List of websites founded before 1995

The first website was created in August 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, a European nuclear research agency. Berners-Lee's WorldWideWeb browser was made publicly available that month. The World Wide Web began to enter everyday use in 1993–4, when websites for the general public started to become available.[1] By the end of 1994, the total number of websites was still minute compared to present figures, but quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiring examples of today's most popular services. Of the thousands of websites founded prior to 1995, those appearing here are listed for one or more of the following reasons:


Snapshot of the CERN site The World Wide Web project, the first website, as of November 1992.[2] The Web was publicly announced (via a posting to the Usenet newsgroup alt.hypertext) on August 6, 1991.[3]
World Wide Web Virtual Library
Originally Tim Berners-Lee's web catalog at CERN. Snapshot from November 1992: Subject listing – Information by Subject.[4]
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Paul Kunz from SLAC visited Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in September 1991. He was impressed by the WWW project and brought a copy of the software back to Stanford. SLAC launched the first web server in North America on December 12, 1991.[5] SLAC first web page: SLACVM Information Service.[6]


Near the end of 1992, there were approximately 50-60 websites, according to a robot web crawl by CWI researcher Guido van Rossum[7]

The Dutch National institute for subatomic physics, originally at This site was the third website in the world to come online in February 1992, after CERN and SLAC.[8]
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications site was an early home to the NCSA Mosaic web browser, as well as documentation on the web and a "What's New?" list which many people used as an early web directory.[9]
Second web server in North America, following in the trend of high-energy physics laboratories.
Early, comprehensive archiving project. Project as a whole started in 1992 and was quick to move to the web.
Ohio State University Department of Computer and Information Science
Early development of gateway programs, and mass conversion of existing documents, including RFCs, TeXinfo, UNIX man pages, and the Usenet FAQs.
The French National institute for nuclear physics and particle physics, originally at Centre de Calcul IN2P3.[8]
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Information service – both in Hebrew and English. It was the first RTL website and the 10th to come online in April 1992, at[10]
The Exploratorium
One of the first science museums on-line.[11]
youngmonkey (studios)
Initially hosted as a domain, showcasing music/writing projects and software products (DOS/Amiga). Also includes articles, technical information, and other resources for synthesizer enthusiasts, developers, and others. Home to likely the first online store (SalesSite) using dial-up credit card verification; and first web streaming, video distribution, and pay-per-view online video system (StreamSite). Came online at some point, still to be determined, in 1991–1992. Moved to its .ca domain ( in April 1995.
simianpress (a manifestation of youngmonkey)
A showcase for graphic design and publishing projects, and likely offering the first professional website design. The slater mergedline at some point, still to be determined, in between 1991–1992. It was later merged with youngmonkey's .ca domain in 1995.
CBSS (Consulting Firm)
Came online in late 1992, CBSS Inc. of Houston, Texas quietly offered what was very likely the first commercial Website hosting service. CBSS pioneered Web access via mobile phone through Motorola's proprietary cellular data interface. The Motorola service is no longer maintained, but the Website is still visible today at CBSS, Inc..[12]
The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. The first web page in Japan was created by Dr. Yohei Morita at the suggestion of Dr. Tim Berners-Lee in September 1992. CERN's web site linked the KEK page on 30 September 1992.[13] Still online at KEK Entry Point.[14]
Bluegrass Music News and Information. Bob Cherry's music web site was launched on September 9, 1992. It became called "Banjo" on September 30, 1992, and later "Cybergrass in 1995".[15] Its content was bluegrass music and Digital Traditions lyrics & chords and was hosted on the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center's vax, It now resides at[16] It was the first music-based website on the web.[17]


By the end of 1993, there were 623 websites, according to a study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) researcher Matthew Gray.[18]

(Archie Like Indexing for the WEB)[19] is considered the first Web search engine. It was announced in November 1993[20] by its developer Martijn Koster. ALIWEB was presented in May 1994[21] at the First International Conference at CERN in Geneva.[22]
Financial portal with information on markets, currency conversion, news and events, and Bloomberg Terminal subscriptions.[23]
Wedding and Bridal store founded in 1990 on internet in 1993 as which later changed to aka DeBora Rachelle and [24][25][better source needed]
The flagship website of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement. It serves its own members and Jews worldwide.[26]
Corpus of Electronic Texts (formerly CURIA)
Peter Flynn from University College Cork (UCC) saw Tim Berners-Lee demonstrating the WWW at a RARE WG3 meeting. The former then requested the latter to install the software at UCC for the CURIA project.[27]
Doctor Fun
One of the first webcomics, noted by the NCSA as "a major breakthrough for the Web".[28][29][30]
The LANL preprint archive
Web access to thousands of papers in physics, mathematics, computer science, and biology; developed out of earlier gopher, File Transfer Protocol (ftp), and e-mail archives at Los Alamos.[31][32][33] Now known as ArXiv.
