Magdalen Berns

Magdalen Berns (6 May 1983 – 13 September 2019[2]) was a British YouTuber, boxer and software developer. Berns, a lesbian radical feminist, came to prominence in the late-2010s as a result of a series of YouTube vlogs focusing on lesbian politics, free speech, and gender identity.[1] Berns's views attracted controversy, leading to her being described as "transphobic"[5] and a "TERF".[6] Berns also co-founded the group For Women Scotland (Forwomen.Scot)[7], which opposes proposed changes to the Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Magdalen Berns
Magdalen Berns.jpg
Personal information
Born(1983-05-06)6 May 1983
London, England, United Kingdom[1]
Died13 September 2019(2019-09-13) (aged 36)[2][3]
Marie Curie Hospice, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom[2]
NationalityBritish
Occupation
YouTube information
Channel
Years active2013–2019
Subscribers29.5K subscribers (as of death on 13 September 2019)[4]
Total views3,058,284 views (as of 13 October 2019)

Education, career, and sporting endeavoursEdit

The daughter of Gustavo Berns and the socialist historian Deborah Lavin,[8][9] Berns originated from Camden, London where she attended Hampstead School.[10] As a teenager, she participated in campaigns against Huntingdon Life Sciences and anti-war marches, attended Socialist Labour Party discussions on Marxism, distributed election leaflets for the SLP, and joined a socialist choir.[10][11][12]

After leaving Hampstead School, Berns worked as a sound engineer until attending the University of Edinburgh in her thirties.[10] She initially studied engineering, receiving a Doris Gray Scholarship—an award for underprivileged women studying engineering in Scotland—from the Women's Engineering Society.[13][14] In her second year she switched to physics, graduating in 2016.[1][15] She was a self-taught computer programmer,[16] and between 2013 and 2015 participated in the Google Summer of Code project,[10][17] working on implementing the FFTW3 library for Ruby.[18][19][20] As part of the Summer of Code, she interned in the Outreach Program for Women of the GNOME Foundation,[21][22] where she worked on the Java ATK Wrapper, a module to translate Swing events for the Accessibility Toolkit,[23][24] and on implementing a caret and focus tracking device in GNOME Shell.[25]

Berns was active in Scottish amateur boxing. In 2009, she competed in the Scottish University Boxing Championships in the bantamweight division, losing in the final to Sinead Sheehan.[26] In 2010, she became the first Scottish boxer to win at the Haringey Box Cup,[15] (described by Lee Power of Ham & High as "arguably the biggest and most prestigious tournament in amateur boxing in Europe").[27] In 2011, she became the first Scottish boxer to win at the Golden Girl Championship[15] (one of the largest all-female tournaments in the world);[28] won the British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) Boxing Championship in the novice women's 54 kg class;[29] and competed in the Scottish Amateur Boxing Championships in the 51 kg (flyweight) category, losing in the senior finals to Stephanie Kernachan.[30][31][32][33][34] Berns created a women-only boxing club while at the University of Edinburgh and was a member of Scotland's first female boxing squad. She was posthumously described by Boxing Scotland as "a pioneer for both women's boxing and university boxing in Scotland".[15]

Radical feminismEdit

In 2015, Berns expressed opposition to the Edinburgh University Students' Association "LGBT Liberation" group issuing a statement of support for the decision to exclude drag acts from participating in that year's Pride Glasgow event.[35] In 2016, Berns was banned from the University of Edinburgh's Feminist Society for opposing the decriminalisation of sex work.[35]

