81] The campaign employed North Carolina-based firm Link2Tek to accomplish this.[82] In mid-January 2019, a class-action lawsuit was filed against the Vallas campaign, alleging that it had violated the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, which prohibits calling or texting a person using an automatic telephone dialing system without their consent.[83] Vallas accused the lawsuit of being, "a dirty trick" orchestrated by the "political machine".[83] A motion by Link2Tek's (a co-defendant in the lawsuit) to dismiss the lawsuit was denied in August 2020.[84]

As the election came close, despite the race being highly competitive, outlets such as The Wall Street Journal and Chicago magazine did not consider Vallas among the top contenders to advance to a likely runoff election.[85][86] Ultimately, in the first round of the election, Vallas placed ninth out of fourteen candidates, receiving 30,236 votes (5.43% of the votes cast).[87] Failing to advance to the runoff, Vallas endorsed Lori Lightfoot.[88]

2023 Chicago mayoral candidacy


First round


In June 2022, Vallas announced his candidacy for mayor again in the 2023 election, challenging incumbent Mayor Lori Lightfoot.[89] Vallas was a critic of the Lightfoot administration over what he characterized as her lack of accountability amidst a rise in crime and violence in the city.[90]

Vallas's 2023 mayoral campaign logo

Vallas's campaign staff included a number of nationally prominent consultants, including Joe Trippi, who served as senior strategist and media advisor,[91] and pollster Mark Mellman.[92]

Vallas centered his candidacy on the issue of crime. He promised that he would extend both the length of the school day and the school year. He also pledged that he would give parents "100% choice" over what schools their children attend.[93]

The month that he launched his campaign, Vallas appeared at a fundraising event for Awake IL, a political not-for-profit that had been criticized for its anti-LGBTQ rhetoric.[94] In August 2022, Vallas condemned the group saying "I am a lifelong Democrat who has spent my entire adult life fighting hateful rhetorical and hateful groups."[95] His claim of being a "lifelong Democrat" was called into question by some, who pointed to campaign contributions from prominent Republican donor Michael Keiser, and to Chicago Board of Elections records listing Vallas as having voted in the 2022 Republican Party primary election.[96] Reporter Gregory Pratt later claimed that the Chicago Board of Elections had said that Vallas had not voted in the Republican primary and that the records that showed him as having done so were due to a "coding error".[97]

Vallas in December 2022
Vallas speaking to the media in January 2023

Vallas was the only white, non-Hispanic candidate on the ballot in the 2023 mayoral election. Seven of the other candidates were Black, while one was Latino. Edward Robert McClelland of Chicago magazine remarked that his being the sole White candidate meant that, unlike in the 2019 mayoral election, "[Vallas] doesn't have to share that constituency with Bill Daley, Jerry Joyce, or Garry McCarthy." McClelland also regarded Vallas to be running as a police-friendly candidate.[98] Similarly, Justin Kaufman of Axios opined that Vallas is "the candidate most likely to court the police and firefighter vote".[99] Vallas received the endorsement of Chicago's Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) lodge, which serves as the city's police union.[100]

In addition to being endorsed by the Fraternal Order of Police, Vallas was also endorsed in the election's first round by International Union of Elevator Constructors Local 2[101] and the editorial boards of both the Chicago Tribune and The Gazette.[102][103] Also endorsing Vallas were Chicago aldermen Brian K. Hopkins[104] Anthony Napolitano,[105] Brendan Reilly,[106] and Tom Tunney.[107]

Vallas was often viewed as being either a conservative or politically moderate candidate,[108][109] especially when compared to other candidates in the election.[110] Vallas also received significant campaign donations from sources considered politically conservative and aligned with the Republican Party.[111][108][112] Vallas was criticized by opponents for holding perceived conservative political positions, in particular allegedly opposing abortion rights. Other candidates in the 2023 race pointed to a 2009 interview in which he declared himself "more of a Republican than a Democrat because, fundamentally, I oppose abortion" as well as stating that "If I were to run for office again, I would run as a Republican" and that he would "probably register as a Republican in the next primary".[113] Nonetheless, in the same interview Vallas had described himself as "personally pro-choice".[114] Vallas disputed the anti-abortion characterization and asserted that his words were taken out of context. Vallas pointed to past endorsements from the pro-choice groups Planned Parenthood and Personal PAC during his 2002 gubernatorial and 2014 lieutenant gubernatorial campaigns.[93][112][113][115]

By early February, polls showed Vallas to be among the front-runners.[116][117] Around the same time, Vallas received the endorsement of the editorial board of the Chicago Tribune.[102] Soon after, Vallas faced allegations that his permanent residence was actually in Palos Heights, Illinois rather than Chicago after an investigative report by WTTW-TV based upon reported tax filings. This raised questions regarding Vallas's legal eligibility to hold the office of mayor of Chicago. Vallas responded that he lived in Chicago, while his wife lived in Palos Heights to care for her elderly parents.[118] On February 23, the Chicago Tribune's news bureau released a report on an investigation of Vallas's Twitter account, showing that it had liked several tweets that "used racist language, supported controversial police tactics like 'stop-and-frisk' or insulted the mayor in personal terms".[119] Vallas denied liking the tweets and claimed that his account had been hacked.[120]

