Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italian: Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor. The Grand Master is Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, since 1983.
|Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus|
|Awarded by House of Savoy|
|Type||Dynastic order of chivalry|
|Established||16 September 1572|
(Order of Saint Maurice: 1434)
(Order of Saint Lazarus: 1119)
|Royal house||House of Savoy|
|Awarded for||Distinguished merits|
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia
|Chairman of the Council||Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice|
|Grades||Grand Cordon, Special Class|
|Total inductees||Circa 2,000|
|Next (higher)||Royal Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation|
|Next (lower)||Royal Order of the Crown|
The order was formerly awarded by the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) with the heads of the House of Savoy as the Kings of Italy. Originally a chivalric order of noble nature, it was restricted to subjects of noble families with proofs of at least eight noble great-grandparents. The order's military and noble nature was and is still combined with a Roman Catholic character.
After the abolition of the monarchy and the foundation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the legacy of the order is maintained by the pretenders of the House of Savoy and the Italian throne in exile.
The order is estimated to include about 2,000 members around the world.
The undisputed continuation of the Order of St. Lazarus is in the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, which continues under the pretenders to the Italian Crown.— Michael Foster
Both crosses from its two forerunners still exist in the insignia of their subsequent successor, today's Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, founded by amalgation in 1572.
Order of Saint Lazarus (1119)Edit
The Order of Saint Lazarus, founded c. 1119, can be traced to the establishment around 1100, of a hospital for leprosy in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, by a group of crusaders who called themselves "Brothers of Saint Lazarus". From its inception, the order was concerned with the relief of leprosy, and many of its members were lepers who had been knights in other orders. It became rich, its practices dubious, and its funds eventually abused. With the fall of Acre in 1291, the Knights of Saint Lazarus emigrated from the Holy Land and Egypt and settled in France and, in 1311, in Naples. In the 16th century, the order declined in credibility and wealth. With papal support, the Duke of Savoy became Grand Master in 1572. Before its transfer to the House of Savoy, the Order of Saint Lazarus maintained a number of leper hospitals, including an institution in the Italian city of Capua.
Order of Saint Maurice (1434)Edit
The Order of Saint Maurice was established in 1434 by Amedeo VIII of Savoy, during his stay in the Ripaglia hermitage near Thonon, named after Saint Maurice of the Theban Legion. From its beginning, it was a military order. The order declined, but in 1572 was reestablished by Pope Pius V at the instigation of the then-Duke of Savoy.
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (1572)Edit
In 1572, Pope Gregory XIII united the Order of Saint Lazarus in perpetuity with the Crown of Savoy. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, merged it with the Savoyan Order of Saint Maurice, and thenceforth the title of Grand Master of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus was hereditary in that house. The pope gave him authority over the vacant commanderies everywhere, except in the states of the King of Spain, which included the greater part of Italy. In England and Germany, these commanderies were suppressed by the Protestant reformation.
The new organisation was charged to defend the Holy See as well as continue to assist lepers. The war galleys of the order fought against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary pirates. When leprosy again broke out, the order founded a hospital in Aosta in 1773.
Kingdom Italy (1861–1946)Edit
With the Italian unification (1860-1871), the order became a de facto Italian state order for military and civilian merits, consisting of five classes: Knight Grand Cross, Knight Grand Officer, Knight Commander, Knight Officer and Knight.
The formerly related Maurician medal for Military Merit of fifty years, established in 1839, was one of the few medals not suppressed by the Italian republic, becoming the Maurician medal of Merit for 50 years military career in 1954.
Brought back in favour by King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, the order was sparingly conferred for distinguished service in military and civilian affairs as an exclusive award compared with the more common Order of the Crown of Italy.
Dynastic chivalric order bestowed in exile (1946-)Edit
After Italy became a republic in 1946, the order was effectively replaced by the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic. Since 1951 it has not been officially recognised by the Italian state.
The House of Savoy in exile continues to bestow the order on recipients eminent in the public service, science, art, letters, trade, and charitable works. While the continued use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted in Italy, the crowns on the ribbons issued before 1946 must be substituted for as many five pointed stars on military uniforms. Eventually, it became a requirement for a person to have already received the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus before receiving the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation.
The generally accepted Grand Master of the order is Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, the current head of the House of Savoy. However, some of Vittorio Emanule's policies as Grand Master have generated controversy.
In 2006, Vittorio Emanuele's third cousin, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (b. 1943), declared himself head of the Savoy dynasty and thus Sovereign de jure. For this reason, the grand magistry is now contested.
According to the Statutes, the Order is divided into five classes for the Knights (male members):
- Knight Grand Cordon, who wear a sash on the right shoulder to the left hip and the badge as well as star are worn on the left side;
- Grand Officer, who wear a necklet plus the star on the left chest;
- Commander, who wear a necklet;
- Officer, who wear a medal in Gold on the left side of the chest;
- Knight, who wear a smaller Medal in Silver on the left side of the chest.
