Open main menu

Mars One is a small private Dutch organization that proposed in 2012 to land the first humans on Mars and leave them there to establish a permanent human colony in the coming decades.[2][3][4] Mars One is not an aerospace company and will not manufacture hardware. Mars One consists of two entities: the not-for-profit Mars One Foundation, and the for-profit company Mars One Ventures which is the controlling stockholder of the for-profit Interplanetary Media Group that also manages the broadcasting rights. The Mars One Foundation, based in the Netherlands, manages the project.

Mars One
Mars One logo.png
Country of originPrivate founded in Netherlands
Responsible organizationMars One and Interplanetary Media Group
PurposePermanent Mars settlement
StatusUnder study
Program history
Program durationSince 2011 (crew selection)
First flight2020s (proposed)
First crewed flight2030s (proposed)
Vehicle information
Crew vehicleMars Transit Habitat (conceptual), Mars One Habitat (conceptual)
Crew capacity4
Launch vehicle(s)Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy (proposal rejected by SpaceX[1])
Image of Mars, constructed from Viking orbiter data

The small organisation has 4 employees,[5] and intends to make profits by selling media (documentaries) about the personnel selection, training and colonization.[6] The first mission is estimated by Lansdorp to cost about 6 billion dollars as of the 2010s.[6] [7]

The concept has been criticized by scientists, engineers, and those in the aerospace industry as glossing over logistics and medical concerns, and lacking critical concepts about hardware. The concept has been called a suicide mission both in academia, spaceflight, and international news.



Mars One's original concept includes launching a robotic Mars lander and Mars orbiter as early as 2020, to be followed by a human crew of four in 2024, and one in 2026 which would not be returning to Earth. Although the announcement garnered much international publicity, the concept has been criticized by scientists, engineers, and those in the aerospace industry.[8] Mars One is noted as being very short on funding, lacking critical concepts about hardware, life support, electrical power supply, and has been criticized as glossing over logistics, medical concerns, and protection against space radiation.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] The concept has been called a suicide mission both in academia, spaceflight, and international news.[5][14][9]

By February 2015, two conceptual studies were done by contractors.[18] Despite the criticism and lack of funding, about 2,700 people applied to become one of the 24 finalists "to settle Mars".[6]

Initial mission conceptEdit

Bas Lansdorp, founder of Mars One
Sunset on Mars at Gale crater as viewed by a robotic rover's imaging system

In December 2013, Mars One announced its concept of a robotic precursor mission. Originally scheduled for launch in 2020, the roadmap calls for the launch to occur in 2022.[19] If funded, the robotic lander would be "built by Lockheed Martin based on the design used for NASA's Phoenix and InSight landers, as well as a communications orbiter built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd."[20] In February 2015, Lockheed Martin and Surrey Satellite Technology confirmed that contracts on the initial study phase begun in late 2013 had run out and additional contracts had not been received for further progress on the robotic missions. Plans were set in motion to raise the US$200 million needed to support the initial robotic mission,[18][20] but some critics do not find the economic plans to raise money from private investors and exclusive broadcasting rights to be sufficient to support the initial, or follow-on, mission(s).

Mars One selected a second-round pool of astronaut candidates in 2013. Mars One received interest from over 200,000 applicants for the first round. However, as candidate Joseph Roche asserted, the number of initial applicants who completed the application process was only 2,761,[21] which Mars One later confirmed via YouTube video.[22] The second-round pool was whittled down to 705 candidates (418 men and 287 women) in the beginning of May 2014. 353 were removed due to personal considerations.[23] After the medical physical requirement, 660 candidates remained.[22] The third round of candidate selection concluded in 2015. The remaining 100 candidates, known as The Mars 100, consists of 50 men and 50 women who are slated to move forward to the next round, where 40 individuals will be chosen through an interview process.[24]

On June 30, 2014, it was made public that Mars One seeks financial investment through a bidding process to send company experiments to Mars. The experiment slots would go to the highest bidder and would include company-related ads, and the opportunity to have the company name on the robotic lander that was proposed to carry the experiments to Mars in 2018.[25]

In a video posted on 19 of March 2015, Lansdorp said that because of delays in funding the robotic precursor mission, the first crew will not set down on Mars until 2027.[26][9] Following the criticism reported in The Space Review in October 2016 about funding mechanisms,[27] Mars One created Mars One Ventures.[28] In late 2016 Mars One had changed its first crewed mission date to 2032.[29]

