Crimean Tatar alphabet

Crimean Tatar is written in both Latin, dominant on the internet, and Cyrillic dominant in printed productions. Historically, the Arabic script was also used.

HistoryEdit

Arabic scriptEdit

 
An example of Crimean Tatar Arabic script. (Alexander Schlichter speaking during the celebration of the "five years of the liberation of Crimea", 1924)

Crimean Tatars used the Arabic script from 16th century to 1928 when it was replaced with the Latin alphabet based on Yañalif. The Crimean variant contained a couple of modified Arabic letters.

Isolated Final Medial Initial Name Modern
Latin
elif (елиф) a, â
hemze (хемзе) -
be (бе) b, p (word-finally)
pe (пе) p
te (те) t
se (се) s
cim (джим) c
çim (чим) ç
ha (ха) -
hı (хы) h
dal (дал) d
zel (зел) z
re (ре) r
ze (зе) z
je (же) j
sin (син) s
şin (шин) ş
sad (сад) s
ﺿ dad (дад) d, z
tı (ты) t
zı (зы) z
ayn (айн) -
ğayn (гъайн) ğ
fe (фе) f
qaf (къаф) q
kef
(kef-i arabiy) (кеф)
(кеф-и арабий)
k (g, ñ)1
gef
(kef-i farsiy) (геф)
(кеф-и фарсий)
g
nef
(kef-i nuniy, sağır kef) (неф)
(кеф-и нуний, сагъыр кеф)
ñ
lâm (лям) l
mim (мим) m
nun (нун) n
vav (вав) v, o, ö, u, ü
he (хе) -, e, a
lâm-elif (лям-елиф) la, lâ
ye (йе) y, ı, i

1 — The letter (kef) was often used in place of and .

Latin alphabetEdit

 
An example of Crimean Tatar Latin alphabet of 1920s. In modern orthography: «KÖYLİ VE SU ANASI: Bir köyli baltasını özenge tüşürgen, su kenarında oturub qayğısından ağlamağa başlağan edi. Su anası bunı işitdi, köylini acidi ve sudan altın bir balta çıkarıb „bu seniñmi?“ deb soradı.» In Cyrillic: «КЁЙЛИ ВЕ СУ АНАСЫ: Бир кёйли балтасыны озенге тюшюрген, су кенарында отуруб къайгъысындан агъламагъа башлагъан эди. Су анасы буны ишитди, кёйлини аджиди ве судан алтын бир балта чыкарыб „бу сенинъми?“ деб сорады.»

In 1928, during latinisation in the Soviet Union the Crimean Tatar Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin alphabet based on the Yañalif script. This alphabet contained a number of differences from the modern variant. Particularly, in letters Ь ь, Ƣ ƣ, Ꞑ ꞑ, Ɵ ɵ, X x, Ƶ ƶ, I i instead of modern  â, Ğ ğ, I ı, İ i, Ñ ñ, Ö ö, and Ü ü.

Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997 Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997 Alphabet of 1928 Alphabet of 1997
A a A a Ь ь I ı R r R r
B ʙ B b K k K k S s S s
C c Ç ç Q q Q q Ş ş Ş ş
Ç ç C c Ƣ ƣ Ğ ğ T t T t
D d D d L l L l U u U u
E e E e M m M m Y y Ü ü
F f F f N n N n V v V v
G g G g Ꞑ ꞑ Ñ ñ X x H h
H h H h O o O o Z z Z z
I i İ i Ɵ ɵ Ö ö Ƶ ƶ J j
J j Y y P p P p

In DobrujaEdit

In 1956 was in Romania this alphabet used by the Tatars in Romania. Which was also learned in school.[1] The alphabet:[2]
A a, Á á, B b, Č č, D d, E e, F f, G g, Ğ ğ, H h, I i, Í í, Î î, J j, K k, L l, M m, N n, Ñ ñ, O o, Ó ó, P p, R r, S s, Ș ș, T t, Ț ț, U u, Ú ú, V v, W w, Y y, Z z.