In April 2016, Berns began her series of "irreverent"[11] YouTube vlogs where she published her views on gender identity. Her first and subsequent vlogs criticised claims that the unwillingness of cisgender lesbians to have sex with trans women who have penises (coined the "cotton ceiling") is due to transphobia, bigotry or prejudice rather than sexual orientation.[36][37][38] She was also known for arguing against gender self-identification. Speaking on the subject of gender and sexuality, Berns stated: "You don't get 'assigned' reproductive organs...males are defined by their biological sex organs. Likewise, homosexuals are people who are attracted to the same biological sex."[3] She described trans women as "blackface actors" and "men who get sexual kicks from being treated like women",[39] said that "trans women are men",[40] that "there is no such thing as a lesbian with a penis",[41] and that she'd "rather be rude than a fucking liar".[42] She was critical of the LGBT charity Stonewall.[43] Berns was posthumously described as "a great believer in the importance of biological sex [who] didn’t believe lesbians should be called bigots for not dating trans women with penises."[44] By the autumn of 2019, Berns had produced 64 vlogs[15] and amassed approximately 30,000 followers.[16][3]

In May 2016, Berns was among the signatories of an open letter to the Morning Star newspaper, that lauded it for "giving a platform for a sex-class based analysis of women's position, in the face of the convergence of neoliberal individualism and alienation from class consciousness".[45] In July 2016, Berns spoke at Thinking Differently: Feminists Questioning Gender Politics, a conference in London focusing on "the implications of transgenderism for women's rights".[46] The conference was described by one attendee as "the first full-day public conference that we know of on the topic of how gender identity politics harm women and girls". Berns addressed her experiences with no platforming as a university student.[47][48]

In 2018, Berns co-founded the Scottish campaign group Forwomen.Scot,[49][50] which grew to become the largest organisation of its kind in Scotland.[1] The group, which opposes reform of the Gender Recognition Act,[51] has been called anti-trans, which the group themselves deny.[52]

In June 2019, British author J.K. Rowling followed Berns on Twitter, bringing her more visibility and prompting criticism towards Rowling.[40][53][6][54][55] In June 2020, Rowling revealed that she had spoken with Berns, describing her as "an immensely brave young feminist and lesbian", and had begun receiving "low-level harassment" as a result of her association with Berns.[56][57]

Criticism and acclaimEdit

Berns' opinions attracted both criticism and acclaim. She was described as "one of the most hateful and aggressive anti-trans radical feminists on Twitter" by blogger Phaylen Fairchild;[5] as a "TERF" (trans-exclusionary radical feminist) by Vice writer Lewis Gordon;[6] and as a "transphobe" in the Trans Advocate Twitter account,[40] as well as "whorephobic" by members of the Edinburgh University Students' Association.[35][58] Writing in student newspaper The Wesleyan Argus, Connor Aberle stated that Berns's "most popular uploads simply mock videos of transgender people", describing her as part of "a group of far-left YouTubers who hate transgender people".[59] Writing in Femestella, Alysia Stevenson described Berns as "a prominent anti-trans Youtuber", acccusing her of "hateful rhetoric".[43] Writing in the New York Post, Melkorka Licea described Berns as "outspoken".[60] Transgender rights activist and philosophy professor Rachel McKinnon drew criticism, and a protest letter with over 500 signatories, after defending celebrations by Berns's opponents of her impending death. McKinnon said such celebrations are "ethically justified when the person dying has engaged in extreme harassment of a marginalised group".[61][62][63][64]

Writing in the Morning Star, Susan Chynoweth and Deborah Lavin (Berns's mother) praised Berns's "determined defence of women's sex-based rights and the rights of lesbians to assert their sexuality in the face of relentless demands to redefine sex as gender", and named her "one of the best-known feminist speakers of her generation".[1] National Review staff writer Madeleine Kearns called her videos a "great source of inspiration and clarity for those trying to resist gender extremism".[3] Writing in The Velvet Chronicle, Julia Diana Robertson eulogised Berns as a "rare force of nature", suggesting that "While many may never know the impact she made, the ripple effect will be felt for many years to come".[65] Journalist Meghan Murphy stated that Berns had contributed to "igniting public conversation around sex, gender, and sexuality".[66] Irish comedy writer Graham Linehan voiced vocal support for Berns on Twitter and other platforms.[67][68][69] Berns's death was noted by two Members of the Scottish Parliament: Joan McAlpine MSP described her as a "clever and uncompromising" young woman,[70] while Ruth Maguire MSP described her as a "courageous young feminist, who inspired others".[71] In October 2019, Berns was posthumously shortlisted for the Emma Humphreys Memorial Prize,[72] which the organisation awards to women it deems to have "raised awareness of violence against women and children";[73] in November 2019, she received a special award from the organisation.[74][75]