2013 robotic landerEdit

Artist's impression of the NASA Phoenix spacecraft as it lands on Mars

In December 2013, mission concept studies for a robotic Mars lander were contracted with Lockheed Martin for a demonstration mission concept. It would be based on the design of the successful 2007 NASA Phoenix lander,[30] and provide proof of concept for a subset of the key technologies for a later human settlement on Mars.[31] Upon submission of Lockheed Martin's Proposal Information Package,[30] Mars One released a Request for Proposals[32] for the various payloads on the lander. The total payload mass of 44 kg is divided among the seven payloads as follows:[32]

  1. Water extraction (10 kg)
  2. Soil acquisition (15 kg)
  3. Thin film solar power demonstrator (6 kg)
  4. Camera system (5 kg)
  5. Open for random proposals from the highest bidder (4 kg)
  6. Educational payload (2 kg)
  7. Winning university experiment (2 kg)

2022 robotic landerEdit

In 2022, a robotic rover was proposed to be launched to Mars in order to scout a landing site for the 2027 lander and a site for the Mars One colony. At the same time, a communication satellite would be launched, enabling continuous communication with the future landed assets.[33]

2024 cargo missionsEdit

In 2024, six cargo missions were proposed to be in close succession, consisting of two living units, two life-support units, and two supply units.[33]

2024 Mars One launchEdit

A spacecraft transporting four astronauts was proposed to meet a transit vehicle bound for Mars.[33]

2025 Mars One landingEdit

In 2025, the landing module transporting four astronauts was proposed to land on Mars. They envisioned the crew to be met by the rover launched in 2020, and taken to the Mars One colony.[33]

TABLE 1: Mission elements road-map
Initial concept Current concept[34][35]a Desired milestone Latest status
2015 2018 Candidate pool would be reduced to 40 contestants,[36] possible building of the settlement for training purposes.[37] Candidate pool reduced to 100[38]
2016 2024 The first communication satellite (ComSat), and a lander to demonstrate certain key technologies. One initial concept study by Lockheed Martin (lander) and Surrey Satellite Technology (orbiter);[39] Not funded nor designed.
2018 2026 A rover (yet to be designed) would be launched to help select the location of the settlement. A second ComSat would launch to L5 to enable near-24/7 communication.[37] Not contractedb
2020 2029 A second rover and six notional modified Dragon capsules and another rover would launch with two living units, two life-support units and two supply units. Not contractedbc
2021 2030 The autonomous rovers would begin settlement assembly. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) would produce a breathable atmosphere of 0.7 bar pressure, 3000 liters of water, 240 kg of oxygen, which would be stored in the habitat for later use. Not contracted
2022 2031 A notional Falcon Heavy would launch with the first group of four colonists.[37] Not contractedc; Falcon Heavy not planned to be human rated[40]
2023 2032 The first colonists arrive on Mars in a notional lander. Not contractedc
2024 2033 Second crew of four colonists would be launched.[37]
2025 2034 Second crew would arrive on Mars.
2031 2040 The colony would reach 20 settlers.[41]

^a The initial concept timeline has slipped 2 times, with a 2 year delay each time. (As of 5 February 2016) [42]
^b Work on robotic missions was suspended pending further review and future contract direction in February 2015.[18]
^c SpaceX has no contracts with MarsOne and the project does not appear on their launch manifest.[43]

Current team and advisersEdit

The Mars One team currently consists of Chief Executive Officer and co-founder Bas Lansdorp, Chief Technical Officer and co-founder Arnold Wielders, Chief Medical Officer Norbert Kraft, Mission Concept Artist Bryan Versteeg, Senior Marketing Strategist KC Frank, and Chief Information Officer Tom Van Braeckel.[44]

Mars One's team of advisers consists of over 30 industry and scientific experts,[45] including Mason Peck, Peter Smith, James Kass, K.R. Sridhara Murthi, Esther Dyson, and Robert Zubrin.

