List of websites founded before 1995

The first website was created in August 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, a European nuclear research agency. Berners-Lee's WorldWideWeb browser became publicly available the same month. By the end of 1992, there were ten websites.[1] The World Wide Web began to enter everyday use in 1993, helping to grow the number of websites to 130 by the end of the year.[2] In 1994, websites for the general public became available.[2] By the end of 1994, the total number of websites was 2,278, including several notable websites and many precursors of today's most popular services.[1]

By the end of 1995, the number of websites had expanded significantly, with some 23,500 sites.[1] Thus, this list of websites founded before 1995 covers the early innovators. Of the 2,879 websites established before 1995, those listed here meet one or more of the following:

For this list, the term website is interpreted as a unique hostname that can be resolved into an IP address.

1991 websites edit

The following list of websites established in 1991 is in chronological order.

CERN edit

CERN, a research center in Switzerland, created the first website.[3] The Web was publicly announced with a post to the Usenet newsgroup alt.hypertext on August 6, 1991.[4] There is a snapshot of the site from November 1992 at The World Wide Web project.[3]

World Wide Web Virtual Library edit

The World Wide Web Virtual Library is a website started as Tim Berners-Lee's web catalog at CERN. There is a snapshot of the site from November 1992 at Subject listing – Information by Subject.[5][6]

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center edit

Paul Kunz from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at Stanford University visited Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in September 1991. He was impressed by the WWW project and brought a copy of the software back to Stanford. SLAC launched the first web server in North America on December 12, 1991.[7] SLAC's first web page was the SLACVM Information Service.[8]

1992 websites edit

Near the end of 1992, there were fifty to sixty websites, according to a robot web crawl by Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica researcher Guido van Rossum.[9] The following list is in chronological order.

Nikhef edit

Nikhef, the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics, launched the third website in the world in February 1992.[10][11] It was originally at nic.nikhef.nl.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications edit

The National Center for Supercomputing Applications created a website that was home to the NCSA Mosaic web browser, as well as documentation on the web and a "What's New?" list which many people used as an early web directory.[12]

FNAL edit

Fermilab, a high-energy physics laboratory in Illinois, created fnal.gov, the second or third website in the United States.[13] It was established in June 1992.[13]

SunSITE edit

SunSITE (Sun Software, Information & Technology Exchange) started in 1992 as an FTP service and was hosted by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.[14] It was a comprehensive archiving project that was a collaboration between Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation and the Office of Information Technology at the University of North Carolina.[14]

Ohio State University edit

The Ohio State University Department of Computer and Information Science developed early gateway programs and undertook the mass conversion of existing documents, including the main page for RFCs, TeXinfo, UNIX, and the Usenet.

IN2P3 edit

The French National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3) launched its website at Centre de Calcul in 1992.[10]

HUJI edit

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) Information Service launched its website in Hebrew and English in April 1992. It was the first RTL website and the tenth website to go online.[15]

The Exploratorium edit

The Exploratorium in San Francisco, California was one of the first science museums to go online.[16]

youngmonkey edit

Initially hosted as a .nb.ca domain, youngmonkey showcased music and writing projects and DOS and Amiga software.[17] It also included articles, technical information, and other resources for synthesizer enthusiasts and developers. It was home to what was likely the first online store using dial-up credit card verification; and the first web streaming video distribution, and pay-per-view online video system. It came online at some point between 1991 and 1992. It moved to www.youngmonkey.ca in April 1995.

simianpress edit

simianpress was a manifestation of youngmonkey. It was a showcase for graphic design and publishing projects, likely offering the first professional website design. It merged with youngmonkey in 1995.[citation needed]

CBSS edit

CBSS, Inc. was a network consulting firm in Houston, Texas that came online in late 1992. The Website is no longer maintained but still visible at www.cbss.com.[18][better source needed]

KEK edit

KEK: The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization established the first web page in Japan. It was created by Yohei Morita [ja] at the suggestion of Tim Berners-Lee in September 1992. CERN's website was linked to the KEK page on September 30, 1992.[19] It is still online at KEK Entry Point.[20]

Cybergrass edit

Bob Cherr launched the Bluegrass Music News and Information, the first music-based website, on September 9, 1992.[21][17] Its name changed to Banjo on September 30, 1992, and Cybergrass in 1995.[22] Its content was bluegrass music, lyrics, and chords. It was hosted on the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center vax, parcvax.xerox.com. It now resides at www.cybergrass.com.[23]

1993 websites edit

By the end of 1993, there were 623 websites, according to a study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Matthew Gray.[24] The following list of websites established in 1993 is in alphabetical order.

ALIWEB edit

ALIWEB (Archie Like Indexing for the WEB) was the first search engine created for the Web.[25] It was announced in November 1993 by its developer Martijn Koster but was relatively short-lived.[26][25]

Bloomberg.com edit

Bloomberg.com is a financial portal with information on markets, currency conversion, news and events, and Bloomberg Terminal subscriptions.[27]

Chabad.org edit

Chabad.org is the flagship website of the Chabad Hasidic Judaism movement.[28]

CURIA edit

Peter Flynn from University College Cork (UCC) saw Tim Berners-Lee demonstrating the Web at a RARE WG3 meeting. He tasked Berner-Lee to install software at UCC for the CURIA project, now known as Corpus of Electronic Texts.[29]

Doctor Fun edit

Doctor Fun was one of the first webcomics. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications called it "a major breakthrough for the Web".[30][31][32] It laid the foundation for today's webcomics.[17]

Électricité de France edit

Électricité de France, the French utility company, had one of the first industrial websites in Europe. It started as the website of the company's research and development division (R&D) and was implemented by engineers Sylvain Langlois, Emmanuel Poiret, and Daniel Glazman. They did not have approval for the site and had to restart the server by connecting to RENATER through a 155Mb link, every time IT shut it down. Electricité de France's R&D later submitted patches to CERN httpd and was active in Web standardization.[citation needed]

Global Network Navigator edit

Created by O'Reilly Media, Global Network Navigator is an example of an early web directory and is one of the Web's first commercial sites. It was hosted at Bolt Beranek and Newman and was launched in October 1993.[33]