Électricité de France
One of the first industrial Web sites in Europe which started as the Web site of the Research and Development (R&D) Division, and was implemented by R&D Engineers Sylvain Langlois, Emmanuel Poiret and a few months later Daniel Glazman. They did not have approval for that and had to restart the server, connected to RENATER through a 155Mb link, every time IT was shutting it down for lack of approval. Electricité de France's R&D later submitted patches to CERN httpd and was active in Web Standardisation.
Global Network Navigator
Example of an early web directory created by O'Reilly Media and one of the Web's first commercial sites; it was hosted at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN).[34]
Haystack Observatory
Haystack Observatory's website explained its radio and radar remote sensing mission and provided data access for science users. The content was rolled out on December 13, 1993, by Dr. John Holt of Haystack. The website is still active, and the original web page format is still available online.[35][36]
The Internet Movie Database
Founded in 1990 by participants in the Usenet newsgroup rec.arts.movies, the IMDB was rolled out on the web in late 1993, hosted by the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales.[37][38][39]
Internet Underground Music Archive
Created by students at the University of California, Santa Cruz to help promote unsigned musical artists. Music was shared using the MP2 format, presaging the later extreme popularity of MP3 sharing and Online music stores.[40][41][42]
Joachim Jarre Society
Created by students at the [Norwegian_University_of_Science_and_Technology] and one of the first websites in Norway from November 1993 and still online
The world's first Web search engine,[43] created by Jonathon Fletcher[44][45][46] on December 12, 1993,[43][47][48] and was hosted at the University of Stirling in Scotland. In operation until 1994.[49]
Kent Anthropology
One of the first social science sites (online May 1993). Originally at Still online.
After a start as an anonymous ftp-based art gallery and collaborative collective, the OTIS project (later SITO) moved to the web due to SunSITE's hosting.[50][51]
The Tech
The MIT campus newspaper, The Tech, claims to be the first newspaper to deliver content over the Web, beginning in May 1993.[52]
Web site set up for Nexor, by Martijn Koster, an early Internet software company.[53]
The music television network's domain was registered in 1993 by VJ Adam Curry, who personally ran a small unofficial site.
PARC Map Server
Arguably the earliest precursor of MapQuest and Google Maps. PARC researcher Steve Putz tied an existing map viewing program to the web. But now defunct.[54]
An online photography resource and community, designed and founded by Philip Greenspun.[55] Greenspun released the software behind as a free open-source toolkit for building community websites, the ArsDigita Community System.[56]
Principia Cybernetica
Probably the first complex, collaborative knowledge system, sporting a hierarchical structure, index, map, annotations, search, plenty of hyperlinks, etc. Designed by Francis Heylighen, Cliff Joslyn and Valentin Turchin to develop a cybernetic philosophy.[57][58][59]
The first life sciences web site. Still active.[60][61]
Trojan room coffee pot
The first webcam.[62][63][64]
Trincoll Journal
a multimedia magazine published by students at Trinity College in Hartford Connecticut.[65][66][67]
An online presence for Wired magazine.[68]
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (a.k.a. NTT)
NTT's WWW Servers in Japan (日本のホームページ, Nihon no houmu peiji, lit. "Home Pages in Japan")[69] was the most famous web page in Japan in the mid-1990s. The page was announced in December 1993.[70]


By mid-1994 there were 2,738 websites, according to Gray's statistics; by the end of the year, more than 10,000.

Allied Artists International
The first corporate web site for Allied Artists Entertainment Group, predecessor to Allied Artists International, present day owner of Allied Artists Film Group & Allied Artists Music Group[71]
American Marketing Association
Professional Association. Created in 1994 by a group of Marketing professors. It offered general marketing news for marketers and professors of marketing. Approximately a year later, the site was moved to where it still remains.[72]
Amnesty International
Human Rights site. Created in 1994 by the organization's International Secretariat and the Computer Communications Working Group of Amnesty International Canada.
