Miyamoto Musashi (宮本 武蔵), born Shinmen Takezō (新免 武蔵, c. 1584 – 13 June 1645),[1] also known as Miyamoto Bennosuke and by his Buddhist name, Niten Dōraku,[2] was a Japanese swordsman, strategist, artist, and writer who became renowned through stories of his unique double-bladed swordsmanship and undefeated record in his 62 duels (next is 33 by Itō Ittōsai). Musashi is considered a kensei (sword saint) of Japan.[3] He was the founder of the Niten Ichi-ryū, or Nito Ichi-ryū, style of swordsmanship, and in his final years authored The Book of Five Rings (五輪の書, Go Rin No Sho) and Dokkōdō (獨行道, The Path of Aloneness).

Miyamoto Musashi
Contemporaneous portrait of Miyamoto Musashi (Edo period)
BornShinmen Bennosuke
c. 1584
Harima Province or Mimasaka Province, Japan
Died13 June 1645(1645-06-13) (aged 60–61)
Higo Province, Japan
Native name宮本武蔵
Other namesNiten Dōraku; Shinmen Musashi no Kami Fujiwara no Harunobu
StyleHyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū Kenjutsu (二天一流), Enmei-ryu (圓明流), (二天流)
ChildrenMikinosuke (adopted)
Kurōtarō (adopted)
Iori (adopted)
Yoemon (adopted)
Notable studentsTakemura Yoemon; Terao Magonojō; Terao Motomenosuke; Furuhashi Sōzaemon
Japanese name
Kanji宮本 武蔵

Both documents were given to Terao Magonojō, the most important of Musashi's students, seven days before Musashi's death. The Book of Five Rings deals primarily with the character of his Niten Ichi-ryū school in a concrete sense, i.e., his own practical martial art and its generic significance; The Path of Aloneness, on the other hand, deals with the ideas that lie behind it, as well as his life's philosophy in a few short aphoristic sentences.

It is believed that Musashi was a friend of a Tokugawa shogunate general named Mizuno Katsunari and fought together with him in the Battle of Sekigahara, Siege of Osaka, and Shimabara Rebellion as part of the Tokugawa army.

The Miyamoto Musashi Budokan training center, located in Ōhara-chō (Mimasaka), Okayama prefecture, Japan was erected to honor his name and legend.



The details of Miyamoto Musashi's early life are difficult to verify. Musashi himself simply states in The Book of Five Rings that he was born in Harima Province.[4] Niten Ki (an early biography of Musashi) supports the assertion that Musashi was born in 1584: "[He] was born in Banshū, in Tenshō 12 [1584], the Year of the Monkey."[5] The historian Kamiko Tadashi, commenting on Musashi's text, notes: "Munisai was Musashi's father ... he lived in Miyamoto village, in the Yoshino district [of Mimasaka Province]. Musashi was most probably born here."[6]

Musashi gives his full name and title in The Book of Five Rings as Shinmen Musashi-no-Kami Fujiwara no Harunobu (新免武蔵守藤原玄信).[7] His father, Shinmen Munisai (新免無二斎) was an accomplished martial artist and master of the sword and jutte (also jitte).[6] Munisai, in turn, was the son of Hirata Shōgen (平田将監), a vassal of Shinmen Iga no Kami, the lord of Takayama Castle in the Yoshino district of Mimasaka Province.[8] Hirata was relied upon by Lord Shinmen and so was allowed to use the Shinmen name. As for "Musashi", Musashi no Kami was a court title, making him the nominal governor of Musashi Province. "Fujiwara" was the lineage from which Musashi claimed descent.[9]

Musashi's eczema developed in his infancy, and this adversely affected his appearance.[10] Another story claims that he never bathed himself because he did not want to be surprised unarmed.[11]

According to Go Rin No Sho, Musashi testified that his first duel occurred when he was still 13 years old, against a swordsman named Arima Kihei who practiced Kashima Shintō-ryū martial arts that were created by Tsukahara Bokuden; Musashi was victorious. The second duel happened when Musashi was 16 years old, when he won another victory against a swordsman named Tadashima Akiyama, a native of Tajima Province. His third duel came when he was aged 21, in Kyoto, where he defeated several students of a famous sword fighting school.[citation needed]

Travels 1599-1613


In 1599, Musashi left his village, apparently at the age of 15 (according to the Tosakushi, "The Registry of the Sakushu Region", although the Tanji Hokin Hikki says he was 16 years old in 1599, which agrees time-wise with the age reported in Musashi's first duel).[12] His family possessions such as furniture, weapons, genealogy, and other records were left with his sister and her husband, Hirao Yoemon. He spent his time traveling and engaging in duels.