Desired technologyEdit

Mars One is not an aerospace company and will not manufacture hardware.[46] Lansdorp assumes all major components are available in the aerospace market,[47] and he thinks he has identified at least one potential supplier for each component of the mission.[48][49]


SpaceX mentioned that they had been contacted by Mars One, but that accommodating Mars One requirements would require some additional work and that such action was not a part of the current focus of SpaceX.[1] SpaceX has no ongoing contracts with Mars One.[50][51] The first Mars One cargo mission to Mars is proposed to launch by 2022, followed by a crewed mission in 2024,[52] but without funds, hardware, and without a launcher it is seen as unlikely to happen.[53]

Mars Transit VehicleEdit

A hypothetical crewed interplanetary spacecraft, for which there are no concept design studies, would be assembled in low Earth orbit and comprise two propellant modules: a Transit Living Module (discarded just before arrival at Mars) and a lander (see "Human Lander" below).[47][54] In 2012, Mars One speculated that the Transit Living Module could potentially be designed and built by Thales Alenia Space.[55]

Demo landerEdit

A concept study was produced by Lockheed Martin for a demonstration lander based on the 2008 Phoenix lander.[39]

Communications systemEdit

In December 2013 Mars One awarded a contract to Surrey Satellite Technology for a study of the satellite technology required to provide 24/7 communication between Earth and the Mars base.[56][57] Mars One proposed at least two satellites, one in areostationary orbit above Mars and a second at the Earth – Sun L4 or L5 point to relay the signal when Mars blocks the areosynchronous satellite from line of sight to Earth.[57] It is possible that a third satellite would be required to relay the signal on the rare occasions when the Sun blocks the first relay satellite from line of sight with Earth.[57]


An early notional crewed lander was shown in concept art as a 5 meters (16 ft)-diameter variant of SpaceX Red Dragon, but SpaceX declined to collaborate with Mars One.[43]


The crewed Mars rover would be unpressurized and support travel distances of 80 km (50 miles).[58] A suggested supplier for the rover in 2012 was Astrobotic Technology.[55][non-primary source needed]

Mars suitEdit

On 12 March 2013, Paragon Space Development Corporation was contracted to develop concepts for life support and the Mars Surface Exploration Spacesuit System, and it includes the pressure suit and the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) that permit survival outside the habitat. The suggested supplier of the suits is ILC Dover.[59] The study was stated to be finished late summer 2013; Mars One released the results of this (ECLSS portion only) study to the public in June 2015,[60][61][62] but did not fund its research and development.

Life support systemsEdit

In 2013, Mars One signed a contract with Paragon Space Development Corporation, for a preliminary life support system concept study based on the International Space Station.[63] The idea was criticized because that system, as modern as it is, requires of significant maintenance and supplies not available while on Mars.[64][65]

Astronaut selectionEdit

Sign up periodEdit

The application was available from 22 April 2013 to 31 August 2013.[66][67] This first application consisted of applicant's general information, a motivational letter, a résumé and a video. More than 200,000 people expressed interest. By 9 September 2013, 4,227 applicants[68] had paid their registration fee and submitted public videos in which they made their case for going to Mars.[69] The application fee varies from US $5 to US $75 (the amount depending on the relative wealth of the applicant's country).[70]

Distribution of the 1,058 applicants selected for Round 2 according to their academic degree[71]

  Master's degree (15%)
  Ph.D (8%)
  Doctor of law (1%)
  Other (37%)

First selection (Round 1)Edit

The applicants selected in this round were declared on 30 December 2013. A total of 1,058 applicants from 107 countries were selected.[20] The gender split was 586 males (55.4%) and 472 females (44.6%). Among the people that were selected to move on to round two, 159 have a Master's degree, 347 have Bachelor's degrees and 29 have Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degrees. The majority of the applicants are under 36 and well educated.[72][73][74]

The Mars 100 (Round 2)Edit

Medically cleared candidates were interviewed, and 50 men and 50 women from the total pool of 660 from around the world were selected to move on to the third round of the astronaut selection process:[75][76]

  • the youngest: 20-year-old
  • the oldest: 61-year-old

Applicants were remotely interviewed and recorded by Mars One over a relatively short Skype/SparkHire call regarding Martian-related orbital, temp/pressure, geological and historical parameters and the specific elements of the Mars One one-way mission.[21][77][78] Joseph Roche, one of the finalists, has accused the selection process of being based on a point system that is primarily dependent on how much money each individual generated or gave to the Mars One organization, despite many of the round three selectees having not spent any money in the process, apart from the application fee, which varied as a function of each applicant's country GDP.[21][77][78] Lansdorp acknowledges a "gamification" point system but denies that selection is based on money earned.[78] Roche also stated that if paid for interviews, they are asked to donate 75% of the payment to Mars One.[21][78] This was confirmed by Lansdorp.[21][78]

Group challenges (Round 3)Edit

The company had intended that the regional selection may be broadcast as a reality television show documenting group challenges, but no deal was reached with TV producers. The audience was to select one winner per region, and the experts could select additional participants, if needed, to continue to the international level.[66][79] Of the 100 candidates, 40 individuals will be chosen through an interview process.[80] Round 3 would take place after enough funding is secured for an "Earth-based simulation outpost."[80]

