List of constructed languages
The following list of notable constructed languages is divided into auxiliary, ritual, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres. All entries on this list have further information on separate Wikipedia articles.
International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages.
|Solresol||1827||François Sudre||Based on pitch levels sounded with their solfege syllables (a "musical language") although no knowledge of music is required to learn it.|
|Communicationssprache||1839||Joseph Schipfer||Based on French.|
|Universalglot||1868||Jean Pirro||An early a posteriori language, predating even Volapük.|
|Volapük||vo, vol||1879–1880||Johann Martin Schleyer||First to generate international interest in IALs.|
|Esperanto||eo, epo||1887||L. L. Zamenhof||The most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including, possibly, up to two million speakers, the highest ever for a constructed language and the only one to date to have its own native speakers (Approximately 1,000).|
|Spokil||1887 or 1890||Adolph Nicolas||An a priori language by a former Volapük advocate.|
|Mundolinco||1888||J. Braakman||The first Esperantido.|
|Bolak, "Blue Language"||1899||Léon Bollack||Prospered fairly well in its initial years; now almost forgotten.|
|Idiom Neutral||1902||Waldemar Rosenberger||A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük.|
|Latino sine Flexione||1903||Giuseppe Peano||"Latin without inflection", it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908.|
|Ro||1904||Rev. Edward Powell Foster||An a priori language using categories of knowledge.|
|Ido||io, ido||1907||A group of reformist Esperanto speakers||The most successful offspring of Esperanto.|
|Adjuvilo||1910||Claudius Colas||An Esperantido some believe was created to cause dissent among Idoists.|
|Occidental||ie, ile||1922||Edgar de Wahl||A sophisticated naturalistic IAL, also known as Interlingue.|
|Novial||nov||1928||Otto Jespersen||Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL by a famous Danish linguist.|
|Sona||1935||Kenneth Searight||Best known attempt at universality of vocabulary.|
|Esperanto II||1937||René de Saussure||Last of linguist Saussure's many Esperantidos.|
|Mondial||1940s||Dr. Helge Heimer||Naturalistic European language.|
|Glosa||igs||1943||Lancelot Hogben, et al.||Originally called Interglossa, has a strong Greco-Latin vocabulary.|
|Blissymbols||zbl||1949||Charles Bliss||An ideographic writing system, with its own grammar and syntax.|
|Interlingua||ia, ina||1951||International Auxiliary Language Association||A major effort to systematize the international scientific vocabulary. It aims to be immediately comprehensible by Romance language speakers and to some extent English speakers.|
|Intal||1956||Erich Weferling||An effort to unite the most common systems of constructed languages.|
|Romanid||1956||Zoltán Magyar||A zonal constructed language based on the Romance languages.|
|Lingua sistemfrater||1957||Pham Xuan Thai||Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar.|
|Neo||neu||1961||Arturo Alfandari||A very terse Esperantido.|
|Babm||1962||Rikichi Okamoto||Notable for using Latin letters as a syllabary.|
|Guosa||1965||Alexander Igbinéwéká||Made for use in West Africa.|
|Arcaicam Esperantom||1969||Manuel Halvelik||'Archaic Esperanto', developed to produce an archaic effect in Esperanto literature.|
|Afrihili||afh||1970||K. A. Kumi Attobrah||A pan-African language.|
|Kotava||avk||1978||Staren Fetcey||A sophisticated a priori IAL focused on cultural neutrality.|
|Uropi||1986||Joël Landais||Based on the common Indo-European roots and the common grammatical points of the IE languages.|
|Poliespo||1990s?||Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah||Esperanto grammar with significant Cherokee vocabulary.|
|Romániço||1991||Anonymous||Vocabulary is derived from common Romance roots.|
|Europanto||1996||Diego Marani||A "linguistic jest" by a European diplomat.|
|Unish||1996||Language Research Institute, Sejong University||Vocabulary from fifteen representative languages.|
|Lingua Franca Nova||lfn||1998||C. George Boeree and others||Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar.|
|Slovio||1999||Mark Hučko||A constructed language based on the Slavic languages and Esperanto grammar.|
|Interslavic||2006||Ondrej Rečnik, Gabriel Svoboda, Jan van Steenbergen, Igor Polyakov||A naturalistic language based on the Slavic languages.|
|Sambahsa-Mundialect||2007||Olivier Simon||Mixture of simplified Proto-Indo-European and other languages.|
|Lingwa de planeta||2010||Dmitri Ivanov||Worldlang based on Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.|
Controlled natural languages are natural languages that have been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as for use by people who do not speak the original language well. The following projects are examples of controlled English:
|Basic English||1925||Charles Kay Ogden||Seek to limit the language to a given list of common-use words and terms in order to make it simpler to foreign learners or other people who may have difficulties.|
|Special English||1959||Voice of America|
|Globish (Gogate)||1998||Madhukar Gogate|
|Globish (Nerriere)||2004||Jean-Paul Nerrière|
|Plain English||Various||Proposes a more direct, short, clear language by avoiding many idioms, jargon and foreign words.|
|Simplified Technical English||1983||European Association of Aerospace Industries||Seeks to largely reduce the complexity and ambiguity of technical texts such as manuals.|
|E-Prime||1940s||D. David Bourland Jr.||Eliminates the verb to be with the intent of making writing more expressive and accurate.|
Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word. Constructed sign languages also fall in this category.