Haystack Observatory edit

Haystack Observatory's website explained its radio and radar remote sensing mission and provided data access for science users. John Holt rolled out its content on December 13, 1993.[citation needed] The website is still active at www.haystack.mit.edu. The original web page format is archived at www.haystack.mit.edu/orig/.[34][35]

IMDb edit

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) was founded in 1990 by participants in the Usenet newsgroup rec.arts.movies.[36] IMDb was launched on the web in late 1993 and was initially hosted by the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales.[37][38][39]

Internet Underground Music Archive edit

Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) was created by students at the University of California, Santa Cruz to help promote unsigned musical artists. It shared music using the MP2 format, presaging the later extreme popularity of MP3 sharing and online music stores.[40][41][42]

Joachim Jarre Society edit

The Joachim Jarre Society website was created by students at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in November 1993. It was one of the first websites in Norway.[citation needed]

JumpStation edit

JumpStation was the world's first Web search engine.[43] It was launched by Jonathon Fletcher on December 12, 1993.[43][44][45][46][47][48] It was hosted at the University of Stirling in Scotland and operated until 1994.[49]

LANL preprint archive edit

The LANL preprint archive provided web access to thousands of papers in physics, mathematics, computer science, and biology. It was developed by Paul Ginsparg out of earlier Gopher, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and e-mail archives at the Los Alamos National Laboratory[50][51][52] It was launched in April 1993 and moved to Cornell University as ArXiv when Ginsparg took a position there in 2001.[52] It is still active as arxiv.org

LSD.com edit

LSD.com, the "digital acid test" came online on November 18, 1993.[53][better source needed]

The OTIS Project edit

After a start as an anonymous FTP-based art gallery and collaborative collective, The OTIS Project (later SITO) moved to the web in January 1993.[54] This artist collaborative was hosted by SunSITE.[55][54] It remains at sito.org/.

The Tech edit

The Tech, the campus newspaper at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was the first newspaper to deliver content over the Web, beginning in May 1993.[56][57]

NASA edit

NASA.gov is the website of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was launched in 1993.[36]

Nexor edit

Martijn Koster created a website for Nexor, an early Internet software company.[58]

MTV edit

MTV VJ Adam Curry registered the music television network's domain in 1993 and personally ran an unofficial site.[11] Later, MTV sued Curry over the rights to the domain.[11] The corporate website is still live at www.mtv.com/

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone edit

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone or NTT (WWW Servers in Japan (日本のホームページ, Nihon no houmu peiji, lit. "Home Pages in Japan") was the most famous web page in Japan in the mid-1990s.[59] The page launched in December 1993.[60] It still has a website at group.ntt/en

PARC Map Server edit

PARC Map Server is the earliest precursor of MapQuest and Google Maps.[citation needed]

PARC Researcher edit

PARC Researcher was created by PARC researcher, Steve Putz, who tied an existing map viewing program to the Web. It is now defunct.[61]

photo.net edit

Philip Greenspun designed and founded photo.net, an online photography resource and community.[62] Later, Greenspun released the software behind photo.net, the ArsDigita Community System, as a free open-source toolkit for building community websites.[63]

Principia Cybernetica edit

Francis Heylighen, Cliff Joslyn, and Valentin Turchin designed a website for Principia Cybernetica to develop a cybernetic philosophy.[64][65][66] This is probably the first complex, collaborative knowledge system, sporting a hierarchical structure, index, map, annotations, search, and hyperlinks. It went online in July 1993.

ExPASy edit

ExPASy was a project of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and was the first life sciences website. it went online in August 1993 and is still active at www.expasy.org.[67][68]

Trojan Room coffee pot edit

Trojan Room coffee pot was the first webcam.[69][70][71] It started as a local system, XCoffee, in 1991 and was connected to the Web in November 1993.[72]

Trincoll Journal edit

Trincoll Journal was a multimedia webzine published by students at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut.[73][74][75] It was established in 1992 as a local network and moved to the web in November 1993.[75] It went defunct in the spring of 2000.

Wired.com edit

Previously called Wired News and HotWired, the online presence for Wired magazine launched in October 1994.[76] The website and magazine separated and Wired.com was purchased by Lycos.[77] It is still live at www.wired.com/.

1994 websites edit

By mid-1994, there were 2,738 websites, according to a study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Matthew Gray.[24] By the end of 1994, there were more than 10,000 websites. The following selected list of websites is in alphabetical order.

ALIWEB edit

ALIWEB, an acronym for Archie Like Indexing for the Web, was the first web search engine.[78] It was announced in November 1993 by Martijn Koster and went online in May 1994.[78][26]

Allied Artists Entertainment Group edit

The movie studio and film distribution company Allied Artists Entertainment Group (now Allied Artists International), registered URLs in 1993 and launched its website in 1994.[79][citation needed]

American Marketing Association edit

A group of marketing professors created a website for the American Marketing Association professional association in 1994. The website offered general marketing news for marketers and marketing professors. Approximately a year later, the site was moved to www.ama.org, where it remains.[80]

Amnesty International Canada edit

The International Secretariat and the Computer Communications Working Group of Amnesty International Canada created a human rights website in 1994. It still operates at amnesty.ca.[citation needed]

Apple Inc. edit

Apple Inc. created apple.com, an example of an early corporate site, using the NCSA Mosaic browser.[81] Snapshots of early versions of this site are available through the Version Museum.

Art.Net edit

Lile Elam created Art.Net or Art on the Net in June 1994 to showcase the artwork of San Francisco Bay Area artists as well as international artists.[citation needed] It offered free linkage and hosted extensive links to other artists' sites. This is not to be confused with Artnet, a publicly traded art market website based in New York City.

Art Crimes edit

Susan Farrell of the Art Crimes Gallery launched the website Art Crimes in September 1994. It was the first graffiti art website and originally served as an archive of photos from around the world. It became an important academic resource as well as a thriving online community.[82] Its early content was moved to the Graffiti Archives in August 2015.[83]

The Amazing FishCam edit

Lou Montulli created The Amazing FishCam which provided a continuous web feed of an aquarium in the Netscape headquarters, via a webcam.[84] This was the second live camera broadcast on the Web.[85] According to a contemporaneous article by The Economist, "In its audacious uselessness—and that of thousands of ego trips like it—lie the seeds of the Internet revolution." It went offline in the summer of 2007, showing an empty tank on the website It was later moved to a new site showing Montulli's new tank at the offices of Zetta, but has since ceased operations.

Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator edit

Scott Pakin created the Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator in April 1994. The site allows users to specify the name of the individual or company that the complaint is directed toward, as well as the number of paragraphs the complaint will have. After submitting the data, the computer generates sentences that are composed of arbitrary verbs, nouns, and adjectives. This website is still active at www.pakin.org/complaint.[86][87][88]

The Barney Fun Page edit

An early online game or meme, The Barney Fun Page allows users to attack a crude drawing of Barney the Dinosaur with icons representing a knife, gun, and other weapons. Hosted originally on a University of Alberta[89] computer system in October 1994, it moved to impressive.net in 1996, where it is still available. It is an example of anti-Barney humor.

BBC Online edit

BBC Online started as BBCi in April 1994 with some regional information and content from the Open University Production Centre (OUPC). By September, it launched the first commercial service, providing transcription services via an FTP server. At its peak, it had 122 accounts, including FBI offices from around the world, taking daily updates from twelve feeds. It is still active at bbc.com.[90][91]

Bianca's Smut Shack edit

Bianca's Smut Shack was an early web-based chatroom and online community known for raucous free speech and deviant behavior.[92][93][94]

Birmingham City Council edit

Birmingham City Council created an early local government site, Birmingham Assist, that was initially hosted by the Computer Science Department at the University of Birmingham.[95] It was renamed in 1996 and still functions at www.birminghamalcitycouncil.org/.

Britannica Online edit

Encyclopaedia Britannica launched Britannica Online as a subscription service in 1994.[96][97][98] It was the first Internet-based encyclopedia.[98] The encyclopedia has been published exclusively online at www.britannica.com since 2016.[95]

Buzzweb.com edit

Buzzweb.com was the earliest website for alternative music artists and news. It was created by A. Joi Brown and Matthew Brown between 1993 and 994. They registered the website with Network Solutions in 1993.[citation needed]

CDNAir.ca edit

Canadian Airlines' website, CDNAir.ca, was the first website for an airline.[99]

Chabad.org edit

Chabad.org was the first "ask the rabbi" website. It was launched by Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Kazen as an outgrowth of earlier discussion groups on FidoNet, which dated back to 1988.[100]

CitySites edit

CitySites, the first "City Site" web development company, created this website in 1994 to advertise businesses and review music and art events in the San Francisco Bay Area. CitySites was featured in Interactive Week Magazine in 1997. Founder Darrow Boggiano still operates CitySites.[101][102]

Classical MIDI Archives edit

Pierre R. Schwob founded Classical MIDI Archives in 1994 as an online digital music archive featuring MIDI sequences of classical music for free.[103] It became Classical Archives in August 2000 and now offers commercial label recordings for downloading and streaming.[103] It is still active at www.classicalarchives.com/

Cool Site of the Day edit

Webdesigner Glenn Davis created Cool Site of the Day in August 1994, featuring his daily pick of a website.[94][104][105] Its Cool Site of the Year Award, also known as the Webby Awards, became a coveted prize for Silicon Alley start-ups.[104] Davis disaffiliated with the site in November 1995 and it went dormant in February 2020.

Cybersell edit

Cybersell was the first commercial advertising service that focused on using spam. It came online as sell.com. It was set up by Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, notorious for spamming Usenet newsgroups earlier that year.[106][107][108] It is no longer active.

CORDIS edit

CORDIS, an anacronym for the Community Research & Development Information Service, was the European Commission's first permanent website. Launched on ESPRIT day in November 1994 as www.cordis.lu, it provided a repository of EU-funded research projects.[109] It is still online at cordis.europa.eu/.

Dianne Feinstein edit

Dianne Feinstein used a website for her United States Senate campaign, becoming the first senatorial candidate to have utilized a website.[110]

The Economist edit

The Economist created its website in early 1994. One of the magazine's correspondents, Kenneth Cukier, paid $120 ($237 in today's money) to create the website which featured a web portal with search tools such as Archie, Gopher, Jughead, Veronica, and WAIS.[11] At the end of 1993, America Online selected it as one of the top-ten news sites in the world; beating Time-Warner's Pathfinder which cost $120 million ($236,928,604 in today's money).[111] It is still live today at www.economist.com/.

e-democracy edit

e-democracy went online in 1994 to help civic organizations in Minnesota would distribute information online and then hold the first online debates ever for US Gubernatorial and Senatorial candidates in October 1994.[112]

Einet Galaxy edit

Einet Galaxy was one of the first searchable web catalogs.[25] It was created at the Einet Division of the MCC Research Consortium at the University of Texas at Austin and went online in January 1994.[113] It passed through several commercial owners and is now run by Logika Corporation as gallexy.einet.

FogCam! edit

Jeff Schwartz and Dan Wong launched FogCam! in July 1994 at San Francisco State University to track changes in the local weather.[114][78] It is the oldest still-operating webcam in the world and can be found at www.fogcam.org

FolkBook edit

FolkBook: An Online Acoustic Music Establishment was a fansite dedicated to documenting folk music and folk musicians. It operated at Ohio State University at web.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/folkbook/ from September 1, 1994, until it went offline on March 7, 1998. After that, it was redirected to a similar site, folkmusic dot org, which still exists, but has not been updated since 2002.[115]

Flags of the World edit

Flags of the World is the Internet's largest website devoted to vexillology.[116] It was established by Giuseppe Bottasini in 1994 and is still live as www.crwflags.com.

GeneNetwork edit

GeneNetwork launched in January 1994 and was the first website on biomedical research and the earliest Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in PubMed.[117] It was initially known as the Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome and then as WebQTL.[118][119][120] This genetics site has been funded continuously by the National Institutes of Health and the University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge National Laboratory Governor's Chair to RW Williams.