In 1600, Musashi is said to have participated in the Battle of Sekigahara. For a long time, the prevailing opinion has been that Musashi participated in the Sekigahara battle on the Western Army side due to the fact that Shinmen clan was longtime vassal to the Ukita clan. However, recent research by modern Japanese historians such as Masahide Fukuda and Watanabe Daimon about Musashi has opined that Musashi and his father, Shinmen Munisai, actually sided with The Eastern army during the war, based on the historical records that Munisai no longer served the Ukita clan, and the clan records of Kuroda clan, ally of Tokugawa Ieyasu during the war, had recorded the name of Shinmen Munisai among their vassals who participated in the war.[13][14] Daimon, who quoted the "Matsui clan Document", has opined that the notion that Musashi fought on the losing side of Western Army, both in Sekigahara and in Osaka siege 14 years later, were only based on legendary romanticism about Musashi being a ronin. While the primary history records indicated that Musashi always fought on the side of Tokugawa, who emerged victorious in both conflicts.[15] The main issue debated, was if Musashi fought in the Sekigahara battle with the Eastern Army main forces, under Tokugawa, or did he fought in Ishigakibaru of western province theater under the Eastern Army commander Kuroda Yoshitaka.[16] Daimon more leaned to the opinion that Musashi fought in Ishigakibaru instead of Sekigahara, by historical record of "The Transmission of Military Art to Master Bushu Genshin"[13] Meanwhile, Fukuda has pointed out that the name of Munisai appeared in Kuroda clan record under the category of "Kogofudai", or Kuroda clan vassals who had entered service before 1586. Based on this fact, Fukuda concluded it was natural that Munisai and Musashi were on the Tokugawa side during the war, just as the Kuroda clan which they served.[13]

Furthermore, Japanese History novelist Kengo Tominaga proposed a theory that Musashi during the Sekigahara Campaign did not fight in the main battle of Sekigahara, but instead he fought under Kuroda Yoshitaka against Ishida Mitsunari loyalists from the western provinces in the battle of Ishigakibaru, Ōita Prefecture.[17]

In December 1608, It was reported that Musashi met with Mizuno Katsunari, a Tokugawa general. Musashi taught Katsunari the secret techniques of his swordstyle.[18]

Sasaki Kojiro, right, engages Miyamoto Musashi on the shores of Ganryū Island.

In 1611, Musashi learned zazen at Myōshin-ji Kyūshū after the Sekigahara battle. Musashi introduced to Nagaoka Sado an official of daimyo lord named Hosokawa Tadaoki. At sometimes in unclear circumstances, Musashi was challenged to a duel by a swordsman named Sasaki Kojirō. Musashi agreed to the challenge, and it was scheduled for them to fight on April 13th, one year later, at Ganryūjima Island, which was filled with spectators who wanted to watch the duel. Kojirō was known for being armed with a nodachi.[19][20]

It was said that Musashi deliberately came later than the promised hour, and he carved a wooden bokken from an oar using his knife during his journey to the island with a boat. Upon his arrival, Kojirō, who lost his patience from waiting, taunted Musashi for his tardiness, who responded by further banter from Musashi calmly.[19][21] The duel ended shortly as Musashi managed to instantly kill Kojirō by crushing his skull with a vertical stroke aimed to his head.[19]

Serving under Shogunate army


In 1614, during the Siege of Osaka, it was believed that Musashi participated in Tokugawa army under the command of Musashi's personal friend, Mizuno Katsushige or also known as Katsunari. Musashi were reportedly carrying the banner of Katsunari,[22] and also acted as bodyguard of Mizuno Katsutoshi, son of Katsunari.[23] It was said in a later era, during the Shimabara Rebellion, that Musashi once told a commander of the Tokugawa army that he had served under Mizuno Katsunari's command during the Osaka siege and knew the military system very well.[24] Miyamoto Mikinosuke, the adopted son of Musashi, also served under Katsunari during this battle.[25]