For female members the Order is divided into in three classes:
- Dame Grand Cordon, wearing a sash similar to that of their male counterparts
- Dame Commander, who wear on a necklet. During daydress: wear a bow formed necklet worn on the left side of the chest. During evening wear: bow formed necklet worn on the left side of the chest)
- Dame, who wear a smaller necklet; During daydress and evening wear: bow formed medal worn on the left side of the chest
Special Class of the Order:
- Knight Grand Cordon, Special Class, For the Grand Master of the Order; who wear a sash on the right shoulder to the left hip, the badge as well as star which is worn on the left side of the stomach are in Brilliants
- The badge of the order is in gilt, consists of a white-enameled cross bottony of the Order of Saint Maurice, with a green-enameled Maltese Cross, the Cross of the Order of Saint Lazarus, placed in saltire between the arms of the cross botonny. The badge of each class except that of Knight and Dame is topped by a gilt crown.
- The star of the Order is a silver faceted star, with eight points for Grand Cross and four points for Grand Officer, and with the badge (minus the crown) superimposed upon it.
- The breast cross for the Commander "jus patronato" class is identical to the badge, minus the crown.
- The ribbon of the Order is apple green, with slight variations for the several classes:
|Ribbon||Class (English)||Full title in Italian|
|1st Class / Knight Grand Cross||Cavaliere di Gran Croce dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro|
|2nd Class / Commander First Class (from 1865 Grand Officer)||Commendatore di prima classe (dal 1865 Grande Ufficiale) dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro|
|3rd Class / Commander||Commendatore dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro|
|4th Class / Officer||Ufficiale dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro|
|5th Class / Knight||Cavaliere dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro|
|Maurizian Medal (not members of the order)||Medaglia Mauriziana pel Merito Militare di dieci lustri|
List of Grand MastersEdit
- Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1572-1580)
- Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (1580-1630)
- Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (1630-1637)
- Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (1637-1638)
- Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1638-1675)
- Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia (1675-1731)
- Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (1732-1773)
- Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia (1773-1796)
- Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia (1796-1802)
- Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia (1802-1824)
- Charles Felix of Sardinia (1824-1831)
- Charles Albert of Sardinia (1831-1849)
- Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (1849-1878)
- Umberto I of Italy (1878-1900)
- Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1900-1946)
- Umberto II of Italy (1946-1983)
- Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples (1983-) (contested by Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta 2021-)
Recipients in selectionEdit
- Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
- Emperor Wilhelm II of the German Empire
- Emperor Nicholas II of Russia
- Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
- King Zog I of Albania
- King George V of the United Kingdom
- King Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar of Persia
- Prince and Grand Master Andrew Bertie of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- Maharaja Jagatjit Singh
- Maharaja Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana
- Mihailo Obrenović of Serbia
- Abbas Helmy I of Egypt
- General of the Armies John Pershing
- General of the Army George Marshall
- Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch
- Field Marshal Francisco Solano López
- General Matthew Bunker Ridgway
- General François d'Astier de La Vigerie
- General Tasker H. Bliss
- General Mark W. Clark
- General Ira C. Eaker
- General Peyton C. March
- Admiral Ernesto Burzagli
- Surgeon Rear-Admiral Arthur Skey
- Major General Ulysses S. Grant III
- Major General Mason Patrick
- Rear Admiral Richard Byrd
- Brigadier General Billy Mitchell
- Naval Captain Emilio Faà di Bruno
- Flight Commander Douglas Harries
- Senior Systems Manager (CF 3) Jonas Arnell
- SS-Obergruppenführer Hans Lammers
- Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram
- Brigadier General Evan M. Johnson
- Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, 1921
- Henri Jaspar
- Charles de Broqueville
- Charles Rogier
- Baron Edmond de Sélys Longchamps
- President Porfirio Díaz
- Dr Hans Frank, 26.9.1936
- Minister of foreign affairs Giustino Fortunato
- Member of Parliament Cristiana Muscardini
- Diplomat Jose Maria Quijano Wallis
- Luigi, Count Cibrario
- Baron Oswald von Richthofen, State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the German Empire - August 1902 - during the visit to Germany of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
- President of the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition and Former St. Louis Mayor David R. Francis
- Mayor Rudolph Giuliani of New York City (2001) Cavaliere di Gran Croce (Motu Proprio)
- James Charles Risk[circular reference] of New York City, Cavaliere di Gran Croce, originally inducted by the last reigning King of Italy, Umberto II of Italy
- Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy and Duce of Fascism
- Architect Carlo Rainaldi
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