HM Treasury edit

HM Treasury, the United Kingdom government department, formed a website in 1994.[121] It is live at www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-treasury.

Horror edit

Horror is the earliest website dedicated to horror movies and horror book/comic reviews and news.[122][123] It is still live at www.horror.com/.

HotWired edit

HotWired is the website of Wired magazine and features unique and innovative online content. It is noteworthy as the home of the first banner ads, for Zima and AT&T.[124][125]

IBM edit

IBM launched one of the early corporate websites in 1994. It is live at www.ibm.com/us-en.[126]

Innerviews edit

Innerviews was the first online music magazine. It was launched by music journalist Anil Prasad and is accessible at Innerviews: Music Without Borders[127][better source needed]

The Irish Times edit

In 1994, The Irish Times became the first newspaper in Ireland to have a website. The newspaper moved to ireland.com in 1999 and irishtimes.com in 2008.[128][better source needed]

Lawinfo edit

Lawinfo is an early legal website and provides public access to pre-qualified, pre-screened attorneys, and free legal resources.[129] It is still live at www.lawinfo.com/.[130]

Legislative Information System edit

Virginia's Legislative Information System (LIS) was developed by the Division of Legislative Automated Systems (dlas) and was launched at leg1.state.va.us. It remains active as lis.virginia.gov but is also viewable in its original format at LIS Classic.[131][better source needed]

Links from the Underground edit

Justin Hall's Links from the Underground is one of the earliest examples of personal weblogging.[132][133][134] It is still available at www.links.net/vita/web/start/.

Literary Kicks edit

Literary Kicks was an early literary website about the Beat Generation, spoken word poetry, and alternative literary scenes. This digital library was launched by Levi Asher on July 23, 1994, and is still active at litkicks.com/.[135]

Lycos edit

Lycos was an early web search engine.[25] It was started in 1994 by Michael Mauldin as a university research project at Carnegie Mellon University.[136][137][138][25] It is still live at www.lycos.com/.

Megadeth, Arizona edit

Megadeth, Arizona was the website for the band Megadeth and was also the first website for a band.[139][140][141] It was created by Robin Sloan Bechtel of Capitol Records as a tie-in to a record promotion and featured news updates and a chatroom.[11] Later, when Capitol wanted to remove the website, Bechtel fought conventional wisdom that promotions were short-lived and helped establish the concept on ongoing marketing sites.[11]

Microsoft edit

An early corporate site for Microsoft was launched in 1994.[142]

Museum of Bad Art edit

Museum of Bad Art in Boston, Massachusetts created a virtual museum in 1994.[143][144][17]

The Nine Planets edit

Bill Arnett.created The Nine Planets, "a Multimedia Tour of the Solar System". It was one of the first examples of a multimedia website.[145][146][147] It is still live at nineplanets.org/.

Nando.net edit

Nando.net was the online presence of the Raleigh, North Carolina News & Observer and was one of the first newspaper websites.[148][149]

NetBoy edit

NetBoy is a popular early webcomic created by Stafford Huyler. It started publishing in May 1994.[150][151][152] It is available online at www.netboy.com/.

Netrek edit

Netrek is one of the first sites dedicated to multi-user video-game programming on the Internet. It was maintained at obsidian.math.Arizona.edu and is now defunct.[153]

Pathfinder.com edit

Pathfinder.com was one of the first web portals, created by Time Warner to link its various sites.[111] It operated from 1994 to April 1999.

PizzaNet edit

Pizza Hut started the website, PizzaNet, which allowed people in Santa Cruz, California to order pizza over the Web[154][36]

Powells.com edit

Powells.com is the website of Powell's Books.[155][156] It started with two employees, and the company's first online order was placed by an Apple employee.[157] It pre-dates Amazon.com.[158]

Purple.com edit

Launching on August 31, 1994, Purple.com is the first known single-serving site. It consisted of just a purple background.[159][160] It was defunct by November 2017.

Radio Prague edit

Radio Prague is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic. It was an early media entity on the web and included transcripts of its news broadcasts and other current affairs content in five languages. Still active at english.radio.cz/.[161]

Senator Edward Kennedy edit

The first website for a United States Senator was officially announced for Senator Edward Kennedy on June 2, 1994.[162] The site remains active.[163]

Saccharomyces Genome Database edit

Saccharomyces Genome Database is a National Institute of Health-funded research project on the Web. It provides curation of all published results on budding yeast (aka. bakers, brewers, and wine yeast) genes and their products. Its current URL is yeastgenome.org.[164][165]

Sex.com edit

The website Sex.com was the subject of a twelve-year legal battle that established parameters of domain ownership.[166]

The Skeptic's Dictionary edit

The Skeptic's Dictionary at /www.skepdic.com/ was launched in 1994 and is still active. It features definitions, arguments, and essays on topics ranging from acupuncture to zombies.

The Simpsons Archive edit

The Simpsons Archive was the first fan site for The Simpsons television show.[17] It started as snpp.com and is now live at www.simpsonsarchive.com/.[167]

Sirius Connections edit

Sirius Connections was the first Internet service provider in the San Francisco Bay Area.[168] Its owner, Arman Kahalili, gave novice website creators technical assistance to get them started on-site building and expanding code that was used in later versions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and other web technology.[169]

Snopes edit

Snopes, the fact-checking website, was created by David and Barbara Mikkelson in 1994. It was an early online encyclopedia focused on urban legends and rumors.[36]

SpinnWebe edit

SpinnWebe was an early humor site, called "a window on the weird" by The New Yorker.[170] It started as the personal website of Greg Galcik.

