The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms.[1] Chūnfēn, Shunbun, Chunbun, or Xuân phân is the 4th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 0° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 15°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 20 March and ends around 4 April (5 April East Asia time). It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 0°.

Chunfen
Chinese name
Chinese春分
Literal meaningvernal equinox
Korean name
Hangul춘분
Hanja春分
Japanese name
Kanji春分
Hiraganaしゅんぶん
Solar term
Term Longitude Dates
Lichun 315° 4–5 February
Yushui 330° 18–19 February
Jingzhe 345° 5–6 March
Chunfen 20–21 March
Qingming 15° 4–5 April
Guyu 30° 20–21 April
Lixia 45° 5–6 May
Xiaoman 60° 21–22 May
Mangzhong 75° 5–6 June
Xiazhi 90° 21–22 June
Xiaoshu 105° 7–8 July
Dashu 120° 22–23 July
Liqiu 135° 7–8 August
Chushu 150° 23–24 August
Bailu 165° 7–8 September
Qiufen 180° 23–24 September
Hanlu 195° 8–9 October
Shuangjiang 210° 23–24 October
Lidong 225° 7–8 November
Xiaoxue 240° 22–23 November
Daxue 255° 7–8 December
Dongzhi 270° 21–22 December
Xiaohan 285° 5–6 January
Dahan 300° 20–21 January

PentadsEdit

Each solar term can be divided into 3 pentads (候). They are: first pentad (初候), second pentad (次候) and last pentad (末候). Pentads in Chunfen include:

China
  • First pentad: 玄鳥至, 'The dark birds arrive'. 'Dark bird' in this case refers to swallows, which are also making their northward migration.[2]
  • Second pentad: 雷乃發聲, 'Thunder sounds', referring to the onset of spring thunderstorms.[2]
  • Last pentad: 始電, 'Lightning begins'. This refers to thunderstorms as well, but also to the gradual lengthening of daytime, and the prevalence of sunlight.[2]
Japan

A pentad as follows was referred to Japanese traditional calendar presented in a smaller, easy to use, format.

  • First pentad: Suzume hajimete sukuu (雀始巣), 'Sparrow begins holding a nest'.[3]
  • Second pentad: Sakura hajimete hiraku (桜始開), 'Cherry blossoms open for the first time'.[3]
  • Last pentad: Kaminari sunawachi koeo hassu (雷乃発声), 'Distant thunder start to sound'.[3]

Date and timeEdit

Date and Time (UTC)
year begin end
辛巳 2001-03-20 13:30 2001-04-04 17:24
壬午 2002-03-20 19:16 2002-04-04 23:18
癸未 2003-03-21 00:59 2003-04-05 04:52
甲申 2004-03-20 06:48 2004-04-04 10:43
乙酉 2005-03-20 12:33 2005-04-04 16:34
丙戌 2006-03-20 18:25 2006-04-04 22:15
丁亥 2007-03-21 00:07 2007-04-05 04:04
戊子 2008-03-20 05:48 2008-04-04 09:45
己丑 2009-03-20 11:43 2009-04-04 15:33
庚寅 2010-03-20 17:32 2010-04-04 21:30
辛卯 2011-03-20 23:20 2011-04-05 03:11
壬辰 2012-03-20 05:14 2012-04-04 09:05
癸巳 2013-03-20 11:01 2013-04-04 15:02
甲午 2014-03-20 16:57 2014-04-04 20:46
乙未 2015-03-20 22:48 2015-04-05 02:39
丙申 2016-03-20 04:30 2016-04-04 08:26
丁酉 2017-03-20 10:30 2017-04-04 14:19
戊戌 2018-03-20 16:24 2018-04-04 20:15
己亥 2019-03-20 22:06 2019-04-05 01:51
庚子 2020-03-20 03:54 2020-04-04 07:37
Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zhang, Peiyu; Hunag, Hongfeng( (1994). "The Twenty-four Solar Terms of the Chinese Calendar and the Calculation for Them". Purple Mountain Observatory.
  2. ^ a b c Kondō Heijō (近藤瓶城), ed. (1901). 新加纂録類 (Shinka Sanrokurui). 改定史籍集覧 (Kaitei Shiseki Shūran). Vol. 19. (Meiji 34). Tokyo: 近藤活版所 (Kondō Kappansho). p. 110.
  3. ^ a b c Fujisawa, Morihiko (1961). 年中行事編 (Nenjū Gyōjihen). 図説日本民俗学全集 (Zusetsu Nihon Minzokugaku Zenshū). Vol. 7. Tokyo: Akane Shobō. p. 103.
Preceded by
Jingzhe (驚蟄)
Solar term (節氣) Succeeded by
Qingming (清明)