"Art on the Net", created by Lile Elam in June 1994 to showcase the artwork of San Francisco Bay Area artists as well as other international artists. It offered free linkage and hosts extensive links to other artists' sites.
Art Crimes
The first graffiti art site began to archive photos from around the world, creating an important academic resource as well as a thriving online community.[73]
The Amazing FishCam
A webcam pointed at a fishtank located at Netscape headquarters. According to a contemporaneous article by The Economist, "In its audacious uselessness—and that of thousands of ego trips like it—lie the seeds of the Internet revolution."
Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator
Created by Scott Pakin in April 1994, the site allows users to specify the name of the individual or company that the complaint is directed toward, as well as the number of paragraphs the complaint will have. After submitting the data, the computer generates sentences that are composed of arbitrary verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Still active.[74][75][76]
BBC Online
Started in April with some regional information and Open University Production Centre (OUPC) content. By September, the first commercial service was launched, a transcription service via ftp server. At its peak, it had 122 accounts, including FBI bureaus around the world, taking daily updates from 12 feeds. Still active.[77][78]
Bianca's Smut Shack
An early web-based chatroom and online community known for raucous free speech and deviant behavior.[79][80][81]
Birmingham City Council
Early local government site, initially hosted by the University of Birmingham.[82]
The earliest website for alternative music artists and news. Created by A. Joi Brown and Matthew Brown in 1993–1994. Registered with Network Solutions 1993.
The first website for an airline, Canadian Airlines.[83]
The first Ask the rabbi site. Launched by Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Kazen as an outgrowth of earlier discussion groups on FidoNet dating back to 1988.[84]
The first "City Site" web development company, advertising businesses and reviewing music and art events in the Bay Area. Started in 1994. CitySites was featured in Interactive Week Magazine in 1997 as numerous other City websites began competing for the business ad market including CitySearch and others. Founder, Darrow Boggiano, still operates CitySites.[85][86]
Cool Site of the Day
Glenn Davis' daily pick of 'cool' websites.[81][87][88]
The first commercial advertising service that focused on using spam comes online as, it was set up by Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, notorious for spamming Usenet newsgroups earlier that year.[89][90][91]
The Community Research & Development Information Service, the European Commission's first permanent website, providing the repository of EU-funded research projects. Launched on ESPRIT day in November 1994 as[92]
The Economist
The Economist "went live in early 1994" with a website "structured as a portal with various search tools of the day (e.g., Archie, Veronica, Jughead, WAIS and Gopher)"; it cost $120, paid for by one of the magazine's correspondents, and by the end of the year "America Online voted it one of the world's top-ten news sites, nosing out Time-Warner's celebrated Pathfinder site—which reputedly cost $120 million to build."[93]
Einet Galaxy
Claims to be the first searchable web catalog; originally created at the Einet division of the MCC Research Consortium at the University of Texas, Austin. It passed through several commercial owners and is now run by Logika Corporation.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Online[94][95][96]
First purely web-based (no gopher!) literary webzine (originally published at
EPage Classifieds
First Web classified ad site (was originally at
First Virtual
First "cyber-bank".
FolkBook / An Online Acoustic Music Establishment
A fansite dedicated to documenting Folk Music and Folk Musicians. It operated at Ohio State at , from September 1, 1994, until it was taken off-line on March 7, 1998. After that it was redirected to a similar Folk Music site, folkmusic dot org , which still exists, but which has not been updated since 2002.[97]
World's oldest still operating webcam. Located at San Francisco State University.
Flags of the World[98]
First web site in biomedical research (service initiated in January 1994) and the earliest Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in PubMed.[99] GeneNetwork was initially known as the Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome[100] and then as WebQTL.[101][102] This genetics site has been funded continuously by National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge National Laboratory Governor's Chair to RW Williams.
HM Treasury
Website of HM Treasury, the United Kingdom government department.[103]
Home Page Replica
A fansite dedicated to researching the history and music of Captain Beefheart & His Magic Band.[104]
Website of Wired magazine with its own unique and innovative online content. Home of the first banner ads, for Zima and AT&T.[105][106]
An early corporate web site[107]
The first online music magazine set up by music journalist Anil Prasad, accessible at: Innerviews: Music Without Borders[108]
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology
University of Oxford. The web version of a previous Gopher server. Set up in early 1994 by David Price at No version has been archived but announcements giving the URL date from April 1994 on Humanist-l and anthro-l.