Isolation (Round 4)Edit

The remaining 40 candidates would be spending nine days in an isolation unit. The candidates are observed closely to examine how they act in situations of prolonged close contact with one another. It takes a specific team dynamic to be able to handle this, and the goal of this selection round is to find those that are best suited for this challenge. After the isolation round, 30 candidates would be chosen to undergo in a Mars Settler Suitability Interview.[81]

Mars Settler Suitability Interview (Round 5)Edit

The Mars Settler Suitability Interview would measure suitability for long-duration space missions and Mars settlement, and will last approximately 4 hours. 24 candidates would be selected after the interview and would be offered full-time employment with Mars One.[81]

Astronaut trainingEdit

From the previous selection series, six groups of four are to become full-time employees of the Mars One, after which they are to train for the mission. An MIT team noted that since the company is not developing the technology needed, it is unclear what the astronauts would be training for.[14][17] Mars One has stated that the teams selected will be undergoing a battery of training, ranging from psycho-social skills to engineering and scientific observation.[82]

Revenues and investmentEdit

Mars One funding comes from astronaut application fees, donations, undisclosed private investment, intellectual property (IP) rights, and mostly, the potential sale of future broadcasting rights.[6][70] Over three quarters of the funds would reportedly go to concept design studies. Mars One states that "income from donations and merchandise have not been used to pay salaries". To date, no financial records have been released for public viewing.[83] Mars One initially estimated a one-way trip, excluding the cost of maintaining four astronauts on Mars until they die, at 6 billion USD.[84] Lansdorp has declined questions regarding the cost estimate.[85]

Mars One's investment of revenues[86]

  Concept design studies (78.3%)
  Travel expenses (11.6%)
  Legal expenses (3.3%)
  Website maintenance (2.4%)
  Communications (2.3%)
  Office and other (2.1%)

Reality TVEdit

A proposed global reality-TV show was intended to provide funds to finance the expedition, however, no such television show has emerged and no contracts have been signed. The astronaut selection process (with some public participation) was to be televised and continue on through the first years of living on Mars.[87][88]

Discussions between Endemol started in June 2014,[89] producers of the Big Brother series, and Mars One ended with Endemol subsidiary Darlow Smithson Productions issuing a statement in February 2015 that they "were unable to reach agreement on the details of the contract" and that the company was "no longer involved in the project."[90] Lansdorp updated plans to no longer include live broadcasts, but instead would rely on documentary-style short films produced by the company Stateless Media.[91][92]


On 31 August 2012, the company announced that funding from its first sponsors were received,[84] and that the funds were used mostly to pay for two conceptual design studies performed by aerospace suppliers Lockheed Martin (lander) and Surrey Satellite Systems (orbiter).[84]

On 3 March 2014 Mars One announced a working agreement with Uwingu, stating that the program would use Uwingu's map of Mars in all of their missions.[93][94]

Donations and merchandiseEdit

Revenues that Mars One has received from merchandise sale, donations and the Indiegogo crowd funding campaign until 4 July 2016.[86]
Country of buyer/donor Revenue amount (in US $)
  United States
  United Kingdom
  New Zealand
Others (93 countries)

Total (from 113 countries): $928,888

Since the official announcement of their conversion to a Stichting foundation, Mars One has been accepting donations through their website. As of 4 July 2016, Mars One had received $928,888 in donations and merchandise sales.[95] The 2016 donation update adds the Indiegogo campaign ($313,744) to the private donation and merchandise total.


On 10 December 2013, Mars One set up a crowdfunding campaign on Indiegogo to help fund a 2018 demonstration robotic mission that was not built. The alleged 2018 mission would have included a lander and a communications satellite to prove technologies in addition to launch and landing. The campaign goal was to raise $400,000 USD by 25 January 2014. Since the ending date was drawing near, they decided to extend the ending date to 9 February 2014. By the end of the campaign, they had received $313,744. Indiegogo received 9% ($28,237).[96]


Mars One has received a variety of criticism, mostly relating to medical,[97] technical and financial feasibility. There are also unverified claims that Mars One is a scam designed to take as much money as possible from donors, including reality show contestants.[98][99] Many have criticized the project's US$6 billion budget as being too low to successfully transport humans to Mars, to the point of being delusional.[17][100] A similar project study by NASA estimated the cost of such a feat at US$100 billion, although that included transporting the astronauts back to Earth. Objections have also been raised regarding the reality TV project associated with the expedition. Given the transient nature of most reality TV ventures, many believe that as viewership declines, funding could significantly decrease, thereby harming the entire expedition. Further, contestants have reported that they were ranked based on their donations and funds raised.[98][101]