On February 28, 2023, Vallas won the plurality in the first round of the election, receiving 32.91% of the vote, causing a runoff election where he would face runner-up Brandon Johnson. Among the areas where Vallas saw his greatest levels of support was the city's downtown, as well as parts of the city’s northwest and southwest sides that had large working-class White populations.[8] Some analysts believe that Vallas benefited greatly from staking out a "tough-on-crime" stance amid widespread concerns among Chicagoans about crime.[8]



Four candidates eliminated in the first round endorsed Vallas in the runoff: businessman Willie Wilson,[121] Alderman Roderick Sawyer,[122] Alderman Sophia King,[123] and activist Ja'Mal Green.[124] In addition to the four incumbent aldermen who had endorsed Vallas ahead of the first round of the election, Vallas received the endorsements of many more incumbent aldermen (including the aforementioned King and Sawyer). A number of these came from several "pro-police" Hispanic ward aldermen.[125][126][127][128][122]

Vallas alongside Brandon Johnson at a runoff mayoral forum at Kenwood Academy, March 2023

Some individuals and unions that had endorsed Lightfoot in the first round endorsed Vallas in the runoff. These include the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers Chicago District Council,[129][130] Plumbers Local 130 (a United Association affiliate),[131][132] former congressman Bobby Rush,[133] Cook County Board of Review member and former alderman George Cardenas.[134] and aldermen Walter Burnett Jr.,[135][125] Michelle A. Harris,[126][105] and Emma Mitts.[126][136] Vallas was also endorsed by Alderman Raymond Lopez (a first-round Willie Wilson supporter who had briefly run for mayor himself),[127][137] Alderman David H. Moore (a first-round Sophia King supporter),[126][138] and the International Union of Operating Engineers Local 150 (which had endorsed García in the first round).[129][139]

Other unions, business associations, and organizations that endorsed Vallas in the runoff were International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Locals 9 and 134,[129] International Brotherhood of Teamsters JC25,[140] International Union of Operating Engineers Local 399,[140] Laborers' International Union of North America Chicago District Council,[141] the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce,[142] the Illinois Hotel and Lodging Association,[142] the Illinois Manufacturers' Association,[142] and the Armenian National Committee of America.[143] Other notable figures to endorse Vallas after he advanced to the runoff include former Illinois Secretary of State Jesse White, former president of the Illinois Senate Emil Jones,[126] and conservative hedge fund manager Ken Griffin.[144][145] Two-time mayoral candidate and former chair of the Illinois State Board of Education Gery Chico, who had worked alongside Vallas when they were leaders of the Chicago Public Schools, also endorsed him.[146]

Chicago Fraternal Order of Police union president John Catanzara stated in an interview with The New York Times that there would be “blood in the streets" if Brandon Johnson was elected. Vallas harshly criticized the remarks as "absolutely irresponsible" and said “they have no place in this campaign."[147]

Vallas accused Johnson of lacking "substance" and of lacking a significant political record.[148] Vallas also campaigned on lowering crime, while characterizing Johnson as wanting to "defund the police".[149]

Continuing the charge prominently led by Lightfoot and García in the first round of the election, Johnson characterized Vallas as a Republican masquerading as a Democrat. Johnson criticized Vallas for ties to Republican Party organizations and figures and to conservative causes. In the first runoff debate, Johnson remarked "Chicago cannot afford Republicans like Paul Vallas”, pointing to 2009 remarks in which Vallas had expressed opposition to abortion rights and declared himself "more of a Republican than a Democrat". In response to this line of criticism, Vallas continued to proclaim himself a "lifelong Democrat", citing his previous 2002 gubernatorial and 2014 lieutenant gubernatorial campaigns as a Democrat.[148][150] Johnson also attacked Vallas as having hurt Chicago Public Schools' finances during his tenure as CEO.[149]

Vallas significantly out-fundraised Johnson,[151] raising $18 million. Vallas's campaign spent almost $17 million, outspending Johnson by a ratio of nearly 2-to-1.[152]

After Johnson was projected to have defeated him, Vallas conceded.[153]

After the election, Vallas filed a lawsuit accusing Chimaobi Enyia (the former head of the Illinois Liquor Control Commission and brother of 2019 Chicago mayoral candidate Amara Enyia) of defrauding the campaign of $680,000. The lawsuit claimed that the campaign had given the money to Enyia for Black voter outreach efforts.[154]

Other activities


In 2020, Vallas served as an unpaid consultant to Chicago's Fraternal Order of Police police union during contract negotiations with the city of Chicago, playing a role in the negotiations.[155][156] The Union's head, John Catanzara, touted Vallas's presence at negotiation with assisting the police union's bargaining.[155]