Cancer and deathEdit

In April 2017, Berns informed her YouTube subscribers that she had been diagnosed with a brain tumour that was affecting her left frontal lobe,[76] which she later clarified to actually be centered in her left parietal lobe.[77] In July, she announced that she had an astrocytoma that could not be completely removed surgically.[78] She was diagnosed with glioblastoma in October 2018.[79][3] In palliative care she was visited by Graham Linehan, radical feminist Julie Bindel[80] and sex trafficking survivor Rachel Moran.[81][82]

Berns died from glioblastoma on 13 September 2019, aged 36, in Edinburgh.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Lavin, Deborah; Chynoweth, Susan (20 September 2019). "A feminist with a vivid love of life, gone too soon". Morning Star. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "Magdalen Berns". Edinburgh Evening News. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e Kearns, Madeleine (4 September 2019). "Magdalen Berns, a 'shero' among women". National Review. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Magdalen Berns". YouTube. 13 September 2019. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  5. ^ a b MacGuill, Dan (27 June 2019). "Did J.K. Rowling 'confirm her stance against transgender women'?". Snopes. Retrieved 16 September 2019. The most recent piece of evidence according to Fairchild, and the one that purportedly allowed for "confirmation" of Rowling’s personal views, was Rowling's having followed the Twitter account of Magdalen Berns, a YouTuber whom Fairchild characterized as having transphobic views: "Finally, we have some confirmation of Rowling’s stance against the transgender community. She has followed one of the most hateful and aggressive anti-trans radical feminists on Twitter, Magdalen Berns."
  6. ^ a b c Gordon, Lewis (3 July 2019). "'Wizards Unite' turns the world into a branded 'Harry Potter' hellscape". Vice. Retrieved 17 September 2019. ...the most recent development of which is her following of the TERF Magdalen Berns on Twitter...
  7. ^ Kearns, Madeleine (12 June 2020). "J. K. Rowling vs. woke supremacy". National Review. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  8. ^ Walsh, Lynn (25 April 2020). "Deborah Lavin: socialist historian and actor who will be much missed". Morning Star. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  9. ^ Berns, Elizabeth (9 June 2020). "Deborah Lavin obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d Chynoweth, Susan (7 October 2019). "Magdalen Berns, vlogger who took a stand for women's rights". Camden New Journal. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b Maynard, Lily (27 January 2020). "A celebration of Magdalen Berns". LilyMaynard.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Onwards and upwards: In memory of Deborah Lavin". Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist). 3 April 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  13. ^ "Current recipients of the Doris Gray Scholarships". Women's Engineering Society. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Doris Gray Scottish Scholarships". Women's Engineering Society. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e Parker, Posie (25 September 2019). "In memory of Magdalen Berns". Spiked. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  16. ^ a b Benjamin, Shereen (8 September 2019). "Lesbian strength march". Forwomen.Scot. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  17. ^ Deshmukh, Sameer (13 January 2018). "Google Summer of Code 2018 application". GitHub. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  18. ^ Berns, Magdalen (6 June 2014). "Introducing the FFTW SciRuby GSoC Project". SciRuby.com. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  19. ^ Woods, John (23 January 2015). "Google Summer of Code Wrap up: SciRuby". Google Open Source. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Magdalen Berns created a Ruby wrapper for FFTW3 (a fast Fourier transform library) with a focus on implementing support for transforms on NMatrix objects. This gem was written almost from scratch in the C and Ruby languages.
  20. ^ Deshmukh, Sameer (4 March 2016). "Ruby Association Grant 2015 final report" (PDF). Ruby.or.jp. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Before starting this project, I did some research to see if any FFTW interfaces for Ruby had already been built. My search lead to the fftw library by Magdalen Berns. The biggest problem with Magdalen's library was that it did not leverage FFTW's or NMatrix's unique API, and it was also very old and not being maintained.