Telegraph.co.uk edit

Telegraph.co.uk or The Electronic Telegraph is the website of the British newspaper, The Daily Telegraph. It launched in November 1994[171][172]

United States Department of State edit

The United States Department of State's Bureau of Public Affairs launched a text Gopher website via the Federal Depository Library at the University of Illinois Chicago in the fall of 1994. The website was later relaunched in January 1995.[173]

VeloNews edit

New South Network Service developed the first sports news site for cycling magazine VeloNews. It was originally called VeloNews Tour de France and was created to cover the Tour de France from June 30 to July 30, 1994.[174]

VirtuMall edit

Dan Housman and Ron Schmelzer created VirtuMall in 1994. when they were fraternity brothers and roommates at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[175] This website pioneered shopping cart technology and credit card payments sent via fax to mail order catalogs. It was also the first pooled-traffic site, helping foster standards for security. One of the first virtual "tenants" was Hickory Farms.[176] The website's name changed to ChannelWave and was sold to Quick Commerce sometime after 1998.[175]

WWW Useless Pages edit

Paul Phillips founded WWW Useless Pages or The Unless Pages in 1994.[177] It is perhaps the first site that showcased bad or eccentric websites and helped distribute early minor Internet memes and phenomena. It is now defunct.

WebCrawler edit

WebCrawler is an early search engine for the Web and the first with full-text searching.[25] It was created by Brian Pinkerton, a doctoral candidate at the University of Washington. It launched in June 1994.[178]

Webmedia edit

Webmedia is a London-based website design company founded by Steve Bowbrick and Ivan Pope. The domain name webmedia.com was registered on October 27, 1994. The website was launched in November 1994.[179]

Whitehouse.gov edit

Whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House. The Clinton administration launched it on October 20, 1994 to the public.

World-Wide Web Worm edit

The World-Wide Web Worm (WWWW) was one of the first search engines for the World-Wide Web. It was created by Oliver McBryan at the University of Colorado and was announced in March 1994.[180]

Yahoo! edit

The web portal Yahoo! was started by Jerry Yang and David Filo as Jerry's Guide to the World Wide Web.[181][25] It was a news site as well as a search engine and email provider.[36] It was later renamed Yahoo without the exclamation mark.

Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) edit

A website was created by Justin Paulson from the University of California at Santa Cruz in 1994 to provide information on the conflict in the Chiapas region between the Mexican government and the Zapatista forces primarily in English[182] but later started posting information in Spanish at www.ezln.org.[183] The Zapatistas usage of the internet made them among the first in the world to use the internet for activism purposes.[184]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c "Total number of Websites". Internet Live Stats. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  2. ^ a b Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780745639208.
  3. ^ a b "The World Wide Web project". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
  4. ^ "WorldWideWeb: Summary". 6 August 1991. Archived from the original on 9 Aug 1991.
  5. ^ "History of the Virtual Library [Overview.html]". vlib.org. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  6. ^ "The World Wide Web project". info.cern.ch. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  7. ^ "Stanford Linear Accelerator Center – First North American Web Site". LivingInternet.com. 1991-12-12. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  8. ^ "Archives and History Office: SLAC's First Web Pages". www.slac.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  9. ^ "Re: strategy for HTML spec?". The World Wide Web History Project.
  10. ^ a b "Nikhef Guide". www.nikhef.nl.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Hoffmann, Jay (2006-11-01). "The Unlikely Pioneers of the Early Web". The History of the Web. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  12. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. "What were the first WWW browsers?". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
  13. ^ a b "History of the FNAL website". www.fnal.gov. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  14. ^ a b "SunSITE | D-Lib Magazine". www.cybergrass.com. February 1996. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  15. ^ "World-Wide Web Servers". www.w3.org.
  16. ^ "Exploratorium Fact Sheet". Exploratorium. 2014-07-07. Archived from the original on 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  17. ^ a b c d e "Flashback: What Were The Earliest Websites Like?". iNet Ventures. 2022-12-09. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  18. ^ "CBSS, Inc". www.cbss.com.
  19. ^ "10年前のホームページ[!". www2.kek.jp.
  20. ^ "First Web page in Japan".
  21. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. 1996-10-29. Archived from the original on 1996-10-29.
  22. ^ "Build Your Brand: A Musician's Life on Social Media". No Depression. 2018-02-14.
  23. ^ "Cybergrass". Cybergrass.
  24. ^ a b "Web Growth Summary". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Edwards, Benj (September 9, 2020). "Finding Stuff Online: 20 Years of Innovative Search Engines". PCWorld. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  26. ^ a b Koster, Martin (30 November 1993). "Announcement: ALIWEB (Archie-Like Indexing for the WEB)". comp.infosystems.
  27. ^ "Decision: Bloomberg, L.P. v. David Cohen". National Arbitration Forum. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  28. ^ Amy Harmon (December 13, 1998). "Yosef Kazen, Hasidic Rabbi And Web Pioneer, Dies at 44". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  29. ^ "How the Internet came to Ireland". TechArchives.irish. 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  30. ^ Stratton, Erik. "A Brief History of Webcomics". The Rutgers Review, Vol. 40, Issue 1, Page 15
  31. ^ Hans Boordahl. "Where the Buffalo Roam – First Comic on the Internet". Where The Buffalo Roam. Retrieved November 14, 2010. In 1991, Where the Buffalo Roam become the Internet's first regularly updated comic strip, when it was scanned and posted daily to its own USENET newsgroup, which still can be found in dusty corners of the Internet at alt.comics.buffalo-roam. Since then, WTBR has migrated from USENET to the Web. Alas, we cannot claim the title of 'first Webcomic' – that distinction belongs to 'Dr. Fun'.
  32. ^ What's New: September, 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation.
  33. ^ Dale Dougherty (October 1994). "GNN One Year Update". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  34. ^ "Millstone Hill Observatory". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-24.
  35. ^ "MIT Haystack Observatory - Radio science & technology research center". MIT Haystack Observatory.
  36. ^ a b c d e "100 Websites That Shaped the Internet as We Know It". Gizmodo. Retrieved October 14, 2023.
  37. ^ Jeff Dalton (1 March 1990). "Re: Frequently Asked Questions List (2/28/90)". Newsgrouprec.arts.movies. Usenet: 1892@skye.ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  38. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (January 19, 2013). "Col Needham created IMDb". Los Angeles Times.
  39. ^ "Historical Internet Movie Database Site". Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  40. ^ Maurer, Wendy. "The Dynamics of Music Distribution". Archived from the original on April 29, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  41. ^ David Pescovitz (August 30, 1995). "It's All Geek to Them; Digital Communes Find a Social Scene in Computers". Business section, The Cutting Edge: COMPUTING / TECHNOLOGY / INNOVATION. Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2008. ...27-year-old Jon Luini, who co-founded the hip Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) in 1993 Alt URL
  42. ^ Roettgers, Janko (May 29, 2012). "The Internet Underground Music Archive is back". GigaOM. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  43. ^ a b Why we nearly McGoogled it Metro, March 15, 2009
  44. ^ "The Web Robots Pages". www.robotstxt.org.
  45. ^ Robots, Spiders and Wanderers: Finding Information on the Web archived March 28, 2009 from the original
  46. ^ Miller, Joe (September 3, 2013). "Jonathon Fletcher: forgotten father of the search engine". BBC News. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  47. ^ "Archive of email sent to Matt Gray".
  48. ^ Adam Wishart and Regula Bochsler: Leaving Reality Behind: etoys v eToys.com, and other battles to control cyberspace, Ecco, 2003, ISBN 0-06-621076-3.
  49. ^ Googling was born in Stirling The Scotsman, 15 March 2009
  50. ^ Staff (January 13, 2015). "In the News: Open Access Journals". Drug Discovery & Development.
  51. ^ Ginsparg, Paul (October 1, 2008). "The global-village pioneers". Physics World. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  52. ^ a b Butler, Declan (July 5, 2001). "Los Alamos Loses Physics Archive as Preprint Pioneer Heads East". Nature. 412 (6842): 3–4. Bibcode:2001Natur.412....3B. doi:10.1038/35083708. PMID 11452262. S2CID 1527860.
  53. ^ "lsd.com whois lookup - who.is". who.is. Retrieved 2023-06-12.
  54. ^ a b "OTIS vs. Otis College of Art and Design". SITO. 25 February 1996. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  55. ^ Stastny, Ed (27 January 1993). "The OTIS Project (attn: artists and photographers)". Newsgroupalt.best.of.internet. Usenet: ed.728159157@cwis. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  56. ^ "The Tech – Our Staff". Tech.mit.edu. 2012-06-13. Archived from the original on 2020-07-25. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  57. ^ Hoffmann, Jay (February 18, 2020). "The Tech: The First Newspaper published online". The History of the Web. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  58. ^ "WWW-Talk Apr-Jun 1993: NeXor's Web and Warchie". 1997.webhistory.org. Retrieved 2015-09-26.
  59. ^ "WWW Servers in Japan". Archived from the original on 1997-12-10.
  60. ^ Yohei Morita. "WWWとは".
  61. ^ "Dataglyphs". PARC.Xerox.com. 2006-05-03. Archived from the original on 2001-12-14. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  62. ^ "photo.net". photo.net. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  63. ^ Greenspun, Philip (June 2003). "Scalable Systems for Online Communities". philip.greenspun.com. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  64. ^ Principia Cybernetica Masthead Last modified Oct 17, 2006. Accessed Oct 13, 2009.
  65. ^ "Welcome to Principia Cybernetica Web". pespmc1.vub.ac.be.
  66. ^ Ben Goertzel (2000), The Principia Cybernetica Project: Placing the Web at the Center of Man's Quest for Knowledge, September 2000.
  67. ^ Gasteiger, E.; Gattiker, A; Hoogland, C; Ivanyi, I; Appel, RD; Bairoch, A (2003). "ExPASy: The proteomics server for in-depth protein knowledge and analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (13): 3784–8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg563. PMC 168970. PMID 12824418.