Political stances

Vallas (far left) at a mayoral forum during the 2019 mayoral election in December 2018

During his 2002 gubernatorial campaign, Vallas opposed the concealed carry of firearms and was in favor of banning semi-automatic firearms.[157] He supported a plan by Mayor Daley to reconfigure O'Hare International Airport's runways and to add more runways to the airport. He also supported constructing a new airport in Chicago's southern suburbs. Vallas also opposed a proposed casino in Rosemont, Illinois, citing that gambling should only be permitted to advance economic development. He also opposed raising the state income tax, claiming it would be wrong amid an economic downturn.[158]

During his 2002 gubernatorial campaign and much of his political career, Vallas has positioned himself as supportive of abortion rights.[113][158] In a 2009 interview, Vallas said he opposed abortion but also declared himself to be "personally pro-choice".[114][159]

During his 2002 gubernatorial campaign, Vallas opposed using public subsidies to renovate Soldier Field (a stadium in Chicago). He also opposed the proposed renovation design and was against the possible selling of naming rights for the stadium.[158] During his 2023 mayoral campaign, Vallas stated that he believes it is too late to persuade the Chicago Bears football team to remain at Soldier Field amid plans by the Bears to build a new stadium in Arlington Heights, Illinois.[160] He also opposed a $2.2 billion renovation of the stadium floated by Mayor Lightfoot.[161]

In his 2023 mayoral campaign, Vallas campaigned as "tough-on-crime".[8]

Personal life


Vallas married his wife, Sharon Vallas, in 1984. They have three children, Gus, Mark, and Paul Jr.[36][162] In 2018, Vallas's son Mark died as a result of opioid abuse.[36][163]

In March 2022, another of Vallas's sons, Gus, who worked as a police officer for the San Antonio Police Department, was one of three officers involved in the fatal shooting of Kevin Johnson, a black man who was wanted on felony warrants and allegedly evading arrest on a bike.[164] Gus and the two other officers were placed on administrative duty during the investigation.[165] The news broke in February 2023 during that year's mayoral election. The Vallas campaign released a statement confirming Gus's involvement in the shooting, saying that the complete investigation found him to have not been "engaged in any violations of policy or procedure" and that he had been returned to "full duty".[166]

Electoral history

2002 Illinois gubernatorial Democratic primary[167]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Rod Blagojevich 457,197 36.50%
Democratic Paul Vallas 431,728 34.47%
Democratic Roland Burris 363,591 29.03%
Total votes 1,252,516 100.00%
2014 Illinois gubernatorial election[168]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bruce Rauner / Evelyn Sanguinetti 1,823,627 50.27%
Democratic Pat Quinn (incumbent) / Paul Vallas 1,681,343 46.35%
Libertarian Chad Grimm / Alex Cummings 121,534 3.35%
Write-in 1,186 0.03%
Total votes 3,627,690 100.00%
2019 Chicago mayoral election
Candidate General election[87] Runoff election[169]
Votes % Votes %
Lori Lightfoot 97,667 17.54 386,039 73.70
Toni Preckwinkle 89,343 16.04 137,765 26.30
William Daley 82,294 14.78
Willie Wilson 59,072 10.61
Susana Mendoza 50,373 9.05
Amara Enyia 44,589 8.00
Jerry Joyce 40,099 7.20
Gery Chico 34,521 6.20
Paul Vallas 30,236 5.43
Garry McCarthy 14,784 2.66
La Shawn K. Ford 5,606 1.01
Robert "Bob" Fioretti 4,302 0.77
John Kolzar 2,349 0.42
Neal Sales-Griffin 1,523 0.27
Write-ins 86 0.02
Total 556,844 100 523,804 100
2023 Chicago mayoral election
Candidate General election[170] Runoff election[171]
Votes % Votes %
Brandon Johnson 122,093 21.63 319,481 52.16
Paul Vallas 185,743 32.90 293,033 47.84
Lori Lightfoot (incumbent) 94,890 16.81
Chuy García 77,222 13.68
Willie Wilson 51,567 9.13
Ja'Mal Green 12,257 2.17
Kam Buckner 11,092 1.96
Sophia King 7,191 1.27
Roderick Sawyer 2,440 0.43
Write-ins 29 0.00
Total 564,524 100.00 612,514 100.00

Works authored

Educational offices
Preceded byas Superintendent of Chicago Public Schools CEO of Chicago Public Schools
Succeeded by
Preceded byas interim Chief Executive Officer School District of Philadelphia[172] Superintendent
as Chief Executive Officer
Succeeded byas Chief Executive Officer
Party political offices
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Illinois
Succeeded by


