Mangzhong (simplified Chinese: 芒种; traditional Chinese: 芒種; pinyin: Mángzhòng) is the ninth of twenty-four solar terms in the Chinese calendar year. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 75 degrees, which usually occurs around 5 June in the Gregorian calendar. The name can be used to refer to the first day, or to the whole period of the solar term, which ends when the sun reaches the longitude of 90 degrees, approximately on 21 June. The solar terms signify important agricultural dates, and Mangzhong marks the period for seed sowing.[1]

Mangzhong
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese芒種
Simplified Chinese芒种
Literal meaninggrain in ear
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetmang chủng
Chữ Hán芒種
Korean name
Hangul망종
Hanja芒種
Japanese name
Kanji芒種
Hiraganaぼうしゅ
Solar term
Term Longitude Dates
Lichun 315° 4–5 February
Yushui 330° 18–19 February
Jingzhe 345° 5–6 March
Chunfen 20–21 March
Qingming 15° 4–5 April
Guyu 30° 20–21 April
Lixia 45° 5–6 May
Xiaoman 60° 21–22 May
Mangzhong 75° 5–6 June
Xiazhi 90° 21–22 June
Xiaoshu 105° 7–8 July
Dashu 120° 22–23 July
Liqiu 135° 7–8 August
Chushu 150° 23–24 August
Bailu 165° 7–8 September
Qiufen 180° 23–24 September
Hanlu 195° 8–9 October
Shuangjiang 210° 23–24 October
Lidong 225° 7–8 November
Xiaoxue 240° 22–23 November
Daxue 255° 7–8 December
Dongzhi 270° 21–22 December
Xiaohan 285° 5–6 January
Dahan 300° 20–21 January

Mangzhong has a cognate of Mang chủng, and was recently popularized without historical recognition in Vietnam[citation needed]. It is also known as Bōshu in Japanese and Mangjong in Korean.

History and origins edit

In Chinese, Mangzhong means "Grain in Ear." Mang means 'grain,' but also 'busy.' It signifies that farmers have to return to the fields and work intensively. "Grain in ear" also means that grains have matured. During this period, awny crops such as wheat ripen. As flowers withered away, communities held ceremonies making sacrifices to the "God of Flowers," showing their gratitude and eagerness to see flowers again the following year. This custom has died out, and can only be read about in ancient texts.[2] Mangzhong is especially important for farmers, heralding a period of intense agricultural activity. A common saying from Guizhou illustrates this urgency: "If you don't plant rice in the grain in the ear, your planting will be in vain." This saying underscores the significance of timely sowing, as Mangzhong represents the peak time for seeding millet and serves as the deadline for various planting tasks.

Physical phenomena edit

During the Mangzhong period, areas around the middle stream and downstream of the Yangtze River enter the rainy season. Sensing the moisture, mantis appear, shrike start to sing, and mockingbirds cease chirping.

Traditions and customs edit

In China's southern Anhui province, people steam dumplings with new fresh wheat flour after seeding the paddy rice.[3] They make the flour into different shapes such as cereals, animals, vegetables, and fruits, color them, and pray for villagers' safety.

According to traditional Chinese doctors, the best food to eat during the Mangzhong period is mulberry. Around two thousand years ago, the mulberry was considered 'royal food' and was sometimes called the "holy fruit".[4] Silkworms eat mulberry as well.

Date and time edit

Date and Time (UTC)
year begin end
辛巳 2001-06-05 14:53 2001-06-21 07:37
壬午 2002-06-05 20:44 2002-06-21 13:24
癸未 2003-06-06 02:19 2003-06-21 19:10
甲申 2004-06-05 08:13 2004-06-21 00:56
乙酉 2005-06-05 14:01 2005-06-21 06:46
丙戌 2006-06-05 19:36 2006-06-21 12:25
丁亥 2007-06-06 01:27 2007-06-21 18:06
戊子 2008-06-05 07:11 2008-06-20 23:59
己丑 2009-06-05 12:59 2009-06-21 05:45
庚寅 2010-06-05 18:49 2010-06-21 11:28
辛卯 2011-06-06 00:27 2011-06-21 17:16
壬辰 2012-06-05 06:25 2012-06-20 23:08
癸巳 2013-06-05 12:23 2013-06-21 05:03
甲午 2014-06-05 18:03 2014-06-21 10:51
乙未 2015-06-05 23:58 2015-06-21 16:40
丙申 2016-06-05 05:46 2016-06-20 22:35
丁酉 2017-06-05 11:36 2017-06-21 04:22
戊戌 2018-06-05 17:31 2018-06-21 10:06
己亥 2019-06-05 23:07 2019-06-21 15:56
庚子 2020-06-05 04:56 2020-06-20 21:45
Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

References edit

  1. ^ Zhang, Peiyu; Hunag, Hongfeng( (1994). "The Twenty-four Solar Terms of the Chinese Calendar and the Calculation for Them". Purple Mountain Observatory.
  2. ^ "What is the Grain in Ear(MangZhong)?什么是芒种?_Learn Chinese Hujiang". cn.hujiang.com. Retrieved March 25, 2024.
  3. ^ "What is the Grain in Ear(MangZhong)?什么是芒种?_Learn Chinese Hujiang". cn.hujiang.com. Retrieved March 25, 2024.
  4. ^ "What is the Grain in Ear(MangZhong)?什么是芒种?_Learn Chinese Hujiang". cn.hujiang.com. Retrieved March 25, 2024.
Preceded by
Xiaoman (小滿)
Solar term (節氣) Succeeded by
Xiazhi (夏至)