In 1633, Musashi began staying with Hosokawa Tadatoshi, daimyō of Kumamoto Castle, who had moved to the Kumamoto fief and Kokura, to train and paint.[26] While he engaged in very few duels during this period, one occurred in 1634 at the arrangement of Lord Ogasawara, in which Musashi defeated a lance specialist named Takada Matabei. Musashi officially became the retainer of the Hosokowa lords of Kumamoto in 1640. The Niten Ki records "[he] received from Lord Tadatoshi: 17 retainers, a stipend of 300 koku, the rank of ōkumigashira 大組頭, and Chiba Castle in Kumamoto as his residence."[27]

Miyamoto Musashi's grave in Ōhara-chō, province of Mimasaka[28]

In 1638, Musashi allegedly participated in the suppression of Shimabara Rebellion. In "Munekyu (Katsunari)-sama" journal, which is a collection of things that Katsunari Mizuno said after his retirement in 1639, there is a story about Mizuno's army during the Shimabara Rebellion, where a man named Miyamoto Musashi entered the camp of general Ogasawara Nagatsugu, and Musashi has said, "Last time (In Siege of Osaka), (Mizuno Katsunari) Hyuga-no-Kamidono's clan had this, and i knew the military system very well."[24] Musashi continues by saying, "He is a great general that no one can match.".[29]

Later life


In the second month of 1641, Musashi wrote a work called the Hyoho Sanju Go ("Thirty-five Instructions on Strategy") for Hosokawa Tadatoshi. This work overlapped and formed the basis for the later The Book of Five Rings. This was the year that his adopted son, Hirao Yoemon, became Master of Arms for the Owari fief. In 1642, Musashi suffered attacks of neuralgia, foreshadowing his future ill-health.

In 1643 he retired to a cave named Reigandō as a hermit to write The Book of Five Rings. He finished it in the second month of 1645. On the twelfth of the fifth month, sensing his impending death, Musashi bequeathed his worldly possessions, after giving his manuscript copy of The Book of Five Rings to the younger brother of Terao Magonojo, his closest disciple. He died in Reigandō cave around June 13, 1645 (Shōhō 2, 19th day of the 5th month). The Hyoho senshi denki described his death:

At the moment of his death, he had himself raised up. He had his belt tightened and his wakizashi put in it. He seated himself with one knee vertically raised, holding the sword with his left hand and a cane in his right hand. He died in this posture, at the age of sixty-two. The principal vassals of Lord Hosokawa and the other officers gathered, and they painstakingly carried out the ceremony. Then they set up a tomb on Mount Iwato on the order of the lord.

Miyamoto Musashi died in 1645 after allegedly suffering from lung cancer.[30]



The following timeline of Musashi biography in chronological order (of which is based on the most accurate and most widely accepted information).