  21. ^ Siegel, Daniel G., ed. (August 2013). "GNOME Outreach Program Yearbook 2013" (PDF). GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  22. ^ Day, Allan; et al. (2014). "GNOME annual report 2013" (PDF). GNOME Foundation. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Magdalen Berns present {sic} her work with improving the Java-ATK-Wrapper". GNOME Foundation. August 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  24. ^ Berns, Magdalen (2015). "Develop the Java ATK Wrapper". Google Melange. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  25. ^ Toulas, Bill (28 May 2013). "32 new things Google Summer of Code 2013 will bring to GNOME!". WorldOfGnome.org. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  26. ^ "Boxing: uni show turns destructive". The Scotsman). 8 December 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2019. ...in the only women's final, at bantamweight, Edinburgh's Magdalene {sic} Berns was well beaten on points by the more technically accomplished Sinead Sheehan of Aberdeen.
  27. ^ Power, Lee (15 June 2017). "Haringey Box Cup ready to celebrate 10th anniversary". Ham & High. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  28. ^ Connors, Chris (1 February 2019). "Cape Breton boxer opens up about fight with mental illness". Cape Breton Post. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  29. ^ Edinburgh University Sports Union [@UoESportsUnion] (18 February 2011). "BUCS Boxing GOLD: Magdalen Berns in the Boxing Women's Novice 54kg - Excellent News, well done Magdalen" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019 – via Twitter.
  30. ^ "The cream of Scottish Boxing talent enter the ring for the 2011 ABS Scottish Championships". BoxingScotland.org. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  31. ^ "Boxing: Louise will have a fight on her hands". The Scotsman. 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Edinburgh's other Scottish title contender is Leith Victoria's flyweight Magdalene Berns, who takes on Newarthill boxer Stephanie Kernachan at Coatbridge.
  32. ^ Behan, Paul (24 March 2011). "Battling Buddies in search of glory". Daily Record. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Leith Victoria boxer Magdalena (sic) Berns will be in action against Stephanie Kernachan, of Newarthill ABC, in the 51kg division.
  33. ^ "Ham, Brown power to national title for Renfrewshire Club". The Herald (via PressReader). 26 March 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2019. Stephanie Kernachan, of Newarthill, made it a west coast double by beating Magdalen Berns of Leith Victoria
  34. ^ "Boxing: Mitchell robbed of Scottish title as judges miss point". The Scotsman. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2020. In contrast, there was no room for doubt in the women's flyweight final where Newarthill's Stephanie Kernan justified her 13-2 points winning margin over Leith Victoria's Magdalene Berns by keeping her on the back foot for most of the four-round contest.
  35. ^ a b c Berns, Magdalen (9 January 2016). "Let them call me whorephobic". Butterflies and Wheels. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  36. ^ "Celebrating Magdalen Berns, a lesbian feminist warrior". AfterEllen. 13 September 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  37. ^ Kirkup, James (16 May 2018). "The silencing of the lesbians". The Spectator. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  38. ^ Yardley, Miranda (5 December 2018). "Girl dick, the cotton ceiling and the cultural war on lesbians, girls and women". AfterEllen. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  39. ^ Kane, Vivian (25 June 2019). "J.K. Rowling leaves little doubt about her TERFdom". The Mary Sue. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  40. ^ a b c Zatat, Narjas (25 June 2019). "JK Rowling criticised for following 'transphobe' Magdalen Berns on Twitter". indy100. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  41. ^ Damshenas, Sam (27 June 2020). "JK Rowling slammed by fans for following a "proud transphobe" on Twitter". Gay Times. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  42. ^ Murphy, Meghan (20 September 2019). "The false promises of the Equality Act". Spectator USA. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  43. ^ a b Stevenson, Alysia (26 June 2019). "J.K. Rowling has been following anti-trans activists and we need an explanation". Femestella. Retrieved 25 June 2020. Magdalen Berns is a prominent anti-trans Youtuber (sic) with videos like, "There’s no such thing as a lesbian with a penis", "Misgendering is violence? Nah, mate!", and "What kind of fools do transgender UK and Stonewall take us for?" But Berns spews the majority of her hateful rhetoric on her Twitter, where she ignorantly compared trans-women to blackface actors.