The Irish Times
First newspaper in the United Kingdom or Ireland to have a website: irish-times. It was founded in 1994. The newspaper moved to in 1999 and in 2008.[109]
Justin Hall's Links from the Underground
One of the earliest examples of personal weblogging.[110][111][112]
Early legal website, provides public access to pre-qualified, pre-screened attorneys, and to free legal resources.[113]
Literary Kicks
Early literary website about Beat Generation, spoken word poetry and alternative literary scenes, launched by Levi Asher on July 23, 1994.[114]
Early search engine, originally a university research project by Dr. Michael Mauldin.[115][116][117]
Megadeth, Arizona
The first website for a band, Megadeth.[118][119][120]
An early corporate site.[121]
MIT IHTFP Hack Gallery
Website dedicated to cataloging Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In continuous operation since 1994, accessible at: IHTFP Hack Gallery: Welcome to the IHTFP Gallery![122]
Museum of Bad Art
Website of a museum "dedicated to the tongue-in-cheek display of poorly conceived or executed examples of Outsider Art in the form of paintings or sculpture."[123][124]
The Nine Planets
"A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System", created by Bill Arnett. One of the first extensively multimedia sites.[125][126][127]
One of the first newspaper sites; the online presence of the Raleigh, North Carolina News & Observer.[128][129]
Highly popular early webcomic.[130][131][132]
One of the first sites dedicated to Internet, multi-user video-game programming; maintained at Defunct.[133]
Online Technology Exchange, Inc. created the largest worldwide searchable database of electronic components and semiconductor parts[134]
One of the first Internet portals, created by Time Warner.[93]
Pizza Hut
The pizza chain restaurant started by allowing people in Santa Cruz, California to order pizza over the Web.[135]
The website of Powell's Books.[136][137] It started with two employees; the company's first online order was placed by an Apple employee.[138] It pre-dates[139]
The first known single-serving site; consists of simply a purple background.[140][141]
The Radcliffe Science Library
The first part of Oxford University to establish a web presence (on 7 Jan 1994) from The oldest known archive version is on the Wayback Machine from 19.10.1996. The URL is attested on email lists (e.g. Humanist-l) by April 1994.
Radio Prague
The official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic was an early media entity on the web; they put transcripts of their news broadcasts and other current affairs content in 5 languages on the web. They started in 1994 (and they are still active).[142]
Senator Edward Kennedy
The first website for a member of the U.S. Congress was officially announced on June 2, 1994. The site remained active throughout the remainder of the senator's service until his death in 2009.[143]
Saccharomyces Genome Database
NIH funded research project on the Web. Still funded by NIH and online. SGD provide curation of all published results on budding yeast (aka. bakers, brewers, and wine yeast) genes and their products. Current URL is[144][145][146]
Subject of a twelve-year legal battle that established parameters of domain ownership.
SIGHTINGS began in 1994 as the website home for Jeff Rense's award-winning UFO & Paranormal radio program of the same name.
The Skeptic's Dictionary
Features definitions, arguments, and essays on topics ranging from acupuncture to zombies, and provides a lively, commonsense trove of detailed information on things supernatural, paranormal, and pseudoscientific.
Commercial website for open die forge facility.
The Simpsons Archive
The first fan site for The Simpsons television show.
Sirius Connections
The first internet service provider in the San Francisco Bay Area.[147] The owner – Arman Kahalili, gave novice website creators a great deal of technical assistance to get the new wave of developers started on building sites and expanding code that was used in later versions of Hypertex Markup Language (HTML) and other web technology.[148]
Early humor site, called "a window on the weird" by The New Yorker.[149]
Stak Trading (
Computer hardware resale in the UK. The site was created by Stuart Mackintosh who previously provided software and driver downloads through a Wildcat! BBS and price lists to the trade via Faxmaker faxback systems.
The Electronic Telegraph, website of the Daily Telegraph.[150]
The First Traditional Roman Catholic Internet Site, founded September 29, 1994.[151]
The first site using the internet for a sales medium on a global scale for heavy machinery.
One of the first sports news sites, initially providing Tour de France news.[152][153]
Virginia's Legislative Information System The site remains active today as "LIS Classic".[citation needed]
Created in 1994 by MIT dorm mates, pioneered shopping cart technology, pioneered credit card payments sent via fax to mail order catalogs, created the first pooled-traffic site, and helped foster standards for security. One of the first "tenants" was Hickory Farms.[154]
The WWW Useless Pages
Perhaps the first site which showcased bad or eccentric websites rather than 'cool' ones.
An early search engine for the Web, and the first with full text searching, by Brian Pinkerton at the University of Washington, announced in June 1994.