John Logsdon, a space policy expert at George Washington University, criticized the program, saying it appears to be a scam[100] and not "a credible proposition".[102]

Chris Welch, director of the Masters Programs at the International Space University, has said "Even ignoring the potential mismatch between the project income and its costs and questions about its longer-term viability, the Mars One proposal does not demonstrate a sufficiently deep understanding of the problems to give real confidence that the project would be able to meet its very ambitious schedule."[103]

Gerard 't Hooft, theoretical physicist and ambassador[104] to Mars One, has stated that he thought both their proposed schedule and budget were off by a factor of ten.[21][105] He said he still supported the project's overall goals.[105]

A space logistics analysis conducted by PhD candidates at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology revealed that the most optimistic of scenarios would require 15 Falcon Heavy launches that would cost approximately $4.5 billion.[14] They concluded that the reliability of Environmental Control and Life Support systems (ECLS), the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), and in situ resource utilization (ISRU) would have to be improved. Additionally, they determined that if the costs of launch were also lowered dramatically, together this would help to reduce the mass and cost of Mars settlement architecture.[14] The environmental system would result in failure to be able to support human life in 68 days if fire safety standards on over-oxygenation were followed, due to excessive use of nitrogen supplies that would not then be able to be used to compensate leakage of air out of the habitat, leading to a resultant loss in pressurization, ending with pressures too low to support human life.[14] Lansdorp replied that although he has not read all the research, supplier Lockheed Martin says that the technologies were viable.[106]

Another serious concern uncovered in the research conducted by MIT is replacement parts. The PhD candidates estimated the need for spare parts in a Mars colony based on the failure rates of parts on the ISS. They determined that a resupply mission every two years would be necessary unless a large space in the initial launch were to be reserved for extra materials. Lansdorp commented on this saying, "They are correct. The major challenge of Mars One is keeping everything up and running. We don't believe what we have designed is the best solution. It's a good solution."[106]

In March 2015, one of the Mars One finalists, Joseph Roche,[107] stated to media outlets that he believes the mission to be a scam. Roche holds doctorate degrees in physics and astrophysics, and shared many of his concerns and criticisms of the mission. These claims include that the organization lied about the number of applicants, stating that 200,000 individuals applied versus Roche's claim of 2,761, and that many of the applicants had paid to be put on the list. Furthermore, Roche claimed that Mars One is asking finalists for donations from any money earned from guest appearances (which would amount to a minimal portion of the estimated $6 billion required for the mission). Finally, despite being one of 100 finalists, Roche himself has never spoken to any Mars One employee or representative in person, and instead of psychological or psychometric testing as is normal for astronaut candidates (especially for a lengthy, one-way mission), his interview process consisted of a 10-minute Skype conversation.[98][108]

In April 2015, Mars One's CEO Bas Lansdorp admitted that their 12-year plan for landing humans on Mars by 2027 is mostly fiction.[9]

Space advocacy and policyEdit

Robert Zubrin, advocate for crewed Martian exploration, said "I don't think the business plan closes it. We're going to go to Mars, we need a billion dollars, and we're going to make up the revenue with advertising and media rights and so on. You might be able to make up some of the money that way, but I don't think that anyone who is interested in making money is going to invest on that basis – invest in this really risky proposition, and if you're lucky you'll break even? That doesn't fly."[109] Despite his criticisms, Zubrin became an adviser to Mars One on 10 October 2013.[110]


Buzz Aldrin on the Moon

Canadian former astronaut Julie Payette said during the opening speech for an International Civil Aviation Organization conference that she does not think Mars One "is sending anybody anywhere".[78]

In January 2014, German former astronaut Ulrich Walter strongly criticized the project for ethical reasons. Speaking with Tagesspiegel, he estimated the probability of reaching Mars alive at only 30%, and that of surviving there more than three months at less than 20%. He said, "They don't care what happens to those people in space... If my tax money were used for such a mission, I would organize a protest."[111]

Space tourist Richard Garriott stated in response to Mars One, "Many have interesting viable starting plans. Few raise the money to be able to pull it off."[112]