  1. ^ "Vallas, Johnson proceed to mayoral runoff as Lightfoot is edged out". WBBM. March 1, 2023. Retrieved March 1, 2023 – via
  2. ^ "Progressive Brandon Johnson wins Chicago mayor's race". Politico. April 4, 2023.
  3. ^ Korecki, Natasha (March 16, 2023). "Bernie Sanders backs Brandon Johnson in Chicago Mayor's race". NBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2023. Now, Johnson squares off against Vallas, once a perennial candidate, whose tough-on-crime mantra lifted him to secure the top spot in the first round of the mayoral contest.
  4. ^ Lydersen, Kari (March 3, 2023). "After a Stunning Election, the Future of Chicago Is Up for Grabs". In These Times. Retrieved November 12, 2023. Perennial candidate and quasi-Republican Paul Vallas will face off against progressive Cook County Commissioner Brandon Johnson on April 4.
  5. ^ Donnini, Zachary (February 28, 2023). "February 28th First Round Chicago Mayor Election Preview". Decision Desk HQ. Retrieved November 12, 2023. Lightfoot will be pushed hardest by four challengers: Congressman Jesus "Chuy" Garcia, Commissioner Brandon Johnson, businessman Willie Wilson, and (most importantly) perennial Democratic Politician Paul Vallas
  6. ^ "Paul Vallas". City Club of Chicago. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Who is Paul Vallas?". Chicago Tribune. January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  8. ^ a b c d Smith, Mitch (March 1, 2023). "A Shifting Mood on Crime Propelled Chicago's Leading Candidate for Mayor". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Mezzacappa, Dale (September 27, 2009). "The Vallas Effect". Education Next. 8 (2). Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  10. ^ a b "Schools Aren't Out of Budget Woods Yet". Chicago Tribune. August 20, 1995.
  11. ^ Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; More, Paul; de la Torre, Marissa; Murphy, James; Jagesic, Sanja (September 2011). "Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform: Summary of Key Finding" (PDF). Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  12. ^ Brownstein, Ronald (October 29, 1997). "Clinton Calls for End to 'Social Promotion' in Schools". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  13. ^ a b c d Daley, Jim (March 26, 2023). "Paul Vallas' Trail of School Privatization". Slate. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  14. ^ "How Did Chicago's Public Schools Get in Such a Huge Financial Hole?". Chicago. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  15. ^ Kening, Dan (June 8, 2001). "Michael Scott named Chicago school board president". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  16. ^ a b Lori, Olszewski; Banchero, Stephanie (July 10, 2002). "Vallas to take over Philadelphia schools". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  17. ^ Wilgoren, Jodi (June 7, 2001). "Chief Executive of Chicago Schools Resigns". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  18. ^ a b Woodall, Martha (July 11, 2002). "The Philadelphia Inquirer 11 Jul 2002, page Page B11". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  19. ^ a b c d Useem, Elizabeth (2009). "Big City Superintendent as Powerful CEO: Paul Vallas in Philadelphia". Peabody Journal of Education. 84 (3): 300–317. doi:10.1080/01619560902973480. ISSN 0161-956X. JSTOR 25594846. S2CID 145119140.
  20. ^ a b c d Tepfer, Daniel (June 29, 2013). "School's out for Vallas". Connecticut Post. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  21. ^ a b "Study Finds Academic Gains Not Superior Among Philadelphia Students Enrolled in Privately Run Public Schools". RAND. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  22. ^ "Before There Was Ackerman" (PDF). The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  23. ^ "Power: Reformer R.I.P." Philadelphia. August 29, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  24. ^ Keith B. Richburg (June 28, 2008). "Setback for Philadelphia Schools Plan". The Washington Post.
  25. ^ a b c Long, Ray; Pratt, Gregory (February 22, 2023). "Mayoral challenger Paul Vallas has promoted his schools resume, but blemishes garner scrutiny". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  26. ^ a b Greg Hinz (April 28, 2008). "Vallas interested in running for Illinois guv". Crain's Chicago Business.
  27. ^ a b David Mendell (April 28, 2008). "Vallas "open" to run for governor in 2010". Chicago Tribune.
  28. ^ Rosalind Rossi (April 28, 2008). "Former CPS CEO considering run for governor". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008.
  29. ^ a b Marin, Carol (February 4, 2009). "Vallas targets County Board run". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  30. ^ a b John Kass (June 11, 2009). "Kass: Vallas staying put in New Orleans". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009.
  31. ^ Multiple sources:
  32. ^ Thomas, Jacqueline Rabe (November 8, 2013). "Vallas to step down as leader of Bridgeport schools". The Connecticut Mirror.
  33. ^ Lambeck, Linda Conner; Lockhart, Brian (November 9, 2013). "Vallas to resign to run for Illinois lt. gov". NewsTimes. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  34. ^ a b c d e Rhodes, Dawn (January 29, 2018). "Chicago State ends contract with Paul Vallas, accusing him of using college for political boost". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  35. ^ a b c Karp, Sarah (April 7, 2017). "Chicago State University Hires Vallas As Chief Administrative Officer". WBEZ. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  36. ^ a b c Quig, A.D. (January 24, 2023). "Chicago mayoral candidate profile: Paul Vallas". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  37. ^ Carr, Sarah (February 20, 2010). "Haiti rebuilding effort draws on expertise of RSD Superintendent Paul Vallas". The Times-Picayune/The New Orleans Advocate. Retrieved December 23, 2022.
