Luís I of Portugal

Dom Luís I (31 October 1838 in Lisbon  – 19 October 1889 in Cascais), known as The Popular (Portuguese: O Popular) was a member of the ruling House of Braganza,[1] and King of Portugal from 1861 to 1889. The second son of Maria II and Ferdinand II, he acceded to the throne upon the death of his brother Pedro V.

Luís I
D. Luís I fotografado por Augusto Bobone em 1885.png
Photograph by Augusto Bobone, 1885
King of Portugal
Reign11 November 1861 –
19 October 1889
Acclamation22 December 1861
PredecessorPedro V
SuccessorCarlos I
Prime Ministers
Born(1838-10-31)31 October 1838
Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Died19 October 1889(1889-10-19) (aged 50)
Citadela Palace, Cascais, Portugal
Full name
Luís Filipe Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcântara António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Valfando
FatherFerdinand II of Portugal
MotherMaria II of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholicism


Luís I and Maria Pia of Savoy at a masquerade ball, 1865.

Luís was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Fernando in 1861. Luís's domestic reign was a tedious and ineffective series of transitional governments called Rotativism formed at various times by the Progressistas (Liberals) and the Regeneradores (Conservatives), the party generally favoured by King Luís, who secured their long term in office after 1881. Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luís's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind the nations of western Europe in terms of public education, political stability, technological progress and economic prosperity. In colonial affairs, Delagoa Bay was confirmed as a Portuguese possession in 1875, whilst Belgian activities in the Congo (1880s) and a British Ultimatum in 1890 denied Portugal a land link between Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique at the peak of the Scramble for Africa.

Personal interestsEdit

Luís was mostly a man of the sciences, with a passion for oceanography. He invested a large portion of his fortune in funding research boats to collect specimens in the oceans of the world, and was responsible for the establishment of one of the world's first aquariums, the Aquário Vasco da Gama in Lisbon, which is still open to the public with its vast collection of maritime life forms, including a 10 meter long squid. His love for the sciences and advances in knowledge was passed on to his two sons. Luís was also very keen with literature, not only with books in Portuguese but also in English. He was the first to bring fully translated Shakespearean works to Portugal, such as The Merchant of Venice, Richard III and Othello, the Moor of Venice. His best-known work in Portugal was his translation of Hamlet.

Marriages and descendantsEdit

On 6 October 1862, Luís married Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (16 October 1847 – 5 July 1911), daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria. They both had a deep love at first, but Luis's countless mistresses led Maria Pia to depression. Together they had two sons who survived childhood, and a stillborn son in 1866.

The King also fathered one illegitimate son, also named Carlos, who was born in 1874 in Lisbon.


He received the following orders:[2]



  1. ^ a b "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
  2. ^ Albano da Silveira Pinto. "Serenissima Casa de Bragança". Resenha das Familias Titulares e Grandes des Portugal (in Portuguese). Lisbon. p. xiv.
  3. ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Baden (1888), "Großherzogliche Orden", pp. 62, 74
  5. ^ Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1877. Landesamt. 1877. p. 8.
  6. ^ Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
  7. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 272. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  8. ^ Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1884), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 29
  9. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Hannover (1865), "Königliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 38
  10. ^ King Kalakaua's Tour Round the World (Honolulu, 1881) p. 72
  11. ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen ", p. 12
  12. ^ Cibrario, Luigi (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri (in Italian). Eredi Botta. p. 115. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  13. ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1859), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 13
  14. ^ Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1867) (in German), "Königliche Ritter-Orden", p. 4
  15. ^ "Caballeros de la insigne orden del Toison de Oro", Guóa Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1875, p. 102, retrieved 4 March 2019
  16. ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1881, p. 377, retrieved 2019-02-20 – via
  17. ^ Norges statskalender (in Norwegian), 1886, p. 234, retrieved 2019-02-20 – via
  18. ^ Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 62
  19. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1866), "Königliche Orden" p. 31
Luís I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 31 October 1838 Died: 19 October 1889
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Pedro V
King of Portugal
Succeeded by
Carlos I
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Maria II
Duke of Porto
Succeeded by
Afonso Henriques