A London-based web site design company, founded by Steve Bowbrick and Ivan Pope. The domain name was registered on 27 October 1994 and the web site launched in November.[155]
The official website of the White House.
World-Wide Web Worm
The World-Wide Web Worm (WWWW) was one of the first search engines for the World-Wide Web, by Oliver McBryan at the University of Colorado, announced in March 1994.
Originally started as "Jerry's Guide to the World Wide Web"; later Yahoo without the exclamation mark.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780745639208.
  2. ^ "The World Wide Web project". Retrieved 2015-06-05.
  3. ^ "WorldWideWeb: Summary". 6 August 1991. Archived from the original on 9 Aug 1991.
  4. ^ "History of the Virtual Library [Overview.html]". Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  5. ^ "Stanford Linear Accelerator Center – First North American Web Site". 1991-12-12. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  6. ^ "Archives and History Office: SLAC's First Web Pages". Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  7. ^ "Re: strategy for HTML spec?". The World Wide Web History Project.
  8. ^ a b "Nikhef Guide".
  9. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. "What were the first WWW browsers?". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  10. ^ "World-Wide Web Servers".
  11. ^ "Exploratorium Fact Sheet". Exploratorium. 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  12. ^ "CBSS, Inc".
  13. ^ "10年前のホームページ[!".
  14. ^ "First Web page in Japan".
  15. ^ "Build Your Brand: A Musician's Life on Social Media". No Depression. 2018-02-14.
  16. ^ "Cybergrass". Cybergrass.
  17. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. 1996-10-29. Archived from the original on 1996-10-29.
  18. ^ "Web Growth Summary". Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  19. ^ "Aliweb". Advertising Technologies Corporation. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  20. ^ Martijn Koster (30 November 1993). "ANNOUNCEMENT: ALIWEB (Archie-Like Indexing for the WEB)". comp.infosystems.
  21. ^ "List of PostScript files for the WWW94 advance proceedings". First International Conference on the World-Wide Web. June 1994. Title: "Aliweb – Archie-Like Indexing in the Web." Author: Martijn Koster. Institute: NEXOR Ltd., UK. PostScript, Size: 213616, Printed: 10 pages
  22. ^ Chris Sherman (3 December 2002). "Happy Birthday, Aliweb!". Search Engine Watch. Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  23. ^ "Decision: Bloomberg, L.P. v. David Cohen". National Arbitration Forum. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  24. ^ "". DeBora Rachelle Inc.
  25. ^ "WaybackMachine". WaybackMachine. Archived from the original on October 4, 1999.
  26. ^ Amy Harmon (December 13, 1998). "Yosef Kazen, Hasidic Rabbi And Web Pioneer, Dies at 44". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  27. ^ "How the Internet came to Ireland". 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  28. ^ Stratton, Erik. "A Brief History of Webcomics". The Rutgers Review, Vol. 40, Issue 1, Page 15
  29. ^ Hans Boordahl. "Where the Buffalo Roam – First Comic on the Internet". Where The Buffalo Roam. Retrieved November 14, 2010. In 1991, Where the Buffalo Roam become the Internet's first regularly updated comic strip, when it was scanned and posted daily to its own USENET newsgroup, which still can be found in dusty corners of the Internet at alt.comics.buffalo-roam. Since then, WTBR has migrated from USENET to the Web. Alas, we cannot claim the title of 'first Web comic' – that distinction belongs to 'Dr. Fun'.
  30. ^ What's New: September, 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation.
  31. ^ Staff (January 13, 2015). "In the News: Open Access Journals". Drug Discovery & Development.
  32. ^ Ginsparg, Paul (October 1, 2008). "The global-village pioneers". Physics World.
  33. ^ Butler, Declan (July 5, 2001). "Los Alamos Loses Physics Archive as Preprint Pioneer Heads East". Nature. 412 (6842): 3–4. Bibcode:2001Natur.412....3B. doi:10.1038/35083708. PMID 11452262. S2CID 1527860.
  34. ^ Dale Dougherty (October 1994). "GNN One Year Update". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "MIT Haystack Observatory - Radio science & technology research center". MIT Haystack Observatory.
  37. ^ Jeff Dalton (1 March 1990). "Re: Frequently Asked Questions List (2/28/90)". Newsgrouprec.arts.movies. Usenet: Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  38. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (January 19, 2013). "Col Needham created IMDb". Los Angeles Times.