Former astronaut Buzz Aldrin said in an interview that he wants to see humans on Mars by 2035, but he does not think Mars One will be the first to achieve it.[113]


Wired magazine gave it a plausibility score of 2 out of 10 as part of their 2012 Most Audacious Private Space Exploration Plans.[114]

The project lacks current funding as well as sources for future funding.[115] The organization has no spacecraft or rocket in development or any contracts in place with companies that could provide a spacecraft or rocket. While plans point to SpaceX for both resources, the company has no contracts with Mars One in an industry that typically plans contracts decades in advance.[43]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Gwynne Shotwell (2014-03-21). Broadcast 2212: Special Edition, interview with Gwynne Shotwell (audio file). The Space Show. Event occurs at 11:20–12:10. 2212. Archived from the original (mp3) on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-22. Mark: 10:15 min into the interview
  2. ^ "About". Mars One. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  3. ^ Staff (7 December 2016). "Mars One presents an updated mission roadmap - Amersfoort, December 7, 2016". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  4. ^ Nnamdi, Kojo. "One-way Mission to Mars". NPR: Science. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b Mars One plans suicide mission to Red Planet for 2023. 24 June 2012. Fox News. Quote: "Lansdorp says his four-person company will coordinate the launches, but it will work with suppliers for the ship and rockets."
  6. ^ a b c d Mars One's plan to profit from the Red Planet. Prinesha Naido, Tech Central. 26 February 2018.
  7. ^ "78,000 People Have Already Applied For A One-Way Trip To Mars".
  8. ^ CNN, By Jennifer Juarez,, and Elizabeth Landau,. "More than 100,000 want to go to Mars and not return, project says - CNN". CNN. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  9. ^ a b c d Mars One Torn To Shreds In MIT Debate. August 21, 2015 by Jonathan O'Callaghan.
  10. ^ Cowing, Keith. "Throwing Shade on Mars One". NASA Watch. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  11. ^ Vergano, Dan. "Mars Missions Are A Scam". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  12. ^ Hutchinson, Lee. "If Mars One makes you skeptical, you might be dead inside—like me". ars technica. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  13. ^ Orwig, Jessica. "A new, strangely morbid video profiles 3 people vying to visit Mars — and they seem completely unprepared for the trip". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Chu, Jennifer. "Mars One (and done?)". MIT News. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  15. ^ Draper, Lucy. "Astronaut Chris Hadfield Questions Feasibility of Mars One Mission". Newsweek. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  16. ^ Fernholz, Tim. "Sorry, but those Mars volunteers are never getting off the ground". Quartz. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  17. ^ a b c Day, Dwayne (17 August 2015). "Red planet rumble". The Space Review. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
  18. ^ a b c Foust, Jeff. "Mars One Suspends Work on Robotic Missions". Space News.
  19. ^ Mars One- updated mission roadmap.
  20. ^ a b c Foust (2014-01-01). "Year in Preview: going to the Red Planet requires a lot of green". NewSpace Journal. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Keep, Elmo (16 March 2015). "Mars One Finalist Explains Exactly How It's Ripping Off Supporters". Medium. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  22. ^ a b Martian Colonist (20 March 2015). "How Were Mars One Candidates Selected?". Retrieved 8 June 2016 – via YouTube.
  23. ^ "705 potential Mars settlers remain in Mars One's astronaut selection process". Mars-One. 5 May 2014.
  24. ^ "The Mars 100: Mars One Announces Round Three Astronaut Candidates - Press Releases - News - Mars One". Mars One. Retrieved 2018-05-19.
  25. ^ Mars One Puts Out the Call for Red Planet Experiments (and Ads) Alan Boyle, NBC News, June 30, 2014.
  26. ^ "Mars One Colony Project Delays Manned Red Planet Mission to 2026". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  27. ^ Carberry, Chris; Zucker, Rick (2016-10-10). "Is there a business case for Mars?". The Space Review. Retrieved 2016-10-11.
  28. ^ "News - Investor relations - Mars One". Mars One. Retrieved 2017-11-13.
  29. ^ Dec. 7, 2016 Geek Wire entry on Mars One
  30. ^ a b "Proposal Information Package" (PDF). Mars One. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  31. ^ Messier, Doug (2013-12-10). "Mars One Contracts Lockheed Martin, Surrey Satellite for Mission Concept Studies". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  32. ^ a b "Request for Proposals for Payloads for the Mars One 2018 Lander" (PDF). Mars One. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  33. ^ a b c d "Roadmap - Mission - Mars One." Mars One. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.