|Blissymbols||zbl||1949||Charles K. Bliss||Based on a ideographic writing system.|
|Gestuno||ils||1970s||Jasin Maloku||International sign language.|
These are languages in actual religious use by their communities or congregations.
|Eskayan||esy||c. 1920–1940||Mariano Datahan||Gramatically based on the Boholano dialect of Cebuano.|
|Medefaidrin||1930s||Obɛri Ɔkaimɛ church||Used by this Nigerian Christian church;|
said to be of sacred origin.
|Damin||1970s||the Lardil people||Created by native speakers of Lardil;|
only click language outside Africa.
Engineered languages are devised to test some hypothesis. They fall into three categories: philosophical, experimental and logical. An engineered language may belong to more than one of those categories.
|Logopandecteision||1653||Sir Thomas Urquhart||Suggestions toward a taxonomic language of great complexity.|
|Unnamed language||1668||John Wilkins||Detailed suggestions for a symbolic language capable of philosophical precision.|
|Isotype||1925–1934||Otto Neurath et al.||A pictographic language.|
|Loglan||1955||James Cooke Brown||Created to test the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis; the inspiration for Lojban.|
|aUI||1962||W. John Weilgart||Each phoneme is also a morpheme and a sememe, so that a single word can express a complex idea.|
|Ithkuil||1978–2011||John Quijada||Complex language designed to express deeper meanings briefly and clearly.|
|Láadan||ldn||1982||Suzette Haden Elgin||A tonal language oriented towards women; created to test if natural languages are biased towards men.|
|Lojban||jbo||1987||Logical Language Group||logical and syntactically unambiguous language; successor of Loglan.|
|Toki Pona||2001||Sonja Lang||Minimalist language with small vocabulary which reflects Taoist philosophy.|
Languages mainly intended for knowledge representation, which are easier for computers to understand.
- Knowledge Query and Manipulation Languages
Several well known Knowledge Query and Manipulation Languages have been created from extensive research projects to represent and query knowledge on computers:
|Knowledge Interchange Format||KIF||A precursor for knowledge representation.|
|Common Logic||CL||An ISO standard derived from KIF.|
|Resource Description Framework||RDF||A language standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) based on the principles of Common Logic, which represents knowledge as a directed graph built from unordered sets of "sentences" (in fact, as relational triples: subject, relation, attribute) using various syntaxes (XML, Turtle, JSON-LD, RDFa) for its interchange format.|
|Web Ontology Language||OWL||2004, 2009||Various||Another knowledge representation language standardized by W3C, and derived from Common Logic.|
|Universal Modeling Language||UML||1994–96||Grady Booch
|Describes the sets of relations and rules of inference and processing, and SQL may be used to use them in concrete schemas and compact store formats, but RDF designs its own (semantically more powerful) schema language for handling large sets of knowledge data stored in RDF format.|
|Attempto Controlled English||1995||University of Zurich||A controlled natural language that is also a knowledge representation language.|
|Loom||1970s–1999||Information Sciences Institute|
|Universal Networking Language (UNL)||1996||United Nations University|
Languages used in fictionEdit
- J. R. R. Tolkien
- Star Wars
- Other literature
|Zaum||1913||Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksei Kruchonykh et al.||Poetic tongue elaborated by these Russian Futurists as a "transrational" and "most universal" language "of songs, incantations, and curses."|
|Newspeak||Nineteen Eighty-Four||1949||George Orwell||Language created by an authoritarian government to gradually reduce the capability of human thought, thus avoiding rebellion.|
|Nadsat slang||A Clockwork Orange||1962||Anthony Burgess|
|Lapine||Watership Down||1972||Richard Adams||Spoken by rabbits.|
|Láadan (ldn)||Native Tongue and sequels||1984||Suzette Haden Elgin|
|Starsza Mowa (Elder Speech)||Hexer saga (The Witcher)||1993–2013||Andrzej Sapkowski|
|Baronh||Seikai no Monshō (Crest of the Stars) and others||1996||Morioka Hiroyuki||Language of Abh in and others.|
- Comic books
|Syldavian||The Adventures of Tintin, mostly in King Ottokar's Sceptre||1938–39||Hergé||Fictional West Germanic language of Syldavia, a Balkan kingdom.|
|Bordurian||The Adventures of Tintin, mostly in The Calculus Affair||1954–56||Hergé||Language of Borduria, a country bordering Syldavia.|
|Klingon (tlhIngan Hol)||Star Trek||1979–present||Marc Okrand|