  39. ^ "Historical Internet Movie Database Site". Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  40. ^ Maurer, Wendy. "THE DYNAMICS OF MUSIC DISTRIBUTION". Archived from the original on April 29, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  41. ^ David Pescovitz (August 30, 1995). "It's All Geek to Them; Digital Communes Find a Social Scene in Computers". Business section, The Cutting Edge: COMPUTING / TECHNOLOGY / INNOVATION. Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2008. ...27-year-old Jon Luini, who co-founded the hip Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) in 1993 Alt URL
  42. ^ Roettgers, Janko (May 29, 2012). "The Internet Underground Music Archive is back". GigaOM. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  43. ^ a b Why we nearly McGoogled it Metro, March 15, 2009
  44. ^ "The Web Robots Pages".
  45. ^ Robots, Spiders and Wanderers: Finding Information on the Web archived March 28, 2009 from the original
  46. ^ Miller, Joe (September 3, 2013). "Jonathon Fletcher: forgotten father of the search engine". BBC News. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  47. ^ "Archive of email sent to Matt Gray".
  48. ^ Adam Wishart and Regula Bochsler: Leaving Reality Behind: etoys v, and other battles to control cyberspace, Ecco, 2003, ISBN 0-06-621076-3.
  49. ^ Googling was born in Stirling The Scotsman, 15 March 2009
  50. ^ Stastny, Ed (27 January 1993). "The OTIS Project (attn: artists and photographers)". Usenet: ed.728159157@cwis. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  51. ^ "OTIS vs. Otis College of Art and Design". SITO. 25 February 1996. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  52. ^ "The Tech – Our Staff". 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  53. ^ "WWW-Talk Apr–Jun 1993: NeXor's Web and Warchie". Retrieved 2015-09-26.
  54. ^ "Dataglyphs". 2006-05-03. Archived from the original on 2001-12-14. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  55. ^ "". 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  56. ^ "Community".
  57. ^ Principia Cybernetica Masthead Last modified Oct 17, 2006. Accessed Oct 13, 2009.
  58. ^ "Welcome to Principia Cybernetica Web".
  59. ^ Ben Goertzel (2000), The Principia Cybernetica Project: Placing the Web at the Center of Man's Quest for Knowledge, September 2000.
  60. ^ Gasteiger, E.; Gattiker, A; Hoogland, C; Ivanyi, I; Appel, RD; Bairoch, A (2003). "ExPASy: The proteomics server for in-depth protein knowledge and analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (13): 3784–8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg563. PMC 168970. PMID 12824418.
  61. ^ "SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Expasy".
  62. ^ Quentin Stafford-Fraser. "Trojan Room Coffee Pot resources". Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  63. ^ Daniel Gordon, Martyn Johnson. "The Trojan Room Coffee Machine". Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  64. ^ Quentin Stafford- Fraser. "The Trojan Room Coffee Pot". Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  66. ^ "E-zines: A window on people and their interests". 1997.
  67. ^ "What's New On the Web". Mozilla Corporation.
  68. ^ Jeffrey Veen, HotWired Style, 1997, pp. 14–15.
  69. ^ "WWW Servers in Japan". Archived from the original on 1997-12-10.
  70. ^ Yohei Morita. "WWWとは".
  71. ^ "" & ", both .com and .net URL's were registered in 1993, but no website was actually launched until 1994. The corporation used .com for its corporate website & .net for its email, switching from a late eighties CompuServe webmail server.
  72. ^ "Profiles from the Academy: Raymond P. Fisk". American Marketing Association. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  73. ^ "Art Crimes – The Writing on the Wall – Graffiti Worldwide". Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  74. ^ Case, Karin D. (1998-04-30). "Ranting and Raving is Therapeutic". Investor's Business Journal. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  75. ^ Pakin, Scott (2009-09-19). "Automatic complaint-letter generator – new and improved". Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  76. ^ Scalzi, II, John M. (1995-01-18). "Article by John M. Scalzi, II". Fresno Bee. The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  77. ^ "BBC Internet Services – History". Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  78. ^ Dry, Chris; Council, British Universities Film & Video (1995). Film and Television in Education: The Handbook of the British Universities Film & Video Council. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-85713-016-4.
  79. ^ Schwartz, Evan (1997). Webonomics. Broadway Books. pp. 24–26. ISBN 9780553061727.
  80. ^ Evans, Kevin; Galbraith, Carrie; Law, John, eds. (2013). Tales of the San Francisco Cacophony Society. Last Gasp Publishing. pp. 143–144.