Date Age Occurrence
1578 −6 Musashi's brother, Shirota, is born.
1584 0 Miyamoto Musashi is born.
1591 6–7 Musashi is taken and raised by his uncle as a Buddhist.
1596 11–12 Musashi duels with Arima Kihei in Hirafuku, Hyōgo Prefecture.
1599 14–15 Duels with a man named Tadashima Akiyama in the northern part of Hyōgo Prefecture.
1600 16 Believed to have fought in the Battle of Sekigahara (October 21) as part of the Western army. However, recent researches has suggested he was on the Eastern army along with his father. Whether he actually participated in the battle is currently in doubt.
1604 19–20 Musashi has three matches with the Yoshioka clan in Kyoto.
(1) Match with Yoshioka Seijuro in Yamashiro Province, outside the city at Rendai Moor (west of Mt. Funaoka, Kita-ku, Kyoto).
(2) Match with Yoshioka Denshichiro outside the city.
(3) Match with Yoshioka Matashichiro outside the city at the pine of Ichijō-ji.
Visits Kōfuku-ji, Nara and ends up dueling with Okuzōin Dōei, the Buddhist priest trained in the style of Hōzōin-ryū.[31]
1605–1612 20–28 Begins to travel again.
1607 22–23 Munisai (Musashi's father) passes his teachings onto Musashi.
Duels with the kusarigama expert Shishido in the western part of Mie Prefecture.
1608 23–24 Duels Musō Gonnosuke, master of the five-foot staff in Edo.
1610 25–26 Fights Hayashi Osedo and Tsujikaze Tenma in Edo.
1611 26–27 Begins practicing zazen meditation.
1612 28 Duel with Sasaki Kojirō takes place on April 13, on Ganryū-jima off the coast of Shimonoseki in which Kojiro is defeated.
Briefly opens a fencing school.
1614–1615 30–31 Believed to have joined the troops of Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Winter and Summer campaigns, under the command of Mizuno Katsushige (November 8, 1614 – June 15, 1615) at Osaka Castle, but no significant contributions are documented.
1615–1621 30–37 Comes into the service of Ogasawara Tadanao in Harima Province as a construction supervisor.
1621 36–37 Duels Miyake Gunbei in Tatsuno, Hyōgo.
1622 37–38 Sets up temporary residence at the castle town of Himeji, Hyōgo.
1623 38–39 Travels to Edo.
Adopts a son named Iori.
1626 41–42 Adopted son Mikinosuke commits seppuku following in the tradition of Junshi.
1627 42–43 Travels again.
1628 43–44 Meets with Yagyū Hyōgonosuke in Nagoya, Owari Province.
1630 45–46 Enters the service of Lord Hosokawa Tadatoshi.
1633 48–49 Begins to extensively practice the arts.
1634 49–50 Settles in Kokura, Fukuoka Prefecture for a short time with son Iori as a guest of Ogasawara Tadazane.
1637–1638 53–54 Serves a major role in the Shimabara Rebellion (December 17, 1637 – April 15, 1638) and is the only documented evidence that Musashi served in battle. Was knocked off his horse by a rock thrown by one of the peasants.
1641 56–57 Writes Hyoho Sanju-go.
1642 57–58 Suffers severe attacks from neuralgia.
1643 58–59 Migrates into Reigandō where he lives as a hermit.
1645 61 Finishes Go Rin No Sho/The Book of Five Rings. Dies from what is believed to be lung cancer.

Personal life


It was said that Musashi practiced the way of the warrior and warfare strategy, which entailed the mastery of many art forms beyond that of the sword, such as tea ceremony (sadō), laboring, writing, and painting, all of which Musashi pursued throughout his life.[32]

Writings on Musashi's life rarely mention his relationship with women, and often when they do, Musashi is regularly depicted as rejecting sexual advances in favor of focusing on his swordsmanship.[33][34][35] Alternative interpretations have taken his lack of interest as an indication of homosexuality.[36] In contrast, many legends feature Musashi in trysts with women, some of which also reflect the view that he eventually chose to forego physical or emotional investments to attain further insight into his work.[37]

This predominant cultural view of Musashi is somewhat contradicted by old texts such as Dobo goen (1720) which relay his intimacy with the courtesan Kumoi in his middle age.[38] The Bushu Denraiki details Musashi fathering a daughter by a courtesan. It is uncertain if this courtesan and Kumoi were the same person.[33] A rumor also connected Musashi with the oiran Yoshino Tayu [Ja].[39]

Calligraphy by Musashi

Ni-Ten Ichi Ryu


Musashi created and refined a two-sword kenjutsu technique called niten'ichi (二天一, "two heavens as one") or nitōichi (二刀一, "two swords as one") or 'Niten Ichi-ryū' (A Kongen Buddhist Sutra refers to the two heavens as the two guardians of Buddha). In this technique, the swordsman uses both a large sword, and a "companion sword" at the same time, i.e. a katana with a wakizashi.[40]

The two-handed movements of temple drummers may have inspired him, although it could be that the technique was forged through Musashi's combat experience. Jitte techniques were taught to him by his father—the jitte was often used in battle paired with a sword; the jitte would parry and neutralize the weapon of the enemy while the sword struck or the practitioner grappled with the enemy. Today Musashi's style of swordsmanship is known as Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū.[41]

Musashi was also an expert in throwing weapons. He frequently threw his short sword, and Kenji Tokitsu believes that shuriken methods for the wakizashi were the Niten Ichi Ryu's secret techniques.[42]

Within the book, Musashi mentions that the use of two swords within strategy is equally beneficial to those who use the skill for individual duels or large engagements. The idea of using two hands for a sword is an idea that Musashi opposes because there is no fluidity in movement with two hands: "If you hold a sword with both hands, it is difficult to wield it freely to left and right, so my method is to carry the sword in one hand." He also disagrees with the idea of using a sword with two hands on a horse and/or riding on unstable terrain, such as muddy swamps, rice fields, or within crowds of people.