  34. ^ "Mars One's CEO Bas Lansdorp answers questions about mission feasibility". Mars One. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  35. ^ "Mission Roadmap". MarsOne. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  36. ^ Michael Bradbury (5 June 2012). "Reality TV Sets Sights on Mars for New Show". Real Science. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  37. ^ a b c d Black, Charles (18 October 2012). "Mars One plans human settlement on the Red Planet by 2023". SEN TV LIMITED.
  38. ^ "Meet the 100 Candidates for a One Way Trip to Mars". CNN.
  39. ^ a b "Lockheed Martin and SSTL selected for Mars One's first Unmanned Mission to Mars - Press Releases - News - Mars One". Mars One. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
  40. ^ Pasztor, Andy. "Elon Musk Says SpaceX's New Falcon Heavy Rocket Unlikely to Carry Astronauts". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  41. ^ Anne Sewell (1 June 2012). "Mars One: Human settlement on Mars in 2023". Digital Journal. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  42. ^ "Mars One Colony Project Delays Manned Red Planet Mission to 2026". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  43. ^ a b c "Will the Mars One reality TV mission ever take off?" (The Telegraph).
  44. ^ "Team - About Mars One". Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  45. ^ "Advisers - About Mars One". Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  46. ^ Mars One - Technology. Mars One.
  47. ^ a b "Technology". Mars One. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  48. ^ Staff (3 June 2012). "Mars One plans to establish human settlement on Mars in 2023". Kurzweil. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  49. ^ "About the suppliers". Mars One. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  50. ^ "Will the Mars One reality TV mission ever take off?". Retrieved 13 Nov 2014.
  51. ^ "Broadcast 2266 (Special Edition)". The Space Show. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  52. ^ "Road Map - Mars One".
  53. ^ The Mars One plan is totally delusional. Kelly Dickerson, Business insider. 3 March 2015. Qiote: "Mars One doesn't own any of its own space travel technology and has no existing contracts with companies that do."
  54. ^ "Mars Transit Vehicle". Mars One. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  55. ^ a b "Suppliers". Mars One. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  56. ^ "Lockheed Martin and SSTL selected for Mars One's first unmanned mission to Mars". Mars One. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  57. ^ a b c Henry, Caleb (7 January 2014). "Mars One Plans Two, Possibly Three Communications Satellites for the Red Planet". Via Satellite. Access Intelligence Satellite Group. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  58. ^ "Is this really possible?". Mars One. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  59. ^ "ILC Dover". Mars One. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  60. ^ "Mars One Contracts Paragon for Mars Life Support Systems". Mars One.
  61. ^ "How to keep humans alive on Mars-Abstract Surface Habitat ECLSS Conceptual Design". Mars One.
  62. ^ Mars One Surface Exploration Suit. (PDF). Norman Hahn and Barry W. Finger, from Paragon Space Development Corporation. Published by Mars One,
  63. ^ Shubber, Kadhim (13 May 2013). "Mars One will take you to the Red Planet, if it can raise the cash". Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  64. ^ Mars One Is Still Completely Full of Shit. Maddie Stone, Gizmodo. 14 August 2015.
  65. ^ Mars One Contracts Paragon for Mars Life Support Systems. The Fun Star. March 11, 2013.
  66. ^ a b "How will the astronaut selection proceed?". Mars One. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  67. ^ "Can I Apply to Become an Astronaut?" Mars One. Retrieved on 2 Sept. 2013.
  68. ^ Kraft, Norbert (27 May 2015). "The Science of Screening Astronauts". Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  69. ^ Boyle, Alan (9 September 2013). "More than 2,700 pay up for a chance to take a one-way trip to Mars". NBC News. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  70. ^ a b Wall, Mike (7 May 2013). "78,000 Apply for Private Mars Colony Project In 2 Weeks". Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  71. ^ "Aspiring Martians by country". Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  72. ^ "1,058 People Still in Running for One-Way Trip to Mars". Newsmax. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  73. ^ "Mars One narrows applicant pool to 1,058 in first cut for 2025 colonization mission". The Verge. 30 December 2013.
  74. ^ "Mars One Picks 1,058 Potential Astronauts for One-Way Mission". ABC News.
  75. ^ "The Mars 100: Mars One Announces Round Three Astronaut Candidates". Mars One.
  76. ^ "Mars One Community Platform". Mars One Community Platform.