|Tenctonese||Alien Nation film and television series||1988||Van Ling, Kenneth Johnson|
|Atlantean||Atlantis: The Lost Empire||2001||Marc Okrand|
|Ku||The Interpreter||2005||Said el-Gheithy||Fictional African language.|
|Na'vi||Avatar||2009||Paul Frommer||Spoken by the Na'vi.|
|Barsoomian||John Carter||2012||Paul Frommer, Edgar Rice Burroughs||Language of the Martians.|
|Kilikili||Baahubali: The Beginning||2015||Spoken by the Kalakeyas.|
|Vulcan||Star Trek: The Original Series||1966–69||Further developed by fans as Golic Vulcan.|
|Pakuni||Land of the Lost television series and film||1974||The language of the Pakuni.|
|Goa'uld||Stargate SG-1||1997–2007||A galactic lingua franca which supposedly influenced Ancient Egyptian.|
|Enchanta||Encantadia and Etheria television series||2005||Suzette Doctolero||Spoken by the denizens of Encantadia, known as Encantado(s)/Encantada(s) or Diwata (fairies).|
|The Valyrian languages and Dothraki||Game of Thrones||2011–present||David J. Peterson|
|Trigedasleng||The 100||2014–present||David J. Peterson|
|Kobaïan||1970s||Christian Vander||Used by French rock group Magma.|
|Loxian||2005||Roma Ryan||Used on Enya's 2005 album Amarantine and 2015 album Dark Sky Island.|
|Moss||2009||Jackson Moore||A language with a musical phonology, modeled on pidgins.|
|Tsolyani||Empire of the Petal Throne||1940s||M. A. R. Barker||Language of the world of Tékumel as described in this roleplaying game.|
|Gargish||Ultima series||1981–2013||Language of the gargoyle race.|
|D'ni||Myst series||1993–2005||Cyan Worlds||Language spoken by the subterranean D'ni people.|
|Simlish||Sim series||1996||Will Wright||Babble-like Language spoken by the sims (simulated persons).|
|Hymnos||Ar Tonelico series||2006-2010||Akira Tsuchiya||Language designed with strong focus on expressing emotions. Used by Reyvateil to chant song magic.|
|Teonaht||1962||Sally Caves||Language of the Teonim, a race of polydactyl humans who have a cultural history of worshiping catlike deities.|
|Verdurian and others||1995||Mark Rosenfelder||Spoken in the country Verduria of planet Almea.|
|Dritok||2007||Don Boozer||Spoken by the Drushek, a large-eared, long-tailed race without vocal cords that lives in the continent Kryslan.|
|Kēlen||2009||Sylvia Sotomayor||An alien language that lacks verbs, violating a universal feature among natural human languages.|
- Spocanian, language of Spocania, developed by Rolandt Tweehuysen starting from 1962.
Some experimental languages were developed to observe hypotheses of alternative linguistic interactions which could have led to very different modern languages. The following two examples were created for Ill Bethisad, an alternate history project.
|Brithenig||1996||Andrew Smith||A Romance language that replaced native Celtic languages in Great Britain instead of the Germanic Anglo-Saxon.|
|Wenedyk||2002||Jan van Steenbergen||Polish as a Romance language.|
- Talossan, by R. Ben Madison (1980)
|Lingua Ignota||12th century||Hildegard of Bingen||Latin-influenced mystical language.|
|Balaibalan||c. 14th to 16th century||Muhyî-i Gülşenî||Language with mostly a priori vocabulary and written in Arabic script; influenced by Persian, Turkish and Arabic.|
|Enochian||late 16th century||John Dee, Edward Kelley||Purported Angelic language, possibly used in magic and occultism.|
- Robert Phillipson. English-Only Europe? 2003. p. 172: "several thousand children worldwide are growing up (in over 2000 families) with Esperanto as one of their mother tongues"
- Schwitter, Rolf. "Controlled natural languages for knowledge representation." Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Posters. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010.
- Cinema, Telugu. "Welcome to new language 'Kilikili' from Baahubali". SaddaHaq. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
- Adams, Michael, ed. (2011). From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192807090. OCLC 713186702.
- Okrent, Arika (2009). In the Land of Invented Languages: Esperanto Rock Stars, Klingon Poets, Loglan Lovers, and the Mad Dreamers Who Tried to Build a Perfect Language. New York: Spiegel & Grau. ISBN 9780385527880. OCLC 321034148.
- Peterson, David J. (2015). The Art of Language Invention: From Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the Words Behind World-Building. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143126461. OCLC 900623553.
- Rosenfelder, Mark (2010). The Language Construction Kit. Chicago: Yonagu Books. ISBN 9780984470006. OCLC 639971902.
- Rosenfelder, Mark (2012). Advanced Language Construction. Chicago: Yonagu Books. ISBN 9781478267539. OCLC 855786940. The sequel to The Language Construction Kit.