To learn the strategy of Ni-Ten Ichi Ryū, Musashi asserts that by training with two long swords, one in each hand, one will be able to overcome the cumbersome nature of using a sword in both hands. Although it is difficult, Musashi agrees that there are times in which the long sword must be used with two hands, but one skillful enough should not need it.

After using two long swords proficiently enough, mastery of a long sword, and a "companion sword", most likely a wakizashi, will be much increased: "When you become used to wielding the long sword, you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well."

In short, it could be seen, from the excerpts from The Book of Five Rings, that real strategy behind Ni-Ten No Ichi Ryu, is that there is no real iron-clad method, path, or type of weaponry specific to the style of Ni-Ten No Ichi Ryu:

You can win with a long weapon, and yet you can also win with a short weapon. In short, the Way of the Ichi school is the spirit of winning, whatever the weapon and whatever its size.



Even from an early age, Musashi separated his religion from his involvement in swordsmanship. Excerpts such as the one below, from The Book of Five Rings, demonstrate a philosophy that is thought to have stayed with him throughout his life:

There are many ways: Confucianism, Buddhism, the ways of elegance, rice-planting, or dance; these things are not to be found in the way of the warrior.[43]

However, the belief that Musashi disliked Shinto is inaccurate, as he criticises the Shintō-ryū style of swordsmanship, not Shinto, the religion. In Musashi's Dokkōdō, his stance on religion is further elucidated: "Respect Buddha and the gods without counting on their help."[44]

As an artist

Shrike in a barren tree, by Miyamoto Musashi

In his later years, Musashi said in his The Book of Five Rings: "When I apply the principle of strategy to the ways of different arts and crafts, I no longer have need for a teacher in any domain." He proved this by creating recognized masterpieces of calligraphy and classic ink painting. His paintings are characterized by skilled use of ink washes and an economy of brush stroke. He especially mastered the "broken ink" school of landscapes, applying it to other subjects, such as his Kobokumeikakuzu ("Shrike Perched on a Withered Branch"; part of a triptych whose other two members were "Hotei Walking" and "Sparrow on Bamboo"), his Hotei Watching a Cockfight, and his Rozanzu ("Wild Geese Among Reeds"). The Book of Five Rings advocates involvement in calligraphy and other arts as a means of training in the art of war.[45]

Musashi also known as talented sumi-e who produced several paintings such as: "Shrike Perched in a Dead Tree" (Koboku Meigekizu, 枯木鳴鵙図) and "Wild Geese Among Reeds" (Rozanzu, 魯山図).[citation needed]

In Japanese and global culture


Miyamoto Musashi Budokan

The Miyamoto Musashi Budokan in Ōhara-chō (Mimasaka), Okayama prefecture, Japan[46]

On 20 May 2000, at the initiative of Sensei Tadashi Chihara[47] the Miyamoto Musashi Budokan[48] was inaugurated.[1] It was built in Ōhara-Cho in the province of Mimasaka, the birthplace of the samurai. Inside the building, the life and journey of Miyamoto Musashi are remembered everywhere. Dedicated to martial arts, the Budokan is the source for all of Japan's official traditional saber and kendo schools. Practically, historically and culturally it is a junction for martial disciplines in the heart of traditional Japan dedicated to Musashi.