  38. ^ Chang, Cindy (October 4, 2010). "Recovery School District's Vallas aided post-quake reform in Haiti". The Times-Picayune/The New Orleans Advocate. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  39. ^ Nabong, Pat (January 18, 2019). "Paul Vallas Really Loves His Broom". Chicago. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  40. ^ "Actor Sean Penn says Vallas has 'everything we miss in politics today'". Chicago Sun-Times. February 5, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2022.
  41. ^ Penn, Sean (September 30, 2011). "Sean Penn Responds to Rolling Stone's Haiti Story". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  42. ^ Quig, A.D. (January 31, 2023). "Chicago mayoral candidate profile: Paul Vallas". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  43. ^ Bremner, Ryan. "About". National Education Support Network. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  44. ^ Bremner, Ryan. "Mr. Paul Vallas". National Education Support Network. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  45. ^ Howell, Cynthia (September 10, 2021). "Arkansas Education Board approves four new charter schools for Pulaski County and Fort Smith". Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  46. ^ Mills, Rick. "Re: Letter of Intent to Apply for an Open Enrollment Public Charter School" (PDF). Arkansas Division of Elementary & Secondary Education. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  47. ^ Howell, Cynthia (September 10, 2021). "Arkansas Education Board approves four new charter schools for Pulaski County and Fort Smith". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  48. ^ Vallas, Paul G. (March 11, 2021). "Letter of Intent to Apply for an Arkansas Public Charter School License" (PDF). Arkansas Department of Education Division of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  49. ^ "IL Governor - D Primary, March 19, 2002". Our Campaigns. December 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
  50. ^ Man, Anthony (March 26, 2002). "Poshard no longer an influetial voice in politics". Southern Illinoisan. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  51. ^ Binder, Steve (August 2, 2001). "Vallas: I'm ready for the top spot". Southern Illinoisan. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  52. ^ "The Tribune's endorsements". Chicago Tribune. March 19, 2002. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  53. ^ "For Governor". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. March 10, 2002 – via
  54. ^ Kennedy, Christopher G. (March 16, 2002). "Vallas' Leadership". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  55. ^ "Report: Ald. Brendan Reilly Considers Run for Danny Davis' Seat in Congress". WMAQ-TV. August 11, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  56. ^ Rosalind Rossi (April 28, 2008). "Former CPS CEO considering run for governor". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008.
  57. ^ Moser, Whet (November 8, 2013). "Paul Vallas Is With Quinn. But Why Do We Even Have a Lieutenant Governor?". Chicago. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  58. ^ "Quinn Picks Paul Vallas As Running Mate". Illinois Public Media. November 8, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  59. ^ "Quinn Picks Paul Vallas as Running Mate". WMAQ-TV. November 8, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  60. ^ Multiple sources:
  61. ^ Pratt, Gregory (February 8, 2023). "Former Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn endorses Garcia for mayor". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  62. ^ "Quinn endorsing Vallas". Politico. March 22, 2023. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
  63. ^ "The Mayoral Candidates Make a Final, Ethnic Push". Chicago. April 3, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  64. ^ "Former CPS CEO Paul Vallas Officially Files to Run for Mayor". April 2, 2018.
  65. ^ Kass, John (August 24, 2018). "The one thing Rahm Emanuel doesn't want: Paul Vallas in a runoff". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  66. ^ "Former CPS CEO Paul Vallas Launches Mayoral Campaign, Calls Emanuel 'Trump-Like'". WMAQ-TV. May 4, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  67. ^ "Vallas says he's 'seriously considering' race against Emanuel". Crain's Chicago Business. January 17, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  68. ^ Slevin, Peter (February 22, 2019). "In Chicago's Mayoral Race, the Establishment Leads the Outsiders". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  69. ^ a b Kass, John (September 21, 2018). "Paul Vallas tees off on Bill Daley and Gery Chico". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  70. ^ Spielman, Fran (March 14, 2019). "Chico joins his former CPS partner Vallas in endorsing Lightfoot". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  71. ^ Spielman, Fran (November 8, 2018). "Chico ad takes a bow for CPS tenure — but doesn't say he worked alongside Vallas". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  72. ^ "Gery Chico Gets Mayoral Endorsement From Paul Vallas". November 23, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  73. ^ a b Sepeda-Miller, Kiannah (January 6, 2019). "Fact-check: Mayoral candidate Paul Vallas claims CPS healthier under him". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  74. ^ Sepeda-Miller, Kiannah. "Vallas claims CPS healthier under his watch". PolitiFact. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  75. ^ "Reform, once avoided, now embraced in Chicago mayor's race". ABC News. Associated Press. February 16, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  76. ^ "List of Endorsements in the Race for Chicago Mayor". February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  77. ^ "Blackhawks' Wirtz is behind Vallas' fundraising breakaway in mayor's race". July 3, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  78. ^ Clevel, Chris (February 17, 2019). "Chicago Republican committeemen vote to support Paul Vallas for mayor". Chicago Republican Party. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  79. ^ a b Konkol, Mark (February 19, 2019). "Trump's Party Hopes To Influence Mayor Race By Endorsing Vallas". Chicago Patch. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  80. ^ Riopell, Mike (January 10, 2019). "Gov. Bruce Rauner: 'Probably Paul Vallas might make the best mayor' of Chicago". Chicago Tribune.
  81. ^ Hendrickson, Matthew (January 3, 2019). "How to opt out of those Paul Vallas campaign text messages". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  82. ^ "Final price tag for unsolicited texts from Vallas' mayoral campaign: $885K". The Daily Line. September 30, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  83. ^ a b Hendrickson, Matthew (January 16, 2019). "Paul Vallas calls lawsuit over mayoral campaign's text messages 'a dirty trick'". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  84. ^ "Klueh v. Paul Vallas for All Chi., Case No. 19-cv-00249 | Casetext Search + Citator". Casetext. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  85. ^ McClell, Edward (February 24, 2019). "Final Update: Chicago Mayoral Power Rankings 2019". Chicago. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  86. ^ Ailworth, Erin; Belkin, Douglas (February 24, 2019). "Chicago Set to Vote for Mayor in a Wide-Open Race". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  87. ^ a b "Tabulated Statement of the Returns and Proclamation of the Results of the Canvass of the Election Returns for the February 26, 2019 Municipal General Election Held in Each of the Precincts in All of the Wards in the City of Chicago" (PDF). Chicago Board of Elections. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  88. ^ Carlin, Jeff (March 13, 2019). "Exclusive: Paul Vallas Endorses Lori Lightfoot for Chicago Mayor". WGN Radio. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  89. ^ Sneed, Michael (May 28, 2022). "Paul Vallas to run for mayor, sources say". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  90. ^ "Paul Vallas Announces 2023 Run for Chicago Mayor". WMAQ-TV. June 1, 2022.
  91. ^ "Paul Vallas hires a political heavyweight to manage mayoral campaign". Crain's Chicago Business. September 1, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  92. ^ Blakely, Darrick (January 15, 2023). "Vallas Well-Armed for Chicago Mayor's Race with Ideas, Money, Experience - Center for Illinois Politics". Center for Illinois Politics. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  93. ^ a b Quig, A.D. (January 24, 2023). "Chicago mayoral candidate profile: Paul Vallas". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  94. ^ "Paul Vallas rubs shoulders with the far right". Chicago Reader. July 29, 2022.
  95. ^ "Chicago mayoral candidate Paul Vallas condemns Naperville-based group that called bakery drag show 'perverted' and Pritzker a 'groomer'". Chicago Tribune. August 2, 2022.
  96. ^ "Vallas speaks at event of group known for anti-LGBTQ+ views [Update]". Windy City Times. August 1, 2022. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  97. ^ @royalpratt (August 2, 2022). "Chicago mayoral candidate Paul Vallas voted in the Democratic primary last month" (Tweet). Retrieved February 16, 2023 – via Twitter.
  98. ^ McClelland, Edward Robert (January 4, 2023). "Mayoral Power Rankings 2023: January 2023 Update". Chicago. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  99. ^ Kaufmann, Justin (November 28, 2022). "The Chicago mayoral race is officially on". Axios. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
  100. ^ Pratt, Gregory (January 7, 2023). "Chicago police union endorses Paul Vallas for mayor". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  101. ^ "International Union of Elevator Constructors Local 2 Endorses Paul Vallas for Mayor". Chicago Defender. January 25, 2023. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  102. ^ a b "Editorial: For mayor, the Tribune Editorial Board endorses Paul Vallas". Chicago Tribune. February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  103. ^ Neveau, James (February 4, 2023). "An Endorsement Guide to the 2023 Chicago Mayoral Election". WMAQ-TV. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  104. ^ Laurence, Justin (February 3, 2023). "Vallas picks up another aldermanic endorsement". Chicago Business. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  105. ^ a b "Who's backing who in the race for mayor? We're tracking City Council member endorsements". Crain's Chicago Business. February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  106. ^ Mercado, Melody (February 13, 2023). "Downtown Ald. Brendan Reilly Endorses Paul Vallas For Mayor". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved February 13, 2023.
