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An online encyclopedia, also called a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet, such as Wikipedia. The idea to build a free encyclopedia using the Internet can be traced at least to the 1994 Interpedia proposal; it was planned as an encyclopedia on the Internet to which everyone could contribute materials. The project never left the planning stage and was overtaken by a key branch of old printed encyclopedias.

Contents

Digitization of old contentEdit

WikisourceEdit

There are a lot of old encyclopedias and dictionaries of national biographies on Wikisource both in English and other languages. The completion of these encyclopedias vary and the quality of the content varies from proofread, to poor quality text with many optical character recognition (OCR) errors.

Wikisource
Name Original publication Language Completion Link Notes
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie de s:de:Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
The Encyclopedia Americana 1906 en s:The Encyclopedia Americana (1906)
1920 en s:The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)
The Cyclopædia of American Biography 1918 en s:The Cyclopædia of American Biography
New American Cyclopædia 1897 en s:The American Cyclopædia (1879)
Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography 1900 en s:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography
Encyclopædia Britannica Ninth Edition 1875–1889 en s:Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition 1911 en s:Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Twelfth Edition 1922 en s:1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 en 100% s:Catholic Encyclopedia Also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia; The first volume appeared in March 1907 and it was completed in April 1914
Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century 1911 en s:Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century
Collier's Encyclopedia en s:Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)
Complete Encyclopaedia of Music 1880 en s:Complete Encyclopaedia of Music
Neue Deutsche Biographie de s:de:Neue Deutsche Biographie
Diccionario Geográfico de la República de Chile es s:es:Diccionario Geográfico de la República de Chile
Dictionary of National Biography 1885–1900 en s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900
1901 en s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement
1912 en s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement
Easton's Bible Dictionary en s:Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)
Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle fr s:fr:Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities 1890 en s:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1870 en s:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography 1854 en s:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Nuttall Encyclopædia 1907 en 100% s:The Nuttall Encyclopædia
The Indian Biographical Dictionary en s:The Indian Biographical Dictionary
New International Encyclopedia en s:The New International Encyclopædia
Jewish Encyclopedia 1905 en s:Jewish Encyclopedia

OthersEdit

Many encyclopedias are available at the Internet Archive website. Although the original text is viewable the machine readable text is often poor with many OCR errors.

In January 1995, Project Gutenberg started to publish the ASCII text of the Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (1911), but disagreement about the method halted the work after the first volume.[citation needed] For trademark reasons this has been published as the Gutenberg Encyclopedia.[citation needed] Project Gutenberg has restarted work on digitising and proofreading this encyclopedia. Project Gutenberg has published volumes in alphabetic order the most recent publication is Volume 17 Slice 8: Matter–Mecklenburg published on 7 April 2013.[1] The latest Britannica was digitized by its publishers, and sold first as a CD-ROM,[2] and later as an online service.[3]

In 2001, ASCII text of all 28 volumes was published on Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition[4] by source; a copyright claim was added to the materials included. The website no longer exists.

Other digitization projects have made progress in other titles. One example is Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897) digitized by the Christian Classics Ethereal Library.[5]

A successful digitization of an encyclopedia was the Bartleby Project's online adaptation of the Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition,[6] in early 2000 and is updated periodically.

There are other websites that provide online encyclopedias, some of which are also available on Wikisource, but which may be more complete than those on Wikisource, or may be different editions (see List of online encyclopedias).

Creation of new contentEdit

Another related branch of activity is the creation of new, free contents on a volunteer basis. In 1991, the participants of the Usenet newsgroup alt.fan.douglas-adams[7] started a project to produce a real version of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, a fictional encyclopedia used in the works of Douglas Adams. It became known as Project Galactic Guide. Although it originally aimed to contain only real, factual articles, the policy was changed to allow and encourage semi-real and unreal articles as well. Project Galactic Guide contains over 1700 articles, but no new articles have been added since 2000; this is probably partly due to the founding of h2g2, a more official project along similar lines.

Another early online encyclopedia was called the Global Encyclopedia. In November 1995 a review of it was presented by James Rettig (Assistant Dean of University Libraries for Reference and Information Services) College of William and Mary at the 15th Annual Charleston Conference on library acquisitions and related issues. He said of the Global Encyclopedia:[8]

This is a volunteer effort to compile an encyclopedia and distribute it for free on the World Wide Web. If you have ever yearned to be the author of an encyclopedia article, yearn no longer. Take a minute (or even two or three if you are feeling scholarly) to write an article on a topic of your choosing and [e]mail it off to the unnamed "editors." These editors (to use that title very loosely) have generated a list of approximately 1,300 topics they want to include; to date, perhaps a quarter of them have been treated; to date, perhaps a quarter of them have been treated. ... This so-called encyclopedia gives amateurism a bad name. It is being compiled without standards or guidelines for article structure, content, or reading level. It makes no apparent effort to check the qualifications and authority of the volunteer authors. Its claim that "Submitted articles are fact-checked, corrected for spelling, and then formatted" is at best an exaggeration.[8]

He then gives several examples of article entries such as Iowa City:

A city of approximately 60,000 people, Iowa City lies in the eastern half of Iowa. It is also the home of the University of Iowa (http://www.uiowa.edu).[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Various (7 April 2013), Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, "Matter" to "Mecklenburg", Project Gutenberg
  2. ^ Now on DVD — "Store software". Britannica Encyclopædia. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Main page". Britannica Encyclopædia. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  4. ^ "LoveToKnow Classic Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 21 September 2001.
  5. ^ "Easton's Bible Dictionary by Easton". Archived from the original on 2003-08-03. Retrieved 2003-06-18.
  6. ^ "Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001". Archived from the original on 2002-02-05. Retrieved 2002-02-05.
  7. ^ "alt.fan.douglas-adams". Groups.google.com. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  8. ^ a b c "Firehose>". swem.wm.edu. 11 January 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2019.

External linksEdit