  44. ^ Yasharoff, Hannah (10 June 2020). "J.K. Rowling reveals she's a sexual assault survivor; Emma Watson reacts to trans comments". USA Today. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  45. ^ Berns, Magdalen; et al. (25 May 2016). "Statement of solidarity with the Morning Star". Morning Star. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  46. ^ Blunden, Mark (15 July 2016). "'Medical threat' to transgender children on puberty-blocking drugs". Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  47. ^ Murphy, Meghan (27 September 2016). "'We need to be braver' — women challenge 'gender identity' and the silencing of feminist discourse". Feminist Current. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  48. ^ Singleton, Mary Lou (25 July 2016). "Thinking Differently conference". Women's Liberation Front. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  49. ^ Davidson, Gina (1 September 2019). "Mixed sex loos in Scottish schools break regulations, warn campaigners". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  50. ^ Hyland, Jennifer (6 September 2020). "Women's rights campaigners 'living in fear of trans attack' after vile abuse directed at group". Daily Record. Reach plc. Retrieved 7 September 2020. It also said one of the group's founders, Magdalen Berns...
  51. ^ Rhodes, Mandy (26 August 2019). "The Scottish Government's clumsy attempts to reform the Gender Recognition Act have inadvertently opened a hornet's nest". Holyrood. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  52. ^ Mitchell, Hilary (5 October 2018). ""Hateful" anti-trans stickers have been spotted in toilets and in public spaces around Edinburgh". Edinburgh Live. Retrieved 12 October 2019. We are neither anti-trans nor a 'TERF' group nor hateful...A factual statement of biology is neither anti-trans nor hateful.
  53. ^ Smith-Engelhardt, Joe (28 June 2019). "J.K. Rowling faces backlash for allegedly displaying transphobic behaviour". Alternative Press. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  54. ^ Maurice, Emma (25 June 2019). "JK Rowling under fire for following a 'proud transphobe' on Twitter". PinkNews. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  55. ^ Ahsan, Sadaf (19 December 2019). "J.K. Rowling sparks major backlash by supporting a researcher fired for transphobic tweets". The Guardian. SaltWire Network. Retrieved 26 June 2020. This isn't the first time Rowling has been accused of being transphobic. Earlier this year, she ruffled feathers when she began following "self-professed transphobe" YouTuber Magdalen Berns on Twitter.
  56. ^ Rowling, J.K. (10 June 2020). "J.K. Rowling writes about her reasons for speaking out on sex and gender issues". JKRowling.com. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  57. ^ Jack, Malvern (11 June 2020). "JK Rowling details 'scars of abuse' in heartfelt riposte to activists". The Times. Retrieved 23 June 2020. She said that the "low level of harassment" grew when she followed Magdalen Berns, a feminist and lesbian she hoped to interview for research purposes. Berns, who was dying of a brain tumour, was a controversial figure among trans activists.
  58. ^ Benson, Ophelia (12 October 2015). "How to know what is "whorephobic"". Butterflies and Wheels. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  59. ^ Aberle, Connor (15 November 2018). "YouTube loves to hate me". The Wesleyan Argus. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  60. ^ Licea, Melkorka (10 June 2020). "J.K. Rowling defends controversial trans comments in lengthy essay". New York Post. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  61. ^ Schiferl, Jenna (29 August 2019). "The tweet heard 'round the world: Charleston professor sparks global Twitter debate". The Post and Courier. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  62. ^ "Transgender professor defends celebrating deaths of those deemed 'transphobic'". The College Fix. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  63. ^ Flaherty, Colleen (3 September 2019). "College supports trans scholar under fire". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  64. ^ McGrath, Titania (2020). My First Little Book of Intersectional Activism. Little, Brown Book Group. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1-4721-3426-4.
