Munjong of Goryeo

Munjong of Goryeo (29 December 1019 – 2 September 1083) was the 11th monarch of the Goryeo Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1046 to 1083.

Munjong of Goryeo
고려 문종
高麗 文宗
Wang Hwi (왕휘)
Prince Nakrang
(낙랑군, 樂浪君; lit.'Lord of Nakrang')
Reign1022–1046
Coronation1022
King of Goryeo
Reign1046–1083
Coronation1046
Junggwang Hall, Gaegyeong, Goryeo
PredecessorJeongjong of Goryeo
SuccessorSunjong of Goryeo
BornWang Hwi
29 December 1019
Anbok Palace, Gaegyeong, Kingdom of Goryeo
Died2 September 1083 (aged 63)
Junggwang Hall, Gaegyeong, Kingdom of Goryeo
Burial
Gyeongneung tomb
Queen ConsortQueen Inpyeong
(before 1047)
ConsortPrincess Suryeong
(before 1082)

(m. 1049⁠–⁠1083)
Issue
Posthumous name
King Gangjeong Myeongdae Jangseong Inhyo the Great
강정명대장성인효대왕
(剛定明大章聖仁孝大王)
Temple name
Munjong (문종, 文宗)
HouseHouse of Wang
FatherHyeonjong of Goryeo
MotherQueen Wonhye
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationMunjong
McCune–ReischauerMunjong
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationWang Hwi
McCune–ReischauerWang H'wi
Courtesy name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationChogyu
McCune–ReischauerCh'okyu
Posthumous name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationInhyo Daewang
McCune–ReischauerInh'yo Taewang

King Munjong was born in 1019, and reigned from 1046 until his death in 1083. During his reign, the central government of Goryeo gained complete authority and power over local lords. Munjong, and later Kings, emphasized the importance of civilian leadership over the military. Munjong expanded Korea's borders northward to the Yalu and Tumen Rivers.

Munjong's fourth son, Uicheon (born 1055), became a Buddhist priest who founded the Cheontae as an independent school of Buddhism.

FamilyEdit

  • Father: Hyeonjong of Goryeo (고려 현종)
  • Mother: Queen Wonhye (원혜왕후)
    • Grandfather: Gim Eun-bu (김은부)
    • Grandmother: Grand Lady of Ansan County of the Incheon Yi clan (안산군대부인 이씨)
  • Consorts and their Respective issue(s):
  1. Queen Inpyeong of the Ansan Gim clan (인평왕후 김씨); half younger sister – No issue.
  2. Queen Inye of the Incheon Yi clan (인예왕후 이씨; d. 1092)
    1. Crown Prince Wang Hun (태자 왕훈)
    2. Wang Un, Duke Gukwon (왕운 국원공)
    3. Wang Ong, Duke Gyerim (왕옹 계림공)
    4. Wang Hu (왕후)
    5. Wang Su, Duke Sangan (왕수 상안공)[1]
    6. Wang Taeng (왕탱)
    7. Wang Bi, Marquess Geumgwan (왕비 금관후)[2]
    8. Wang Eum, Marquess Byeonhan (왕음 변한후)[3]
    9. Wang Chim, Marquess Nakrang (왕침 낙랑후)
    10. Wang Gyeong (왕경)
    11. Princess Jeokgyeong (적경궁주)
    12. Princess Boryeong (보령궁주)
    13. Unborn daughter[4]
    14. Unborn daughter[4]
  3. Worthy Consort Ingyeong of the Incheon Yi clan (인경현비 이씨)
    1. Wang Do, Duke Joseon (왕도 조선공)
    2. Wang Su, Duke Buyeo (왕수 부여공)
    3. Wang Yu, Duke Jinhan (왕유 진한공)
  4. Worthy Consort Injeol of the Incheon Yi clan (인절현비 이씨; d. 1082)
    1. Unnamed daughter, died early[4]
    2. Unnamed daughter, died early[4]
  5. Virtuous Consort Inmok of the Gyeongju Gim clan (인목덕비 김씨; d. 1094)
    1. Unnamed daughter, died early[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ In 1071 (25th years reign of his father), he became "Marquess Pyeongyang" (평양후, 平壤侯) and received "1,000 sik-eup" (식읍 1,000호). Two years later, all of Munjong's consorts and princes were came to Wang Su's award ceremony that decorated very royal and watched a Chaekbongrye (책봉례) together. He also honoured as "Marquess Sangan" (상안후, 常安侯) and became a Susado (수사도, 守司徒) in 1086 (3rd years reign of his second older brother) along with received "2,000 sik-eup" (식읍 2,000호). He later became "Duke Sangan" (상안공, 常安公) and Sutaebo (수태보, 守台輔) in 1094, but eventually died a year later during the early reign of King Heonjong, one of his nephew and then received name Yeongnyang (영량, 英良; "Excellent and Kind-hearted") as his Posthumous name.[1][2]
  2. ^ In 1077 (31st years reign of his father), he became "Marquess Geumgwan" (금관후, 金官侯) and received "1,000 sik-eup" (식읍 1,000호), then appointed as a Susado (수사도, 守司徒) in 1086 (3rd years reign of his second older brother) along with received "2,000 sik-eup" (식읍 2,000호), which he involved in the Duke Buyeo and Princess Jeokgyeong's case for having an incest marriage and asked the king to stop agreeing the marriage in the same year. He also became Sutaewi gyeom Jungseoryeong (수태위 겸 중서령, 守太尉 兼 中書令) in 1092 along with received "3,000 sik-eup" (식읍 3,000호) and "500 sik-sil" (식실 500호). However, Wang Bi died just 8 days after this and received name Jangheon (장헌, 莊憲; "Solemn and Promulgate") as his Posthumous name.[3][4][5]
  3. ^ In 1077 (31st years reign of his father), he became "Marquess Byeonhan" (변한후, 卞韓侯) and received "800 sik-eup" (800호 식읍), then appointed as a Geomgyosangseoryeong Susado (검교상서령 수사도, 檢校尙書令 守司徒) in 1086 (3rd years reign of his second older brother) along with received "2,000 sik-eup" (식읍 2,000호). In the same year too, Wang Eum, along with Marquess Geumgwan, Duke Jinhan, and others were involved in the Duke Buyeo and Princess Jeokgyeong's case for having an incest marriage and said it was unfair, even asked the king to stop agreeing this, but the king did not listen it and still bestowed the marriage. Not long after this, Wang Eum died and name Jangsun (장순, 章順; "Manifesting and Serene") was given as his Posthumous name. Following to Buddhism tradition, since Wang Eum has no any descendants, so his body couldn't buried, but was believed to powdered and sprinkled on the mountain stream.[6][7]
  4. ^ a b c d e "문종 소생 공주". Goryeosa (in Korean). Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  • Eckert, Lee, Lew, Robinson and Wagner, Korea Old and New: A History, Harvard University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-9627713-0-9
Munjong of Goryeo
Born: 29 December 1019 Died: 2 September 1083
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Goryeo
1046–1083
Succeeded by