The inauguration of the Miyamoto Musashi Budokan perpetuated the twinning established on March 4, 1999, between the inhabitants of Ōhara-Chō (Japanese province of Mimasaka) and the inhabitants of Gleizé. It was formalized in the presence of Sensei Tadashi Chihara, guarantor and tenth in the lineage of Miyamoto Musashi carrying a mandate from the mayor of Ōhara-Chō, and in the presence of the mayor of Gleizé Élisabeth Lamure.[49][50] This event was extended during the mandate of the new mayor of Ōhara-Chō Fukuda Yoshiaki, by the official invitation from Japan and the consequent visit of the mayor of Gleizé for the inauguration of the Miyamoto Musashi Budokan on 10 May 2000, in the presence of personalities and Japanese authorities.



In Musashi's time, there were fictional texts resembling comic books and it is difficult to separate fact from fiction when discussing his life. There have been works of fiction made about or featuring Musashi. Eiji Yoshikawa's novelization (originally a 1930s daily newspaper serial) has greatly influenced successive fictional depictions (including the manga Vagabond by Takehiko Inoue) and is often mistaken for a factual account of Musashi's life. In 2012, writer Sean Michael Wilson and Japanese artist Chie Kutsuwada published an attempt at a more historically accurate manga entitled The Book of Five Rings: A Graphic Novel, based on research and translations by William Scott Wilson.

Onimusha, a video game series by Capcom, features Musashi as a secret playable character in Onimusha Blade Warriors.

The 1994 video game Live A Live and its 2022 remake feature Musashi as a boss in the game's Twilight of Edo Japan chapter.

The 2008 video game Ryū ga Gotoku Kenzan! was based on his life and personality.

He also appeared in the manga Baki the Grappler as a revived clone of himself with his real soul intact as one of the strongest fighters in the series, and used his two-sword style in most combat in which he was shown.

The card game Magic: The Gathering has a card based on him, Isshin, Two Heavens as One, named for his two swords as one technique.

In the 2017 video game For Honor, the "Aramusha" hero is loosely inspired by Musashi. The character is a ronin who wields two swords.

The 2023 anime Onimusha was based loosely on the video game franchise of the same name and produced by Netflix. The series portrays a fictional version of an aging Musashi who embarks on a journey to defeat supernatural forces of evil using the Oni Gauntlet.