  81. ^ a b Sanctions, Developing Social; Constraints., Using System. " : thesis : Deviant Behavior (Virtual Community HCI)". Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  82. ^ "About our website – Birmingham City Council". GB-BIR: 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on 2009-11-07. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  83. ^ Broadhead, Jim Carroll, Rick (1994). Canadian Internet handbook (1994 ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Canada. ISBN 9780133043952.
  84. ^ "'ask a Rabbi' — on the Web: Online Rabbis Offer Answers". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. September 11, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  85. ^ "CitySites – Global Internet Services, Media and Advertising". Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  86. ^ Archived from the original on 1996-10-31. Retrieved 2019-10-08. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  87. ^ Ryan, James (1996-10-07). "What's Cool on Line? The E-mail Basket, Please". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  88. ^ Gibson, Julie Gammill (September 1995). "Location, Location, Location". American Journalism Review. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  89. ^ Sandberg, Jared (June 22, 1994), "Phoenix Lawyers Irk Internet Users Again by Broadcasting Ad", The Wall Street Journal, archived from the original on December 4, 2008
  90. ^ "Battle for the Soul of the Internet", Time, July 25, 1994, archived from the original on January 7, 2007
  91. ^ Flynn, Laurie (October 16, 1994), "'Spamming' on the Internet", The New York Times, archived from the original on September 19, 2008
  92. ^ "20 years of CORDIS on the World Wide Web". 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  93. ^ a b N.V.(Los Angeles) (July 9, 2012). "Difference Engine: Lost in cyberspace". Babbage (blog). The Economist. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  94. ^ "Webmaster and Blogger Tools". Encyclopædia Britannica Inc, Corporate Site. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  95. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Corporate Site". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Corporate Site. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  96. ^ "Britannica Online". Retrieved 28 September 2008.
  97. ^ "FolkBook to Conversion Page". 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  98. ^ "Flags of the World". Retrieved 2022-01-04.
  99. ^ Williams, R. W. (1994-06-01). "Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome". Mammalian Genome. 5 (6): 372–5. doi:10.1007/BF00356557. PMID 8043953. S2CID 655396.
  100. ^ Williams, RW (1994). "The Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome: a personal database for gene mapping and molecular biology". Mammalian Genome. 5 (6): 372–5. doi:10.1007/bf00356557. PMID 8043953. S2CID 655396.
  101. ^ Chesler, EJ; Lu, L; Shou, S; Qu, Y; Gu, J; Wang, J; Hsu, HC; Mountz, JD; et al. (2005). "Complex trait analysis of gene expression uncovers polygenic and pleiotropic networks that modulate nervous system function". Nature Genetics. 37 (3): 233–42. doi:10.1038/ng1518. PMID 15711545. S2CID 13189340.
  102. ^ Bystrykh, L; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; Sutton, S; Pletcher, MT; Wiltshire, T; Su, AI; Vellenga, E; et al. (2005). "Uncovering regulatory pathways that affect hematopoietic stem cell function using 'genetical genomics'". Nature Genetics. 37 (3): 225–32. doi:10.1038/ng1497. PMID 15711547. S2CID 5622506.
  103. ^ "History of the Internet". Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  104. ^ "Home Page Replica".
  105. ^ "Hobbes' Internet Timeline – the definitive ARPAnet & Internet history". Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  106. ^ "First banner ad ever in the world. AT&T Hotwired". 1994-10-25. Archived from the original on 2006-02-09. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  107. ^ " homepage history in screen shots",
  108. ^ "Music Without Borders". Innerviews. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  109. ^ "Trust | History & Values". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  110. ^ Harmanci, Reyhan. "Time to get a life – pioneer blogger Justin Hall bows out at 31." San Francisco Chronicle. February 20, 2005, retrieved on July 20, 2006.
  111. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey. "Your Blog or Mine?" New York Times Magazine. December 14, 2004, retrieved on October 31, 2007.
  112. ^ Rosenberg, Scott, Say Everything: How Blogging Began, What It's Becoming, and Why It Matters, New York : Crown Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-0-307-45136-1
  113. ^ "About". LawInfo. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  114. ^ "Litkicks Turns Twenty: An Interview with Levi Asher". The Nervous Breakdown. 5 June 2014.
  115. ^ Scott, Virginia A. (2008). Internet Archive. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  116. ^ Worlock, David (August 20, 2010). "Paradigm Lost". Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  117. ^ "Short History of Early Search Engines – The History of SEO". Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  118. ^ "History". Megadeth. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2015. Halloween, New website Megadeth Arizona is launched.