  107. ^ Neveau, James (February 1, 2023). "Ald. Tom Tunney Endorses Paul Vallas in Chicago Mayoral Race". WMAQ-TV. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  108. ^ a b Eng, Monica; Kaufmann, Justin (February 3, 2023). "Chicago business community holds out on mayoral race". Axios. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  109. ^ Kapos, Shia (February 7, 2023). "This ain't bean-bag, Mr. Vallas". Politico. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  110. ^ Byrnes, David (February 14, 2023). "Chicago mayoral race enters final stretch". Courthouse News. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  111. ^ Pratt, Gregory; Yin, Alice (February 13, 2023). "Mayoral candidate Paul Vallas insists he's a lifelong Democrat. But he's backed by conservative donors and the FOP". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  112. ^ a b Cherone, Heather (January 31, 2023). "Chicago's Elections are Nonpartisan, But Lori Lightfoot Is Working to Cast Paul Vallas as a Republican". WTTW. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
  113. ^ a b c Spielman, Fran (February 3, 2023). "Garcia, female supporters attack Vallas as a 'fake Democrat' who is an anti-abortion, pro-voucher threat to public school funding". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
  114. ^ a b Yin, Alice; Pratt, Gregory; Quig, A.D. (March 8, 2023). "At first debate of mayoral runoff, Johnson attacks Vallas' record as rival tries to stay above the fray". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  115. ^ Kapos, Shia (February 6, 2023). "This ain't bean-bag, Mr. Vallas". Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
  116. ^ Wall, Craig (February 3, 2023). "Paul Vallas under fire for Democratic credentials as candidates tout dueling endorsements". WLS-TV. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  117. ^ Asimow, Noah (February 14, 2023). "Paul Vallas Defends His City Residency And Stances On School Choice, Saying He'll Bring 'Crisis Management' To City Hall". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  118. ^ Cherone, Heather (February 9, 2023). "Vallas Faces Questions About Whether He Lives in Chicago as Officials Launch Probe of Tax Breaks". WTTW. Retrieved February 15, 2023.
  119. ^ "Paul Vallas' Twitter account liked offensive, racist posts. He denies doing it himself and denounces 'abhorrent' views". Chicago Tribune. February 23, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  120. ^ "Four days before mayoral election, Paul Vallas embroiled in controversy over Twitter 'likes'". WBBM-TV. March 24, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  121. ^ "Wilson endorses Vallas, cites concerns over tax increases, Johnson's statements on 'defunding' police". Chicago Sun-Times. March 8, 2023.
  122. ^ a b "Dueling endorsements in race for mayor". Chicago Sun-Times. March 6, 2023. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  123. ^ Gilmer, Marcus S. (March 28, 2023). "Ald. Sophia King endorses Vallas, who holds edge in new poll". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  124. ^ Spielman, Fran (March 15, 2023). "Former mayoral challenger Ja'Mal Green endorses Vallas in runoff; Kwame Raoul first statewide official to back Johnson". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  125. ^ a b Mercado, Melody; Dumke, Mick. "Ald. Walter Burnett Endorses Paul Vallas In Mayoral Runoff". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  126. ^ a b c d e Spielman, Fran (March 16, 2023). "U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders endorses Johnson in April 4 mayoral runoff". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 16, 2023.
  127. ^ a b Struett, David (March 12, 2023). "Bishop Trotter endorses Brandon Johnson: 'He has a plan. And it's fresh'". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  128. ^ Multiple sources:
  129. ^ a b c Kapos, Shia (March 13, 2023). "Lightfoot, the Daleys and the Irish mystique". Politico. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  130. ^ Yin, Alice (November 14, 2022). "Brandon Johnson nabs another union endorsement for Chicago mayor". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  131. ^ "Chicago Mayoral Election Poll Shows Tight Race With Vallas Ahead of Johnson". WMAQ-TV. March 12, 2023. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  132. ^ Woelfel, Mariah (November 30, 2022). "As Mayor Lori Lightfoot runs again, a look at who's backing her and who's looking elsewhere". WBEZ. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  133. ^ Myers, Quinn (March 21, 2023). "Former Rep. Bobby Rush Endorses Paul Vallas In Chicago's Mayor Race". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  134. ^ Two sources:
  135. ^ Neveau, James (December 14, 2022). "An Endorsement Guide to the 2023 Chicago Municipal Elections".
  136. ^ Nitkin, Alex; Hegarty, Erin (June 9, 2022). "Lightfoot's tightest City Council allies rally around her nascent reelection campaign". The Daily Line. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  137. ^ Spielman, Fran (January 4, 2023). "Lopez endorses Willie Wilson for mayor". Chicago Sun Times.
  138. ^ Reed, Atavia (February 13, 2023). "South Side Ald. David Moore Endorses Colleague Ald. Sophia King For Mayor". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved February 13, 2023.
  139. ^ "Operating Engineers Local 150 endorsed Congressman Chuy Garcia for mayor --- Here's why". WFLD. November 30, 2022. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  140. ^ a b Kapos, Shia (March 16, 2023). "Chicago City Council fiercely debates migrants". Politico. Retrieved March 16, 2023.
  141. ^ Kapos, Shia (March 17, 2023). "Garcia backing Johnson for Chicago mayor". Politico. Retrieved March 17, 2023.
  142. ^ a b c "Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce, other influential business groups back Vallas for mayor". Chicago Business. March 20, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  143. ^ "ANCA endorses Paul Vallas for Chicago Mayor". The Armenian Weekly. March 10, 2023. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  144. ^ "Former Sec. of State Jesse White backs Paul Vallas for Chicago mayor". WGN-TV. March 3, 2023. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  145. ^ "'Anarchy in Chicago': Ken Griffin, lambasting state of city, touts Vallas for mayor". Crain Chicago Business. March 7, 2023. Retrieved March 7, 2023.