Today they use a different alphabet which includes Ĭ ĭ and W w letters, Ğ ğ and Q q are actually not found. But they try to use the letters Ğ ğ and Q q.[3]

The alphabet which is used now:
A a, B b, С c, Ç ç, D d, E e, F f, G g, (Ğ ğ), H h, I ı, İ i, Ĭ ĭ, J j, K k, (Q q), L l, M m, N n, Ñ ñ, O o, Ö ö, P p, R r, S s, Ş ş, T t, U u, Ü ü, V v, W w, Y y, Z z.[4]

  • Sometimes they use Á á, Î î, Í í, Ó ó, Ș ș, Ú ú. The reason can be the alphabet from 1956.[5]

Modern alphabetsEdit

CyrillicEdit

 
"Welcome to Crimea" (Qırımğa hoş keldiñiz!) written in Crimean Tatar Cyrillic, airport bus, Simferopol International Airport

Cyrillic for Crimean Tatar was introduced in 1938 as part of Cyrillization of languages in Soviet Union. It is based on Russian alphabet with no special letters. From 1938 to 1990s, that was the only alphabet used for Crimean Tatar.

А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ* Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ* Л л М м
Н н Нъ нъ* О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Дж дж* Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

*Гъ (ğ), къ (q), нъ (ñ) and дж (c) are separate letters of the alphabet (digraphs).

LatinEdit

 
Crimean Tatar Latin script on the table in Bakhchisaray.

Modern Latin alphabet for Crimean Tatar was introduced in 1990s. It is based on Turkish alphabet with three special letters — Q, Ñ, Â. Its official use in Crimea was accepted in 1997 by Crimean Parliament. In 2021 it was approved by the government of Ukraine, to be adopted in education by September 2025.[6]

A a  â* B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f
G g Ğ ğ H h I ı İ i (Ĭ ĭ)¹ J j K k L l
M m N n Ñ ñ O o Ö ö P p Q q R r
S s Ş ş T t U u Ü ü V v (W w)¹ Y y Z z

*Ââ is not recognized as separate letter. It is used to show softness of a consonant followed by Aa.

1. Crimean Tatars in Dobruja use also Ĭĭ and Ww letters. Ĭ ĭ letter is for [ɪ] and the W w letter is for [w] sound. Crimean Tatars in Crimea use the İ i letter for two sounds [ɪ] and [i], the letter V v is also two sounds [w] and [v], but in Dobrudja has every letter one sound, İ i is [i] and V v is [v].

Cyrillic to Latin transliterationEdit

Cyrillic Latin Notes
А а A a
Б б B b
В в V v
Г г G g
Гъ гъ Ğ ğ
Д д D d
Е е E e following a consonant
Ye ye word-initially, following a vowel or ь
Ё ё Ö ö following a consonant
Yö yö word-initially in "soft" words
Yo yo word-initially in "hard" words; following a vowel, ь or ъ
Ж ж J j
З з Z z
И и İ i
Й й Y y
К к K k
Къ къ Q q
Л л L l
М м M m
Н н N n
Нъ нъ Ñ ñ
О о Ö ö if о is the first letter in a "soft" word
O o in other cases
П п P p
Р р R r
С с S s
Т т T t
У у Ü ü if у is the first letter in a "soft" word
U u in other cases
Ф ф F f
Х х H h
Ц ц Ts ts
Ч ч Ç ç
Дж дж C c
Ш ш Ş ş
Щ щ Şç şç
ъ is not a separate letter in Cyrillic
Ы ы I ı
ь no special signs for softness
Э э E e
Ю ю Ü ü following a consonant
Yü yü word-initially, following a vowel or ь in "soft" words
Yu yu word-initially, following a vowel or ь in "hard" words
Я я Â â following a consonant
Ya ya word-initially, following a vowel or ь

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ О. В. Бекирова (2017). "Литература крымских татар в румынской эмиграции: история становления и развития". Ученые записки Крымского федерального университета. pp. 3–16.
  2. ^ Nilgün İsmail (2014). Romanian Tatar language communicationin the multicultural space. Материалы международной конференции «Актуальные проблемы современного монголоведения и алтаистики». Элиста. pp. 41–53. ISBN 978-5-91458-136-5 Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN..
  3. ^ "Sinan Uyğur DOBRUCA TATAR TÜRKLERİNDE ABECE VE YAZIM SORUNU" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-04-20. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
  4. ^ Kerim A., Kerim L. Tatarca Türkçe Romence sözlük. – Bükreş : Kriterion, 1996.
  5. ^ "Sózlík, Tatarşa-Kazakşa - Taner Murat".
  6. ^ "Cabinet approves Crimean Tatar alphabet based on Latin letters". Ukrinform. 2021-09-24. Archived from the original on 2021-09-22. Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  • Кай И.С. Руководство для обучения крымско-татарскому языку по новому алфавиту — Симферополь, 1928.
  • Alem-i-Medeniye