Dom Ferdinand II (Portuguese: Fernando II) (29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885) was a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, and King of Portugal jure uxoris as the husband of Queen Maria II, from the birth of their first son in 1837 to her death in 1853.
|King of Portugal|
|Reign||16 September 1837 – 15 November 1853|
|Prince consort of Portugal|
|Tenure||9 April 1836 – 16 September 1837|
|Born||29 October 1816|
Palais Coburg, Vienna, Austrian Empire
|Died||15 December 1885 (aged 69)|
(m. 1836; died 1853)
|Pedro V, King of Portugal|
Luís I, King of Portugal
Infante João, Duke of Beja
Maria Ana, Princess Georg of Saxony
Antónia, Princess of Hohenzollern
Infante Augusto, Duke of Coimbra
|House||Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry|
|Father||Ferdinand, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry|
|Mother||Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág et Szitnya|
In keeping with Portuguese law, only after the birth of his son in 1837 did he acquire the title of king. Ferdinand's reign came to an end with the death of his wife in 1853, but he served as regent for his son and successor, King Pedro V, until 1855.
He retained the style and title of king even after the death of Maria II and her succession by their children Pedro V and then Luís I. His sons were kings regnants, while Ferdinand himself was a king-father during their reigns.
Born Ferdinand August Franz Anton in Vienna, he was the eldest son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his wife Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág et Szitnya, heiress to the House of Koháry. The younger Ferdinand grew up in several places: the family estates in modern-day Slovakia, the imperial court of Austria, and Germany. He was a nephew of King Leopold I of Belgium, and thus a first cousin to Leopold II of Belgium and Empress Carlota of Mexico, as well as Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her husband Prince Albert. In 1826, his title changed from Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, following the re-arrangement of the Saxon duchies.
King of PortugalEdit
According to Portuguese law, the husband of a queen regnant could only be titled king after the birth of an heir from that marriage; this was the reason Maria II's first husband, Auguste de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg, never acquired the title of king. After the birth of their eldest son and heir, the future Pedro V of Portugal, Ferdinand was proclaimed King Dom Fernando II.
Although it was Maria who reigned by right, the royal couple formed an effective team during their joint reign, with Ferdinand reigning by himself during his wife's pregnancies.
Eventually, Maria II died as a result of the birth of their eleventh child, and Ferdinand II's reign ended. However, he would assume the regency of Portugal from 1853 to 1855, during the minority of his son King Pedro V.
Ferdinand was an intelligent and artistically minded man with modern and liberal ideas. He was adept at etching, pottery and painting aquarelles. He was the president of the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Arts, Lord Protector of the University of Coimbra and Grand-Master of the Rosicrucians.[which?]
In 1838, he acquired the former Hieronymite monastery of Our Lady of Pena, which had been built by King Manuel I in 1511 on the top of the hill above Sintra and had been left unoccupied since 1834, when the religious orders were suppressed in Portugal. The monastery consisted of the cloister and its outbuildings, the chapel, the sacristy and the bell tower, which today form the northern section of the Pena National Palace (the "Old Palace").
Ferdinand began by making repairs to the former monastery, which, according to the historical sources of that time, was in poor condition. He refurbished the whole of the upper floor, replacing the fourteen cells used by the monks with larger-sized rooms and covering them with the vaulted ceilings that can still be seen today. In 1843, the king decided to enlarge the palace by building a new wing (the New Palace) with even larger rooms (one of them being the Great Hall), ending in a circular tower next to the new kitchens. The building work was directed by the Baron von Eschwege, a wild architectural fantasy in an eclectic style full of symbolism that could be compared with the castle Neuschwanstein of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. The palace was built in such a way as to be visible from any point in the park, which consists of a forest and luxuriant gardens with over five hundred different species of trees originating from the four corners of the earth. Ferdinand would spend his last years in this castle with his second wife, receiving the greatest artists of his time.
Marriages and descendantsEdit
In 1836 Ferdinand married Queen Maria II of Portugal. Eleven children were born to the royal couple before Maria died of complications due to childbirth in 1853. Ferdinand was destined to outlive eight of his eleven children. In late 1861, an attack of cholera or typhoid fever struck the royal family and Ferdinand suffered the tragedy of witnessing the death of three of his five surviving sons.
Later in his life, Ferdinand married again in Lisbon on 10 June 1869 to actress Elisa Hensler (Neuchâtel, 22 May 1836 – Lisbon, Coração de Jesus, 21 May 1929). Just before the marriage, she was styled Gräfin (Countess) von Edla by Ferdinand's cousin Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The couple had no children.
|By Maria II of Portugal (4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853; married on 9 April 1836)|
|Pedro V||16 September 1837||11 November 1861||Succeeded his mother as King of Portugal.|
|Luís I||31 October 1838||19 October 1889||Succeeded his brother as King of Portugal.|
|Infanta Maria||4 October 1840||4 October 1840|
|Infante João||16 March 1842||27 December 1861||Duke of Beja. Died of cholera in 1861.|
|Infanta Maria Ana||21 August 1843||5 February 1884||Married King George of Saxony and was the mother of King Frederick August III of Saxony, and grandmother of Charles I, the last Emperor of Austria.|
|Infanta Antónia||17 February 1845||27 December 1913||Married Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern and was the mother of King Ferdinand I of Romania.|
|Infante Fernando||23 July 1846||6 November 1861||Died of cholera in 1861.|
|Infante Augusto||4 November 1847||26 September 1889||Duke of Coimbra.|
|Infante Leopoldo||7 May 1849||7 May 1849|
|Infanta Maria||3 February 1851||3 February 1851|
|Infante Eugénio||15 November 1853||15 November 1853|
|Ancestors of Ferdinand II of Portugal|
|Royal styles of|
King Fernando II of Portugal
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- Portuguese orders and decorations
- Grand Cross of the Sash of the Three Orders, 9 December 1835 – wedding gift of his bride, Queen Maria II
- Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword
- Grand Cross of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa
- Gold Medal of Distinguished Service
- Foreign orders and decorations
- Austrian Empire: Grand Cross of St. Stephen, 1843
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold, 15 July 1835
- Empire of Brazil:
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 12 April 1841
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, December 1835
- Kingdom of France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Netherlands Lion
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Russian Empire:
- Kingdom of Sardinia:
- Kingdom of Saxony:
- Spain: Knight of the Golden Fleece, 16 October 1838
- Sweden-Norway: Knight of the Seraphim, with Collar, 15 February 1852
- Two Sicilies: Grand Cross of St. Ferdinand and Merit
- Daughter of Jean Conrad Hensler (Röschitz, c. 1797 – Vienna, 14 April 1872) and wife Josephe Hechelbacher (Wallerstein, c. 1805 – aft. 1872), paternal grandchildren of Michael Hensler and wife Katharina Prauneis and maternal grandchildren of Karl Hechelnbacher and wife Theresia Schretzmayer.
- By an unknown father she had a daughter named Alice Hensler (Paris, 25 December 1855 – Lisbon, Benfica, 18 June 1941), who married in Lisbon, Alcântara, on 30 September 1883 a Portuguese Navy officer from Azores, Manuel de Azevedo Gomes (1848 –1907), by whom she had issue.
- Staatshandbuch für die Herzogthümer Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1865). "Genealogie des Herzogliche Hauses", p. 10. Gotha: Thienemann.
- Bragança, Jose Vicente de (2014). "Agraciamentos Portugueses Aos Príncipes da Casa Saxe-Coburgo-Gota" [Portuguese Honours awarded to Princes of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha]. Pro Phalaris (in Portuguese). 9–10: 6. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Ferdinand Veldekens (1858). Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer. lelong. p. 206.
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 468. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- Staatshandbücher ... Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1837), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 13
- "Schwarzer Adler-orden", Königlich Preussische Ordensliste (in German), vol. 1, Berlin, 1877, p. 9
- Bragança, Jose Vicente de; Estrela, Paulo Jorge (2017). "Troca de Decorações entre os Reis de Portugal e os Imperadores da Rússia" [Exchange of Decorations between the Kings of Portugal and the Emperors of Russia]. Pro Phalaris (in Portuguese). 16: 6. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- Cibrario, Luigi (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri (in Italian). Eredi Botta. p. 112. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1863) (in German), "Königliche Ritter-Orden", p. 4
- "Caballeros de la insigne orden del Toison de Oro", Guóa Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1875, p. 102, retrieved 4 March 2019
- Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1881, p. 377, retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org