  119. ^ Sloan Bechtel, Robin (1 October 2014). "What The Hell Was Megadeth, Arizona?". Medium. cuepoint. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  120. ^ Pasbani, Robert (8 October 2013). "Dave Mustaine Invented The Internet". Metal Injection. Retrieved 3 March 2015. If you remember back: October 31, 1994, we were the first band to have a website.
  121. ^ "This Is Microsoft's Very First Web Page ... Back In 1994". 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  122. ^ "IHTFP Hack Gallery Copyright Notice". 2014. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  123. ^ Levin, 198
  124. ^ "Museum Of Bad Art – art too bad to be ignored". Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  125. ^ "Kudos".
  126. ^ The Editors. "2002 Sci/Tech Web Awards: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS". Scientific American. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  127. ^ Official website
  128. ^ "A Watershed Event for Online Newspapers", American Journalism Review, June 1995
  129. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes, 1996".
  130. ^ Silverman, Dwight (August 24, 1994). "Cybertoons: Comic artists find an instant audience on the Internet". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 5C.
  131. ^ "Byting the Hand He Ain't Got No Body, but Stafford Huyler's Nettled Netboy Is the Satirical Scourge of the Internet". People Magazine. 43 (10). March 13, 1995. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Stafford Huyler, 24, NetBoy was launched on the Internet last May
  132. ^ "Internet shows a sense of humor". The Milwaukee Journal. New York Times: D2. January 17, 1995. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Netboy, the leading cartoon denizen of the Internet ... daily on computer screens for a little more than six months
  133. ^ "The Internet and the Aspiring Game Programmer" (PDF).
  134. ^ Hippert, Michael. "ONLINETECHEX.COM -". onlinetechex.
  135. ^ "PizzaNet – the killer app". 1994-08-22. Archived from the original on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  136. ^ "Oregon Local News – Pamplin Media Group".
  137. ^ "Powell's Books - New, Used, and Out of Print". 1998-12-05. Archived from the original on December 5, 1998. Retrieved 2012-07-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  138. ^ "The History of – Powell's Books". 2006-11-17. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  139. ^ Baker, Lisa (March 19, 2004). "Powell's success story adds a chapter". Portland Tribune. Retrieved 2012-08-27.[permanent dead link]
  140. ^ Arias, Ryan (1 November 2011). "Five Things you need to know about". The Tartan. Radford University. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  141. ^ Johnson, Paddy (12 May 2014). "Addictive Single-Serving Websites by 7 Artists". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  142. ^ SAVE RADIO PRAGUE! Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  143. ^ "tedkennedy". Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  144. ^ Cherry JM; Ball C; Weng S; Juvik G; Schmidt R; Adler C; Dunn B; Dwight S; Riles L; Mortimer RK; Botstein D (May 1997). "Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nature. 387 (6632 Suppl): 67–73. doi:10.1038/387s067. PMC 3057085. PMID 9169866.
  145. ^ Cherry, Michael; Hong, Eurie; amundsen, Craig; balakrishnan, rama; binkley, gail; chan, esther; christie, karen; costanzo, maria; dwight, selina; engel, stacia; fisk, dianna; hirschman, jodi; hitz, benjamin; karra, kalpana; krieger, cynthia; miyasato, stuart; nash, rob; park, julie; skrzypek, marek; simison, matt; weng, shuai; wong, edith (2011). "Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (2012): D700–D705. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1029. PMC 3245034. PMID 22110037.
  146. ^
  147. ^ "Arman Khalili". Koss Resource. Archived from the original on 2017-08-12. Retrieved 2021-01-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  148. ^ "WAN Sales/Support". 1996-12-22. Archived from the original on 1996-12-22. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  149. ^ "Only Connect", The New Yorker, 10 June 1996, p. 17, New York.
  150. ^ Chivers, Tom (2009-11-12). "'s 15th birthday: what life was like in 1994". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2009-11-15. Retrieved 2021-01-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  151. ^ "TRADITIO Traditional Roman Catholic Network, including the Official Catholic Directory of Traditional Latin Masses". 1994-09-29. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  152. ^ Chris Herod [@AngryChrisH] (13 July 2013). "Cleaning out closets. In 1994 @velonews had an experimental service" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  153. ^ "What's New, July 1994".
  154. ^ Page, Heather (June 1997). "Power Play | Technology". Entrepreneur.
  155. ^ "Whois".