Near-close back unrounded vowel
The near-close back unrounded vowel or near-high back unrounded vowel, is a type of a vowel sound, used in a few spoken languages. Acoustically it is a near-close back-central unrounded vowel. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound as ⟨ɯ̞⟩ (lowered [ɯ]) or as ⟨ɤ̝⟩ (raised [ɤ]).
|Near-close back unrounded vowel|
By analogy to [ʊ], this vowel can be transcribed as a mid-centralized close back unrounded vowel [ɯ] (ɯ̽), a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ɯ̞̈⟩ (lowered and centralized [ɯ]). However, acoustic analysis of cardinal vowels as produced by Daniel Jones and John C. Wells has shown that basically all cardinal back unrounded vowels but the open [ɑ] (so not just [ɯ] but also [ɤ] and [ʌ]) are near-back (or back-central) in their articulation, so that there may be no substantial difference between a near-close back unrounded vowel and its near-back counterpart. In his Accents of English, John C. Wells transcribes this vowel with a non-IPA symbol ⟨ω⟩.
Theoretically it can also be represented in the IPA as ⟨ʊ̜⟩ (less rounded [ʊ]), but because [ʊ] is defined by the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association as rounded (rather than unspecified for rounding as [ə] and [ɐ]), the symbol ⟨ʊ̜⟩ can also signify a weakly rounded [ʊ], rather than a fully unrounded vowel that is described in this article.
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
- Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|English||African-American||hook||[hɯ̞k]||'hook'||Possible realization of /ʊ/.|
|California||Often pronounced with spread lips. Corresponds to /ʊ/ in other accents. See English phonology|
|Tidewater||May be rounded [ʊ] instead.|
|Cardiff||[ɯ̞k]||Also described as close-mid central [ɘ ~ ɵ].|
|New Zealand||treacle||[ˈtɹ̝̊iːkɯ̞]||'treacle'||Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid. It corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Some Philadelphia speakers||plus||[pɫ̥ɯ̞s]||'plus'||Used particularly by male speakers; can be lower [ʌ̝ ~ ʌ] instead. It corresponds to [ʌ] in other accents. See English phonology|
|South African||pill||[pʰɯ̞ɫ]||'pill'||Possible allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/. Also described as close-mid [ɤ]. See South African English phonology|
|Irish||Ulster||ag gail||[ə ˈɡɯ̞lˠ]||'boiling'||Allophone of /ɪ/. See Irish phonology|
|Korean||어른/eoreun||[ə̝ːɾɯ̞n]||'seniors'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩. See Korean phonology|
|Portuguese||European||pegar||[pɯ̞ˈɣäɾ]||'to hold'||Typically transcibred in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩ or ⟨ə⟩. Appears only in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology|
|Turkish||Standard||sığ||[sɯ̞ː]||'shallow'||Also described as close back [ɯ] and close central [ɨ]. See Turkish phonology|
|Vietnamese||Hanoi||từ||[t̻ɯ̞˧˨]||'word'||Common allophone of /ɯ/. See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yine||[tɯ̞wɯ̞]||'salt'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩.|
- While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
- Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
- International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 180.
- Wells (1982), p. 557.
- Ladefoged (1999), pp. 42–43.
- Wells (1982), p. 536.
- Wells (1982), p. 386.
- Collins & Mees (1990), pp. 92, 94.
- "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
- Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
- Gordon (2004), p. 290.
- Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
- Wells (1982), p. 617.
- Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
- Lee (1999), p. 121.
- Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
- Kılıç & Öğüt (2004)
- Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
- Kirby (2011), p. 384.
- Urquía Sebastián & Marlett (2008), p. 366.
- Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
- Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014
- Gordon, Matthew J. (2004), "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 282–299, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
- International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Kirby, James P. (2011), "Vietnamese (Hanoi Vietnamese)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (3): 381–392, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000181
- Ladefoged, Peter (1999), "American English", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 41–44
- Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Urquía Sebastián, Rittma; Marlett, Stephen A. (2008), "Yine", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (3): 365–369, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003356
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128540-2 , 0-52128541-0 .
- Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7