  68. ^ "SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Expasy". www.expasy.org.
  69. ^ Quentin Stafford-Fraser. "Trojan Room Coffee Pot resources". Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  70. ^ Daniel Gordon, Martyn Johnson. "The Trojan Room Coffee Machine". Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  71. ^ Quentin Stafford- Fraser. "The Trojan Room Coffee Pot". Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  72. ^ "The Trojan Room Coffee Pot Timeline". www.cl.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  73. ^ Wright, Frederick A. (2001). FROM ZINES TO EZINES: ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING AND THE LITERARY UNDERGROUND (PDF).
  74. ^ "E-zines: A window on people and their interests". 1997. Archived from the original on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2020-07-24.
  75. ^ a b "What's New On the Web". Mozilla Corporation. November 21, 1993.
  76. ^ Jeffrey Veen, HotWired Style, 1997, pp. 14–15.
  77. ^ "WN: Wired News". Wired News. December 30, 2005.
  78. ^ a b c "12 Oldest Websites Still Running". oldest.org. 12 July 2022. Retrieved October 15, 2023.
  79. ^ "alliedartists.com" & "alliedartists.net, both .com and .net URLs were registered in 1993, but no website was launched until 1994. The corporation used .com for its corporate website & .net for its email, switching from a late eighties CompuServe webmail server.
  80. ^ "Profiles from the Academy: Raymond P. Fisk". www.ama.org. American Marketing Association. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  81. ^ "History of apple.com". versionmuseum.com. 2020.
  82. ^ "Art Crimes – The Writing on the Wall – Graffiti Worldwide". Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  83. ^ "Art Crimes: About us: What We're Doing and Why". www.graffiti.org. August 2015. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  84. ^ Cole, Samantha (2018-08-27). "How a Decades-Long Livestream of a Fish Tank Helped Shape the Internet". Vice. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  85. ^ "The Amazing FishCam -- the oldest live camera on the Internet". www.fishcam.com. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  86. ^ Case, Karin D. (1998-04-30). "Ranting and Raving is Therapeutic". Investor's Business Journal. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  87. ^ Pakin, Scott (2009-09-19). "Automatic complaint-letter generator – new and improved". Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  88. ^ Scalzi, II, John M. (1995-01-18). "Article by John M. Scalzi, II". Fresno Bee. The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  89. ^ Pollock, Stephen D. "Web Wonders of the World".
  90. ^ "BBC Internet Services – History". support.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  91. ^ Dry, Chris; Council, British Universities Film & Video (1995). Film and Television in Education: The Handbook of the British Universities Film & Video Council. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-85713-016-4.
  92. ^ Schwartz, Evan (1997). Webonomics. Broadway Books. pp. 24–26. ISBN 9780553061727.
  93. ^ Evans, Kevin; Galbraith, Carrie; Law, John, eds. (2013). Tales of the San Francisco Cacophony Society. Last Gasp Publishing. pp. 143–144.
  94. ^ a b Sanctions, Developing Social; Constraints., Using System. "freeform.org : thesis : Deviant Behavior (Virtual Community HCI)". freeform.org. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  95. ^ a b "Birmingham.gov.uk: History - Birmingham City Council". 2009-11-17. Archived from the original on 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  96. ^ "Webmaster and Blogger Tools". Encyclopædia Britannica Inc, Corporate Site. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  97. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Corporate Site". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Corporate Site. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  98. ^ a b "Britannica Online". Britannica.com. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
  99. ^ Broadhead, Jim Carroll, Rick (1994). Canadian Internet handbook (1994 ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Canada. ISBN 9780133043952.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  100. ^ "'ask a Rabbi' — on the Web: Online Rabbis Offer Answers". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. September 11, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  101. ^ "CitySites – Global Internet Services, Media and Advertising". Citysites.com. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  102. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/19961031210014/http://www.citysites.com/. Archived from the original on 1996-10-31. Retrieved 2019-10-08. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  103. ^ a b Jurgensen, John (2009-05-09). "New Ways to Buy Bach Online". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  104. ^ a b Ryan, James (1996-10-07). "What's Cool on Line? The E-mail Basket, Please". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  105. ^ Gibson, Julie Gammill (September 1995). "Location, Location, Location". American Journalism Review. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  106. ^ Sandberg, Jared (June 22, 1994), "Phoenix Lawyers Irk Internet Users Again by Broadcasting Ad", The Wall Street Journal, archived from the original on December 4, 2008
  107. ^ "Battle for the Soul of the Internet", Time, July 25, 1994, archived from the original on January 7, 2007
  108. ^ Flynn, Laurie (October 16, 1994), "'Spamming' on the Internet", The New York Times, archived from the original on September 19, 2008
  109. ^ "20 years of CORDIS on the World Wide Web". 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
  110. ^ Trent, Judith S.; Friedenberg, Robert V.; Denton, Robert E. (2011). Political Campaign Communication: Principles and Practices (7 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. p. 348. ISBN 9781442206717. In 1993, Ted Kennedy became the first U.S. senator to have a website, while, in 1994 Dianne Feinstein established the first candidate website.
  111. ^ a b N.V.(Los Angeles) (July 9, 2012). "Difference Engine: Lost in cyberspace". Babbage (blog). The Economist. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  112. ^ Dennis W. Johnson, Dennis W. (2011). Campaigning in the Twenty-First Century: A Whole New Ballgame?. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781135968113 – via Google Books.
  113. ^ "Galaxy/eiNet History". www.einet.net. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  114. ^ "'World's oldest webcam' to be switched off". BBC News. 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  115. ^ "FolkBook to folkmusic.org Conversion Page". 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  116. ^ "Flags of the World". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved 2022-01-04.
  117. ^ Williams, R. W. (1994-06-01). "Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome". Mammalian Genome. 5 (6): 372–5. doi:10.1007/BF00356557. PMID 8043953. S2CID 655396.
  118. ^ Williams, RW (1994). "The Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome: a personal database for gene mapping and molecular biology". Mammalian Genome. 5 (6): 372–5. doi:10.1007/bf00356557. PMID 8043953. S2CID 655396.
  119. ^ Chesler, EJ; Lu, L; Shou, S; Qu, Y; Gu, J; Wang, J; Hsu, HC; Mountz, JD; et al. (2005). "Complex trait analysis of gene expression uncovers polygenic and pleiotropic networks that modulate nervous system function". Nature Genetics. 37 (3): 233–42. doi:10.1038/ng1518. PMID 15711545. S2CID 13189340.
  120. ^ Bystrykh, L; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; Sutton, S; Pletcher, MT; Wiltshire, T; Su, AI; Vellenga, E; et al. (2005). "Uncovering regulatory pathways that affect hematopoietic stem cell function using 'genetical genomics'". Nature Genetics. 37 (3): 225–32. doi:10.1038/ng1497. PMID 15711547. S2CID 5622506.
  121. ^ "History of the Internet". www.thocp.net. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  122. ^ "Horror.com". www.verisign.com.
  123. ^ "Welcome to the 3 idiots guide to horror". Archived from the original on 1996-10-22.