See also



  1. ^ a b Tokitsu, Kenji (1998). Miyamoto Musashi: 17th century Japanese saber master: man and work, myth and reality; Miyamoto Musashi : maître de sabre japonais du XVIIe siècle : l'homme et l'œuvre, mythe et réalité. Editions désiris. pp. 19, 20. ISBN 978-2907653541. OCLC 41259596.,
  2. ^ Toyota Masataka. "Niten Ki (A Chronicle of Two Heavens)", in Gorin no Sho, ed. Kamiko Tadashi (Tokyo: Tokuma-shoten, 1963), 239.
  3. ^ Miyamoto Musashi, trans.S. F. Kaufman (1994), Book Of Five Rings, Tuttle Publishing.
  4. ^ Miyamoto Musashi. "Go Rin No Sho", in Gorin no Sho, ed. Kamiko Tadashi (Tokyo: Tokuma-shoten, 1963), 13.
  5. ^ Toyota, p. 239
  6. ^ a b Miyamoto, p. 18ff.
  7. ^ Miyamoto, 13.
  8. ^ Miyamoto, p. 17ff.
  9. ^ Musashi, Miyamoto (2018). Complete Musashi : the Definitive Translations of the Complete Writings of Miyamoto Musashi – JapanÆs Greatest Samurai. Alexander Bennett. La Vergne: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-2027-3. OCLC 1076236783.
  10. ^ Musashi, Miyamoto (2006). Rosemary Brant (ed.). The Book of Five Rings: the classic text of Samurai sword strategy. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-8457-0. Translated by Ashikaga Yoshiharu.
  11. ^ Harris, Victor, p. 10, Miyamoto pp. 16ff. The latter footnote by Kamiko reads: "For his entire life, Musashi never took a wife, cut his hair, or entered a bath".
  12. ^ Kenji Tokitsu (2004). Miyamoto Musashi: His Life and Writings. Shambhala.
  13. ^ a b c Watanabe Daimon (2023). "牢人・宮本武蔵の関ヶ原合戦事情…東軍西軍のどちらに属し、主君は存在したのか" [Prisoner Miyamoto Musashi's Battle of Sekigahara...Which side did he belong to, East or West, and did he have a master?]. sengoku-his.com (in Japanese). Retrieved 26 May 2024. Yumekashi Harada, "The True Story of Miyamoto Musashi" (Ashi Shobo, 1984); Masahide Fukuda "Miyamoto Musashi's Summer Siege" ("Rekishi Kenkyu" No. 400, 1994); Masahide Fukuda, "Proof of Musashi's Sekigahara Eastern Army" (Miyamoto Musashi Research Paper Collection, Rekiken, 2003); Eiji Yoshikawa, "Miyamoto Musashi, 6 volumes" (Dainippon Yubenkai Kodansha, 1936-39)
  14. ^ 大阪經大論集, Issues 282-284 (in Japanese). 大阪經濟大學. 2005. p. 55. Retrieved 25 May 2024.
  15. ^ Watanabe Daimon. "宮本武蔵に関する史料は、なぜ極端に少ないのか。その理由を考える". yahoo.co.jp/expert (in Japanese). 渡邊大門 無断転載を禁じます。 © LY Corporation. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  16. ^ Kengo Tominaga (富永堅吾) (1972). 忠実宮本武蔵 (in Japanese). 百泉書房. p. 29. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  17. ^ 忠実宮本武蔵 (in Japanese). 百泉書房. 1972. p. 29. Retrieved 27 May 2024.
  18. ^ 『宮本武蔵奥伝(与水野日向守)』(小田原市立図書館蔵)、『兵道鏡』(高知城歴史博物館 山内文庫所蔵)
  19. ^ a b c Lowry, Dave (1986). Bokken: Art of the Japanese Sword. Ohara Publications. pp. 21–27. ISBN 978-0-89750-104-0.
  20. ^ Wilson, William Scott (2004). The Lone Samurai: The Life of Miyamoto Musashi. Tokyo: Kodansha International. p. 19. ISBN 978-4770029423.
  21. ^ Wilson, William Scott (2004). The Lone Samurai: The Life of Miyamoto Musashi. Tokyo: Kodansha International. p. 19. ISBN 978-4770029423.
  22. ^ William de Lange (2019). The Siege of Osaka Castle. William de Lange. Retrieved 26 May 2024.
  23. ^ William de Lange (2019). "Mizuno Katsunari (1564–1651)". miyamotomusashi.eu. William de Lange. Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  24. ^ a b Masahide Fukuda (2011). "【寄稿17】宮本武蔵と水野勝成 『宮本武蔵の大坂夏の陣』1/2" (in Japanese). Retrieved 27 May 2024.
  25. ^ Kenji, Tokitsu (2006). "Introduction". Miyamoto Musashi: His Life and Writings. Shambhala Publications. p. 95. ISBN 9780834824881.
  26. ^ "Art of Miyamoto Musashi". Miyamoto Musashi Dojo. 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  27. ^ Toyota, p. 250
  28. ^ "宮本武蔵 – Musashi". Miyamoto Musashi dojo. 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  29. ^ Uozumi Takashi (2002). 宮本武蔵: 日本人の道 [Miyamoto Musashi: The Japanese Way] (in Japanese). ぺりかん. pp. 93, 95, 111. ISBN 4831510114. Retrieved 27 May 2024.
  30. ^ Almo, Leif. "Musashi Miyamoto – the Legend". Kendo.com. Scandnet AB. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  31. ^ Kagita, Chūbei. "The sickle-spear of the Hōzōinryū (7) | SojutsuDE". www.sojutsu.de. Retrieved 5 May 2021. First published in the Nara town magazine Ubusuna on 8 July 2009.
  32. ^ "Ancient Wisdom for Modern Life: Five Lessons from Miyamoto Musashi's 'Way of the Warrior' – The Objective Standard". theobjectivestandard.com. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
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Primary sources

  • Hyodokyo (The Mirror of the Way of Strategy)
  • Hyoho Sanjugo Kajo (Thirty-five Instructions on Strategy)
  • Hyoho Shijuni Kajo (Forty-two Instructions on Strategy)
  • Dokkōdō (The Way to be Followed Alone)
  • Go Rin No Sho (The Book of Five Rings; a reference to the Five Rings of Zen Buddhism). Translated into English by Victor Harris as A Book of Five Rings, London: Allison & Busby, 1974; Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press.