  65. ^ Robertson, Julia Diana (13 October 2019). "Mourning the loss of lesbian feminist leader Magdalen Berns". The Velvet Chronicle. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  66. ^ McCarty, Meghan (13 September 2019). "What's Current: Lesbian feminist shero Magdalen Berns passes away at 36". Feminist Current. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  67. ^ Fordy, Tom (29 June 2020). "How did Graham Linehan, the creator of Father Ted, become the most hated man on the internet?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  68. ^ "Permanently suspended: How Father Ted co-creator Graham Linehan has become the 'most hated man' on the internet". Irish Independent. 4 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  69. ^ Linehan, Graham (13 September 2019). "Magdalen Berns 1983–2019". Women Are Important. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  70. ^ McAlpine MSP, Joan [@JoanMcAlpine] (13 September 2019). "This is sad news. A clever and uncompromising young women [sic] taken too early by brain cancer.. the best tribute to her is the videos she made. Watch them here m.youtube.com/watch?v=dE_-96DiX54&t=293s … #MagdalenBerns" (Tweet). Retrieved 29 September 2019 – via Twitter.
  71. ^ Maguire MSP, Ruth [@RBFMaguire] (13 September 2019). "A courageous young feminist, who inspired others died today. All day I've written & deleted, thought about caveats, nearly RT'ed but not ...that's really not good enough. Let me simply say, I pledge I will #BeBrave and truthful in standing up for the rights of women & girls" (Tweet). Retrieved 29 September 2019 – via Twitter.
  72. ^ Aberle, Connor (3 October 2019). "2019 shortlist announced". EmmaHumphreys.org. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  73. ^ "About the prize". Emma Humphreys Memorial Prize. 22 July 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  74. ^ Namazie, Maryam (12 November 2019). "Maryam Namazie and Afsana Lachaux, joint winners of 2019 Emma Humphreys Memorial Prize". MaryamNamazie.com. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  75. ^ "Maryam Namazie and Afsana Lachaux, joint winners of 2019 Emma Humphreys Memorial Prize". Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  76. ^ Berns, Magdalen (23 April 2017). My lady-brain... (Videotape). United Kingdom: YouTube. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  77. ^ Berns, Magdalen (19 December 2017). Answering the question: "How are you?" | My ladybrain update #1 (Videotape). United Kingdom: YouTube. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  78. ^ Berns, Magdalen [@MagdalenBerns] (3 July 2017). "My tumour couldn't be completely resected and it's an astrocytoma => not curable; also none of what I said on YouTube is remotely radical. twitter.com/ObscuredLeg/status/881787410987851776 …" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 October 2019 – via Twitter.
  79. ^ Berns, Magdalen (7 October 2018). My ladybrain update #2 | Glioblastoma (Videotape). United Kingdom: YouTube. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  80. ^ Bindel, Julie [@bindelj] (10 September 2019). "I am visiting our queen, Magdalen Berns tomorrow. I would be delighted to pass on any messages of love and appreciation to her if you would like to send me in a (short) DM? Thank you x" (Tweet). Retrieved 10 October 2019 – via Twitter.
  81. ^ Hackel, Joyce (1 October 2015). "After seven years in the Dublin sex trade, Rachel Moran says prostitution is always abuse". Public Radio International. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  82. ^ Moran, Rachel [@RachelRMoran] (30 August 2019). "Magdalen is dying JK. I'm in Edinburgh to visit her in the hospice now. It would mean a lot if you publicly said goodbye. @jk_rowling @MagdalenBerns" (Tweet). Retrieved 10 October 2019 – via Twitter.

External linksEdit