  124. ^ "Hobbes' Internet Timeline – the definitive ARPAnet & Internet history". Zakon.org. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  125. ^ "First banner ad ever in the world. AT&T Hotwired". Thelongestlistofthelongeststuffatthelongestdomainnameatlonglast.com. 1994-10-25. Archived from the original on 2006-02-09. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  126. ^ "IBM.com Homepage History in Screen Shots". epcostello.net. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  127. ^ "Music Without Borders". Innerviews. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  128. ^ "Trust | History & Values". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  129. ^ "About". LawInfo. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  130. ^ "How LawInfo.com works for attorneys". Lawyer Marketing. 2021-03-24. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  131. ^ "Legislative Information System > 2023 Special Session I". leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  132. ^ Harmanci, Reyhan. "Time to get a life – pioneer blogger Justin Hall bows out at 31." San Francisco Chronicle. February 20, 2005, retrieved on July 20, 2006.
  133. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey. "Your Blog or Mine?" New York Times Magazine. December 14, 2004, retrieved on October 31, 2007.
  134. ^ Rosenberg, Scott, Say Everything: How Blogging Began, What It's Becoming, and Why It Matters, New York: Crown Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-0-307-45136-1
  135. ^ "Litkicks Turns Twenty: An Interview with Levi Asher". The Nervous Breakdown. 5 June 2014.
  136. ^ Scott, Virginia A. (2008). Internet Archive. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  137. ^ Worlock, David (August 20, 2010). "Paradigm Lost". Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  138. ^ "Short History of Early Search Engines – The History of SEO". www.thehistoryofseo.com. Archived from the original on 2021-01-19. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  139. ^ "History". Megadeth.com. Megadeth. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2015. Halloween, New website Megadeth Arizona is launched.
  140. ^ Sloan Bechtel, Robin (1 October 2014). "What The Hell Was Megadeth, Arizona?". Medium. cuepoint. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  141. ^ Pasbani, Robert (8 October 2013). "Dave Mustaine Invented The Internet". Metal Injection. Retrieved 3 March 2015. If you remember back: October 31, 1994, we were the first band to have a website.
  142. ^ "This Is Microsoft's Very First Web Page ... Back In 1994". Businessinsider.com.au. 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  143. ^ Levin, 198
  144. ^ "Museum Of Bad Art – art too bad to be ignored". Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  145. ^ "Kudos". bill.nineplanets.org.
  146. ^ The Editors. "2002 Sci/Tech Web Awards: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS". Scientific American. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  147. ^ Official website
  148. ^ "A Watershed Event for Online Newspapers", American Journalism Review, June 1995
  149. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes, 1996". www.pulitzer.org.
  150. ^ Silverman, Dwight (August 24, 1994). "Cybertoons: Comic artists find an instant audience on the Internet". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 5C.
  151. ^ "Byting the Hand He Ain't Got No Body, but Stafford Huyler's Nettled Netboy Is the Satirical Scourge of the Internet". People Magazine. 43 (10). March 13, 1995. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Stafford Huyler, 24, NetBoy was launched on the Internet last May
  152. ^ "Internet shows a sense of humor". The Milwaukee Journal. New York Times: D2. January 17, 1995. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Netboy, the leading cartoon denizen of the Internet ... daily on computer screens for a little more than six months
  153. ^ "The Internet and the Aspiring Game Programmer" (PDF).
  154. ^ "PizzaNet – the killer app". Interesting-people.org. 1994-08-22. Archived from the original on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  155. ^ "Oregon Local News – Pamplin Media Group".
  156. ^ "Powell's Books - New, Used, and Out of Print". 1998-12-05. Archived from the original on December 5, 1998. Retrieved 2012-07-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  157. ^ "The History of Powells.com – Powell's Books". Powells.com. 2006-11-17. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  158. ^ Baker, Lisa (March 19, 2004). "Powell's success story adds a chapter". Portland Tribune. Retrieved 2012-08-27.[permanent dead link]
  159. ^ Arias, Ryan (1 November 2011). "Five Things you need to know about". The Tartan. Radford University. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  160. ^ Johnson, Paddy (12 May 2014). "Addictive Single-Serving Websites by 7 Artists". News.artnet.com. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  161. ^ "Save Radio Prague!". Chrissy Brand's DX International Radio. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  162. ^ Casey, Chris (June 4, 2013). "20 Years Ago: Sen. Kennedy Announces First Congressional Website". epolitics.com.
  163. ^ "tedkennedy". www.tedkennedy.org. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  164. ^ Cherry JM; Ball C; Weng S; Juvik G; Schmidt R; Adler C; Dunn B; Dwight S; Riles L; Mortimer RK; Botstein D (May 1997). "Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nature. 387 (6632 Suppl): 67–73. doi:10.1038/387s067. PMC 3057085. PMID 9169866.
  165. ^ Cherry, Michael; Hong, Eurie; amundsen, Craig; balakrishnan, rama; binkley, gail; chan, esther; christie, karen; costanzo, maria; dwight, selina; engel, stacia; fisk, dianna; hirschman, jodi; hitz, benjamin; karra, kalpana; krieger, cynthia; miyasato, stuart; nash, rob; park, julie; skrzypek, marek; simison, matt; weng, shuai; wong, edith (2011). "Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (2012): D700–D705. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1029. PMC 3245034. PMID 22110037.
  166. ^ Menn, Joseph (2004-04-21). "VeriSign to Settle Lawsuit Over Sex.com". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  167. ^ Menno, Christian (July 24, 2007). "Confessions of a Surrogate Simpson". Archived from the original on 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  168. ^ "Arman Khalili". Koss Resource. Archived from the original on 2017-08-12. Retrieved 2021-01-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  169. ^ "WAN Sales/Support". 1996-12-22. Archived from the original on 1996-12-22. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  170. ^ "Only Connect", The New Yorker, 10 June 1996, p. 17, New York.
  171. ^ Chivers, Tom (2009-11-12). "Telegraph.co.uk's 15th birthday: what life was like in 1994". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2009-11-15. Retrieved 2021-01-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  172. ^ Tong, Jingrong (2022). Journalism in the Data Age. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781529765144 – via Google Books. In the UK, The Daily Telegraph had the first British newspaper website (www.telegraph.co.uk) in 1994
  173. ^ "The Web, At the Creation". United States Department of State (Archived). November 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2023.
  174. ^ "What's New, July 1994". www.desy.de.
  175. ^ a b London, Jay (2015-04-17). "How Do You Connect Thousands of Entrepreneurs? Start with Breakfast". alum.mit.edu. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  176. ^ Page, Heather (June 1997). "Power Play | Technology". Entrepreneur.
  177. ^ "A Brief History of Uselessness on the Web". Go2Net. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000.
  178. ^ "Brian Pinkerton | Computer Sciences". University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  179. ^ "Whois webmedia.com". www.whois.com.
  180. ^ Liveright, Penelope (November 6, 2016). "Was The World Wide Web Worm the First Web Search Engine?". Internet History Podcast. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  181. ^ "Yahoo!". Britannica. June 18, 2008. Retrieved 2023-11-06.
  182. ^ Goggin, Gerard; McLelland, Mark (2017). The Routledge Companion to Global Internet Histories. Taylor & Francis. p. 107. ISBN 9781317607656 – via Google Books.
  183. ^ Downing, John D. H.; Hall Downing, John Derek (2011). "Encyclopedia of Social Movement Media". SAGE Publications. p. 564. ISBN 9780761926887. Retrieved November 24, 2023 – via Google Books.
  184. ^ Rossi, Federico M. (2023). The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Social Movements. Oxford University Press. p. 698. ISBN 9780190870362 – via Google Books. It is worthwhile to note that much of the research on Latin American digital activism focuses on movements initiated post-Arab Spring, despite the fact that the Mexican Zapatista resistance in 1994 and its use of the internet to spread communiques and videos marked one of the world's first examples of online activism (Castells 2004).