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Dom Luís I (31 October 1838, in Lisbon – 19 October 1889, in Cascais), known as The Popular (Portuguese: O Popular) was a member of the ruling House of Braganza, and King of Portugal from 1861 to 1889. The second son of Queen Maria II and her consort, King Ferdinand, he acceded to the throne upon the death of his elder brother King Pedro V.
|King of Portugal|
|Reign||11 November 1861 – |
19 October 1889
|Acclamation||22 December 1861|
|Born||31 October 1838|
Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
|Died||19 October 1889 (aged 50)|
Citadel Palace, Cascais, Portugal
|Father||Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|Mother||Maria II of Portugal|
Luís was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Fernando in 1861. Luís's domestic reign was a series of transitional governments called Rotativism formed at various times by the Progressistas (Liberals) and the Regeneradores (Conservatives), the party generally favoured by King Luís, who secured their long term in office after 1881. Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luís's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind the nations of western Europe in terms of public education, political stability, technological progress and economic prosperity. In colonial affairs, Delagoa Bay was confirmed as a Portuguese possession in 1875, whilst Belgian activities in the Congo and the 1890 British Ultimatum prevented the Portuguese from colonizing modern-day Botswana in order to establish a link between Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique at the peak of the Scramble for Africa.
Luís was also very keen with literature, not only with books in Portuguese but also in English. He was the first to bring fully translated Shakespearean works to Portugal, such as The Merchant of Venice, Richard III and Othello, the Moor of Venice. His best-known work in Portugal was his translation of Hamlet.
Marriages and descendantsEdit
In June 1862, Luís asked Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1845–1927), a daughter of Archduke Albert, Duke of Teschen and Princess Hildegard of Bavaria, to marry him in a letter sent to her father. It was urgent for him to get married as his older brother, King Pedro V, had died in November 1861, without issue and two of his younger brothers, João and Fernando, followed him shortly after, which left the Braganza dynasty almost without heirs. Luís had already selected a number of brides including Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1845-1912), sister of his late sister-in-law Stephanie, Duchess Sophie Charlotte in Bavaria (1847-1897), Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (1847-1911) and also considered some Austrian archduchesses, Maria Theresa being one of them, but didn't know which one to choose. So he sent letters to his cousin, Queen Victoria, and his great-uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium, to ask for their advice. Both agreed that the best choice was Maria Theresa. Thus, King Luís sent his letter. However, his wish was not fulfilled as her father, Archduke Albert, thought she was too young at the time (she was one month away from turning 17) and needed to finish her education. Two weeks after, Luís asked for the hand of Princess Maria Pia of Savoy and, this time, was accepted, even though Maria Pia, born in 1847, was even younger than Maria Theresa.
Luís married Maria Pia, the daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria, on 6 October 1862. They both had a deep love at first, but Luis's countless mistresses led Maria Pia to depression. Together they had two sons who survived childhood, and a stillborn son in 1866.
- Dom Carlos, Prince Royal of Portugal (28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908), successor as King Carlos I; murdered by the Carbonária.
- Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (31 July 1865 – 21 February 1920), Infante of Portugal, Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India, and after 1908 Prince Royal.
- Miscarriage or Stillborn (1866)
The King also fathered one illegitimate son, also named Carlos, who was born in 1874 in Lisbon.
He received the following orders:
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, 1854
- Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1867
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold, 9 July 1854
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 18 April 1864
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, 1854
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Redeemer
- Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I, 19 August 1881
- Hesse and by Rhine: Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order, 7 December 1865
- Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, 20 April 1883
- Liberia: Grand Cross of the Order of African Redemption
- Mecklenburg: Grand Cross of the Wendish Crown, with Crown in Ore and Collar
- Mexico: Grand Cross of the Mexican Eagle, with Collar, 1865
- Monaco: Grand Cross of St. Charles
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Netherlands Lion
- Ottoman Empire: Order of the Medjidie, 1st Class in Diamonds
- Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of Glory, in Diamonds
- Prussia: Knight of the Black Eagle, 24 July 1854; with Collar, 1862
- San Marino: Grand Cross of San Marino
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 1 August 1854
- Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1854
- Serbia: Grand Cross of the Cross of Takovo
- Siam: Knight of the Nine Gems
- United Kingdom: Stranger Knight of the Garter, 17 June 1865
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Württemberg Crown, 1865
- "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
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