The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms.[1] Mángzhòng is the ninth solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 75° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 90°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 75°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around June 5 (June 6 East Asia time) and ends around June 21.

Traditional Chinese芒種
Simplified Chinese芒种
Literal meaninggrain in ear
Solar term
Term Longitude Dates
Lichun 315° 4–5 February
Yushui 330° 18–19 February
Jingzhe 345° 5–6 March
Chunfen 20–21 March
Qingming 15° 4–5 April
Guyu 30° 20–21 April
Lixia 45° 5–6 May
Xiaoman 60° 21–22 May
Mangzhong 75° 5–6 June
Xiazhi 90° 21–22 June
Xiaoshu 105° 7–8 July
Dashu 120° 22–23 July
Liqiu 135° 7–8 August
Chushu 150° 23–24 August
Bailu 165° 7–8 September
Qiufen 180° 23–24 September
Hanlu 195° 8–9 October
Shuangjiang 210° 23–24 October
Lidong 225° 7–8 November
Xiaoxue 240° 22–23 November
Daxue 255° 7–8 December
Dongzhi 270° 21–22 December
Xiaohan 285° 5–6 January
Dahan 300° 20–21 January

Introduction of Grain in Ear (芒种) "grain in ear" means the grains are mature. It happens around June 5 every year when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 75 degrees. During this period, crops like barley and wheat all get mature and are waiting to be harvested. In Chinese, "Grain in Ear" is called Mang Zhong. Mang means grains at the same time busy. It forecasts the farmer is getting back to the busy field work.

It is the busiest time to seed millet and the deadline for sowing activities. During this period, areas around the middle stream and downstream of the Yangtze River enter the rainy season. Sensing the wetness, the mantis comes out, the shrike starts to sing and the mockingbird stops tweet.

The arrival of Grain in Ear signifies the ripening of awny crops such as wheat and it is also a busy period for farmers. That can be seen from many farm sayings. One of the sayings is, "Getting busy with farm work in Grain in Ear," prevailing in many provinces. Grain in Ear is especially critical for planting rice. There is a saying in Guizhou that goes, "If you don't plant rice in Grain in Ear, planting will be in vain."

Date and timeEdit

Date and Time (UTC)
year begin end
辛巳 2001-06-05 14:53 2001-06-21 07:37
壬午 2002-06-05 20:44 2002-06-21 13:24
癸未 2003-06-06 02:19 2003-06-21 19:10
甲申 2004-06-05 08:13 2004-06-21 00:56
乙酉 2005-06-05 14:01 2005-06-21 06:46
丙戌 2006-06-05 19:36 2006-06-21 12:25
丁亥 2007-06-06 01:27 2007-06-21 18:06
戊子 2008-06-05 07:11 2008-06-20 23:59
己丑 2009-06-05 12:59 2009-06-21 05:45
庚寅 2010-06-05 18:49 2010-06-21 11:28
辛卯 2011-06-06 00:27 2011-06-21 17:16
壬辰 2012-06-05 06:25 2012-06-20 23:08
癸巳 2013-06-05 12:23 2013-06-21 05:03
甲午 2014-06-05 18:03 2014-06-21 10:51
乙未 2015-06-05 23:58 2015-06-21 16:40
丙申 2016-06-05 05:46 2016-06-20 22:35
丁酉 2017-06-05 11:36 2017-06-21 04:22
戊戌 2018-06-05 17:31 2018-06-21 10:06
己亥 2019-06-05 23:07 2019-06-21 15:56
庚子 2020-06-05 04:56 2020-06-20 21:45
Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

Traditional customsEdit

As the flowers withered away, people in old times used to hold the ceremony to sacrifice for the "God of Flowers", showing their gratitude and their eagerness to see the flowers again next year. This custom is already long gone and people can only read the scene in some of the ancient novels. In China's south Anhui province, people steam dumplings with new fresh wheat flour after seeding the paddy rice. They make the flour into different shapes such as cereals, animals, vegetables, and fruits, color them and pray for villagers' safety.

Healthy living tipsEdit

The best food to eat during "Grain in Ear" period, as suggested by Chinese doctors, is mulberry. Around two thousand years ago, mulberry had already been considered as royal food and among the folk, it was called the "holy fruit". It has abundant glucose, cane sugar, Vitamin A, B and C and many mineral substances and is very good for humans' heart, liver, and kidney.


  1. ^ Zhang, Peiyu; Hunag, Hongfeng( (1994). "The Twenty-four Solar Terms of the Chinese Calendar and the Calculation for Them". Purple Mountain Observatory.
Preceded by
Xiaoman (小滿)
Solar term (節氣) Succeeded by
Xiazhi (夏至)