  77. ^ a b Roche, Joseph (18 March 2015). "I'm on list to be a Mars One astronaut – but I won't see the red planet". Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  78. ^ a b c d e f Kaplan, Sarah (19 March 2015). "That one way flight to Mars is losing its sheen". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  79. ^ "Potential Martians: Mars One selects 1,058 hopefuls among 200,000 applicants". 31 December 2013.
  80. ^ a b Mars One -Current Mission Status. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  81. ^ a b "Mars One presents more details on next astronaut selection rounds - Press Releases - News - Mars One". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  82. ^ Mars One, humanity's next great adventure : inside the first human settlement on Mars. Kraft, Norbert (Physician),, Kass, James R.,, Kass, Raye.,. Dallas, Texas. ISBN 9781940363837. OCLC 925426569.
  83. ^ "Donate". Mars One.
  84. ^ a b c Staff (31 August 2012). "Private Manned Mars Mission Gets First Sponsors". Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  85. ^ Boyle, Alan (22 April 2013). "Thousands want to take one-way trip to Mars, but will you pay their way?". NBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  86. ^ a b "Donate". Mars One. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  87. ^ Dario Borghino (4 June 2012). "Mission to Mars meets reality TV". Gizmag. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  88. ^ Rob Waugh (4 June 2012). "There will be life on Mars: Mission to create first human colony by 2023 – and it will be filmed for reality TV show". Daily Mail. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  89. ^ Partnership with Mars One Space Mission Archived 3 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine Darlow Smithson Productions, June 2, 2014
  90. ^ Foust, Jeff (24 Feb 2015). "Mars One Loses Television Deal". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  91. ^ Short film tells the stories of three people who want to die on Mars. Patrick Kulp, Mashable. 9 February 2015.
  92. ^ Mars One Ventures: First Mars residents to be there by 2032, says Mars One founder. 5 February 2018. Quote: "they make money from application fees, merchandising sales, their website and through an upcoming documentary series."
  93. ^ "Mars One partners with Uwingu Mars Crater Naming Project". Mars One.
  94. ^ Wall, Mike. "New 'People's Map of Mars' To Be Used By Mars One Project". Huffington Post.
  95. ^ "Donate". Mars One. 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  96. ^ "Mars One - First Private Mars Mission in 2018". Indiegogo.
  97. ^ Fong, MD, Kevin (12 February 2014). "The Strange, Deadly Effects Mars Would Have on Your Body". Wired. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  98. ^ a b c [1] 'Mars One' finalist breaks silence, claims organization is a total scam, 16 March 2015
  99. ^ Roche, Joseph. "I'm on list to be a Mars One astronaut – but I won't see the red planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  100. ^ a b Dickerson, Kelly. "The Mars One plan is totally delusional". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  101. ^ West, Kesha. "Ethical questions over one-way Mars trip". Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  102. ^ Greenfieldboyce, Nell (17 March 2015). "Are Humans Really Headed To Mars Anytime Soon?". NPR. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  103. ^ Holligan, Anna (19 June 2012). "Can the Dutch do reality TV in space?". BBC. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  104. ^ "Mars One Ambassadors". Retrieved 20 Apr 2016.
  105. ^ a b Devlin, Hannah (23 Feb 2015). "Mars One plan to colonise red planet unrealistic, says leading supporter". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  106. ^ a b Rafi Letzler (11 October 2014). "MIT Students Claim Astronauts Will Starve On 'Mars One' Mission". Popular Mechanics.
  107. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Dr. Joseph Roche's profile on the Trinity College Dublin website
  108. ^ Roche, Joseph. "I'm on list to be a Mars One astronaut – but I won't see the red planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  109. ^ Taylor, Adam (8 June 2012). "This Incredible Plan For A Mission To Mars In 2023 Is No Hoax". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  110. ^ "Zubrin joins the Advisory Board". Mars One.
  111. ^ Tagesspiegel: Raumfahrtexperte geht mit Mars-Projekt hart ins Gericht, 6 January 2014, last seen 11 January 2014.
  112. ^ Howard, Jacqueline (5 June 2012). "Mars One: Dutch Startup Aims To Colonize Red Planet In 2023". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  113. ^ [2] HuffPost Live, Buzz Aldrin Remains Unconvinced Of Mars One's Ability To Build Human Colony On Red Planet, 29 August 2013.
  114. ^ Mann, Adam (27 December 2012). "The Year's Most Audacious Private Space Exploration Plans". Wired. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  115. ^ Mars One just delayed its (highly unlikely) Mars mission — again. Loren Grush, The Verge. 7 December 2016.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit