List of endangered languages in Russia

An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. A language may be endangered in one area but show signs of revitalisation in another, as with the Irish language.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defines five levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable – "most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g. home)"
  • Definitely endangered – "children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home"
  • Severely endangered – "language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves"
  • Critically endangered – "the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently"
  • Extinct – "there are no speakers left; included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s"

The list below includes the findings from the third edition of Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010; formerly the Red Book of Endangered Languages), as well as the online edition of the aforementioned publication, both published by UNESCO.[2]

Russian Federation
Language Status Nations ISO 639-3
Abaza language[1] Definitely endangered Russia, Turkey
Abkhaz language[1] Vulnerable Georgia, Russia, Turkey
Adyge language[1] Vulnerable Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Russia, Syria, Turkey
Agul language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Akhvakh language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Alabugat Tatar language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Aleut language (Western, Commander Islands)[1] Critically endangered Russia
Alutor language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Andi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Archi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Avar language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Bagvalal language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Baraba Tatar language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Bashkir language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Belarusian language[1] Vulnerable Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine
Bezhta language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic language[1] Severely endangered Georgia, Russia
Botlikh language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Buryat language (Cis-Baikal)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Buryat language (Trans-Baikal)[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Central Selkup language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Central Siberian Yupik language (Chukotka)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Chamalal language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Chechen language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Chukchi language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Chulym Turk language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Chuvash language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Copper Island Aleut language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Dargwa language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Dolgan language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
East Cape Yupik language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Eastern Khanty language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Eastern Mansi language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Eastern Mari language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Erzya language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Even language (Kamtchatka)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Even language (Siberia)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Evenki language (Northern Siberia)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Evenki language (Sakhalin)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Evenki language (Southern Siberia)[1] Severely endangered Mongolia, Russia
Forest Enets language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Forest Nenets language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Forest Yukagir language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Godoberi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Hinukh language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Homshetsma dialect (Caucasus)[1] Severely endangered Georgia, Russia
Hunzib language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Ingrian language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Ingush language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Inkhokvari dialect[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Itelmen language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Juhuri language(Judeo-Tat) (Caucasus)[1] Definitely endangered Azerbaijan, Israel, Russia
Kabard-Cherkes language[1] Vulnerable Russia, Turkey
Kalmyk language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Karachay-Balkar language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Karagash language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Karata language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Karelian language (Karelia)[1] Definitely endangered Finland, Russia
Karelian language (Tikhvin)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Karelian language (Tver)[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Ket language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Khakas language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Khamnigan Mongol language[1] Definitely endangered China, Mongolia, Russia
Khvarshi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Kildin Saami language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Kilen language[1] Critically endangered China, Russia
Kili language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Komi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Koryak language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Kumyk language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Lak language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Latgalian language[1] Vulnerable Latvia, Russia
Lezgian language[1] Vulnerable Azerbaijan, Russia
Low Saxon language[1] Vulnerable Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia
Lude language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Moksha language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Nanay language[1] Severely endangered China, Russia
Negidal language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Nganasan language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Nivkh language (Amur)[1] Critically endangered Russia
Nivkh language (Sakhalin)[1] Severely endangered Russia
Nogay language (Caucasus)[1] Definitely endangered Russia
North Saami language[1] Definitely endangered Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden
Northern Altay language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Northern Khanty language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Northern Mansi language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Northern Selkup language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Olonetsian language[1] Definitely endangered Finland, Russia
Oroch language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Orok language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Ossete language[1] Vulnerable Georgia, Russia
Permyak language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Pontic Greek language[1] Definitely endangered Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
Romani language[1] Definitely endangered Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Rutul language[1] Definitely endangered Azerbaijan, Russia
Shor language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Siberian Tatar language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Skolt Saami language[1] Severely endangered Finland, Norway, Russia
Southern Altay language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Southern Selkup language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Tabasaran language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Tazy language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Ter Saami language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Tindi language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Tofa language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Trukhmen language[1] Definitely endangered Russia, Turkmenistan
Tsakhur language[1] Definitely endangered Azerbaijan, Russia
Tsez language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Tundra Enets language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Tundra Nenets language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Tundra Yukagir language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Tuvan language[1] Vulnerable China, Mongolia, Russia
Udege language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Udmurt language[1] Definitely endangered Russia
Ulcha language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Urum language[1] Definitely endangered Georgia, Russia, Ukraine
Veps language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Vôru-Seto language[1] Definitely endangered Estonia, Russia
Vote language[1] Critically endangered Russia
Western Mari language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Yakut language[1] Vulnerable Russia
Yazva Komi language[1] Severely endangered Russia
Yiddish language (Europe)[1] Definitely endangered Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Yurt Tatar language[1] Definitely endangered Russia


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  2. ^ For the online atlas version see here

See alsoEdit