  146. ^ Spielman, Fran (March 3, 2023). "'Paul and Gery Show' reunited for mayoral runoff as Chico endorses Vallas". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  147. ^ "Chicago Police Union Leader Warns of Resignations, 'Blood in the Streets' if Brandon Johnson is Elected Mayor". WMAQ-TV. March 28, 2023. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  148. ^ a b Myers, Quinn (March 9, 2023). "Brandon Johnson Goes On Offensive In 1st Runoff Debate, Blasts Paul Vallas Over Property Taxes, Republican Ties". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  149. ^ a b Skelley, Geoffrey (April 3, 2023). "What You Need To Know About The Wisconsin And Chicago Elections". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
  150. ^ Yin, Alice; Pratt, Gregory; Quig, A.D. (March 8, 2023). "At first debate of mayoral runoff, Johnson attacks Vallas' record as rival tries to stay above the fray". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  151. ^ Hinz, Greg (March 30, 2023). "Where Vallas and Johnson are collecting the big money". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  152. ^ Quig, A.D.; Pratt, Gregory (April 19, 2023). "Paul Vallas outspent Brandon Johnson nearly 2-to-1 in losing mayoral bid". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  153. ^ Guarino, Mark (April 5, 2023). "Chicago mayoral race: Brandon Johnson wins runoff, Paul Vallas concedes". WLS-TV. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  154. ^ Schuba, Tom; Spielman, Fran (April 21, 2023). "Former Chicago mayor candidate Paul Vallas sues consultant Chimaobi Enyia, who allegedly defrauded campaign out of $680K". WLS-TV. Sun-Times Media Wire. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  155. ^ a b Speilman, Fran (October 16, 2020). "Paul Vallas shows up at police contract talks as a consultant to the Fraternal Order of Police". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
  156. ^ Cherone, Heather (June 1, 2022). "Former CPS CEO Paul Vallas Announces Run for Mayor, Says Chicago Faces a 'Crisis of Leadership'". WTTW. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  157. ^ Pearson, Rick; Jane, James (February 26, 2002). "VALLAS: Downstate key primary battleground". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  158. ^ a b c Krol, Eric (July 31, 2001). "Vallas is latest Democrat to join governor's race". The Daily Herald. Retrieved March 8, 2023 – via
  159. ^ Martinez, Marissa (February 28, 2023). "The 5 oddest moments as Chicagoans vote for mayor". Politico. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  160. ^ Neveau, James; Marzano, Peter (February 24, 2023). "How the Chicago mayoral election could impact Soldier Field". NBC Sports. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  161. ^ Hughes, Steven (August 2, 2022). "Chicago Mayoral Candidate Vallas upset about '$2.2 billion' cost of renovating Soldier Field". Chicago City Wire. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  162. ^ "Who is Paul Vallas?". HITC. March 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  163. ^ McClelland, Edward Robert (January 20, 2023). "Grading the Mayoral Debate". Chicago. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  164. ^ Pratt, Gregory (February 8, 2023). "Paul Vallas campaign defends his son, 1 of 3 police officers who fatally shot a man in Texas last year". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  165. ^ Halligan, Shannon; Ong, Eli (February 9, 2023). "Report: Paul Vallas' son 1 of 3 police officers who fatally shot a man in Texas last year". WGN-TV. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  166. ^ Myers, Quinn (February 9, 2023). "Paul Vallas's Son Was 1 Of 3 San Antonio Officers Who Shot Black Man Running From Police In 2022". Block Club Chicago. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  167. ^ "Ballots Cast". Illinois State Board of Elections. March 19, 2002. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  168. ^ "November 4, 2014 General election Official results" (PDF). Illinois Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 28, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  169. ^ "2019 Municipal Runoffs - 4/2/19". Chicago Board of Elections. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  170. ^ "Tabulated Statement of the Returns and Proclamation of the Results of the Canvass of the Election Returns for the February 28, 2023 Municipal General and Alderperson Elections Held in Each of the Precincts in all the Wards in the City of Chicago" (PDF). Board of Election Commissioners for the City of Chicago. March 15, 2023. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2023. Retrieved April 13, 2023.
  171. ^ "Tabulated Statement of the Returns and Proclamation of the Results of the Canvass of the Election Returns for the Municipal Runoff Election Held in Each of the Precincts in all the Wards in the City of Chicago and for the Supplementary Alderperson Elections Held in Each of the Precincts in Wards 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 21, 24, 29, 30, 36, 43, 45, 46, and 48 in the City of Chicago on April 4, 2023" (PDF). Board of Election Commissioners for the City of Chicago. March 15, 2023. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 26, 2023. Retrieved April 26, 2023.
  172. ^ William W. Cutler III. "Public Education: The School District of Philadelphia". The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Retrieved September 20, 2023.