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The MagellanElcano voyage was the first world circumnavigation in history. Victoria, one of the original five ships, led by Elcano, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after Magellan's death.

This is a list of circumnavigations of the planet Earth. Sections are ordered by ascending date of completion of voyage.


Global circumnavigationsEdit


16th centuryEdit

  • The 18 survivors, led by Juan Sebastián Elcano, of Ferdinand Magellan's Castilian ('Spanish') expedition (which began with 5 ships and 270 men); 1519–1522; westward from Spain; in Victoria. After Magellan was killed by people of the Philippines Lapu-Lapu on 27 April 1521, the circumnavigation was completed under the command of the Basque Spanish seafarer Juan Sebastián Elcano who returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain, on 6 September 1522, after a journey of 3 years and 1 month.[1] These men were the first to circumnavigate the globe in a single expedition.
  • The survivors of García Jofre de Loaísa's Spanish expedition 1525–1536 including Andrés de Urdaneta; westward from Spain. None of Loaísa's seven ships completed the voyage, but Santa María de la Victoria reached the Moluccas before being wrecked in a Portuguese attack. Successive chiefs of the expedition (Loaísa, Elcano, Salazar, Iñiguez, De la Torre) died during the voyages. Andrés de Urdaneta and other fellow men survived, reaching the Spice Islands in 1526, to be taken prisoner by the Portuguese. Urdaneta and a few of his men returned to Spain in 1536 aboard Portuguese ships via India, the Cape of Good Hope and Portugal, and completed the second world circumnavigation in history.
  • Francis Drake; 1577–1580; westward from England; in Golden Hind; discovered the Drake Passage but entered the Pacific via the Strait of Magellan; first English circumnavigation and the second carried out in a single expedition. Drake was the first to complete a circumnavigation as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation.
  • Martín Ignacio de Loyola; 1580–1584; westward from Spain.
  • Thomas Cavendish; 1586–1588; westward from England; in Desire.
  • Martín Ignacio de Loyola; 1585–1589; eastward from Spain (via Macau, China, and Acapulco, Mexico); First person to circumnavigate the world twice, first one to circumnavigate eastwards and both westwards and eastwards (1580–1584 westward and 1585–1589 eastward), and first to use overland routes in his circumnavigation.
  • João da Gama; 1584 (or 1585)–1590; eastward from Portugal; from Lisbon to India, Malacca, Macau (China) and Japan. Gama crossed the Pacific at a higher northern latitude; was taken prisoner in Mexico and carried in Spanish ships to the Iberian Peninsula. One of the first to do eastwards, mostly by sea.

17th centuryEdit

  • The survivors of the expedition of Jacques Mahu; 1598–1601; westward from Holland; Of Mahu's five ships only two returned.
  • The survivors of the expedition of Olivier van Noort; 1598–1601; westward from Holland; Of Van Noort's four ships only two returned.
  • Francesco Carletti (it); Florentine merchant; 1594–1602; westward from Italy; travelled across the American continent overland, through Panama. All Carletti's other travel was by sea until he ended in the Netherlands; he travelled from there overland back to Italy. Carletti was perhaps the first to travel all legs as a passenger, not as a ship's officer or a crew member. Carletti described his journey in his autobiography, "My Voyage Around the World", translated into various languages.
  • Joris van Spilbergen; 1614–1617; westward from Holland.
  • Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire; 1615–1617; westward from Holland; in Eendraght; Discovered Cape Horn and the first expedition to enter the Pacific via the Drake Passage.
  • Jacques l'Hermite and John Hugo Schapenham; 1623–1626; westward from Holland.
  • Pedro Cubero; 1670–1679; eastward from Spain; the first maritime circumnavigation including significant travel overland.
  • William Dampier (English); 1679–1691; westward from England.
  • Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri; 1693–1698; eastward from Naples; the first tourist to circumnavigate the globe, paying his own way on multiple voyages, crossing Mexico on land.

18th centuryEdit

19th centuryEdit

20th centuryEdit

21st centuryEdit

  • Wilfried Erdmann; 2000-08-14 - 2001-07-23 in 343 days; monohull Kathena Nui; solo westward non-stop circumnavigation.
  • Ellen MacArthur; 2001; monohull; circumnavigated singlehandedly as the then fastest woman.
  • Mike Golding; 2001; First person to circumnavigate non-stop in both eastward and westward directions. 1993 World record for a westward circumnavigation, 161 days, Group 4. 2001 Vendee Globe Race 7th position.
  • Bruno Peyron and crew; 2005; aboard maxi catamaran Orange II; set the then current windpowered circumnavigation record, 50 days, 16 hours, 20 minute.[4]
  • Ellen MacArthur; 2005; trimaran B&Q/Castorama; then the fastest singlehanded circumnavigation (71 days), is still the fastest woman in 2010. See also 2001.[4]
  • Dee Caffari; 2005-2006; first woman to perform a solo westward non-stop circumnavigation, in 178 days.[14]
  • Spanish frigate Álvaro de Bazán (F101); 2007; First circumnavigation of the globe by a Spanish warship in 142 years.
  • RMS Queen Mary 2; 2007 world cruise; at 148,528 gross ton, the world's largest passenger ship to circumnavigate the globe.
  • Earthrace; 2008; wave-piercing trimaran, with two 540 horsepower multi-fuelled engines; current world record holder for a motorized vessel (disputed with USS Triton, 1960), in 60 days 23 hours and 49 minutes.
  • Francis Joyon; 2008; 95 ft (29 m) IDEC 2; current fastest singlehanded multihull circumnavigation, in 57 days 13 hours 34 minutes 06 seconds.[4]
  • Michael Perham; 2009; then youngest person (aged 16–17 years) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (with stops, through Panama Canal).
  • Franck Cammas and a crew of 10; 2010; French trimaran Groupama 3; set the fastest maritime circumnavigation at the time, in a time of 48 days, 7 hours 44 minutes and 52 seconds.[4]
  • Cdr Dilip Donde (Indian Navy); 2009-2010; First Indian to carry out a solo circumnavigation; stopped in four ports - Fremantle, Lyttelton, Port Stanley and Cape Town.[15]
  • Jessica Watson; 2009-2010; youngest person (aged 16) to perform a solo non-stop southern hemisphere circumnavigation (past Cape Horn).
  • Reid Stowe; 2007-2010; eastbound circumnavigation, 1152 days; longest time spent at sea without resupply or touching land.
  • Minoru Saito; 2008-2011; oldest person (aged 77) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (westbound, past Cape Horn, with stops). He has made eight singlehanded circumnavigations; after the seventh (which was non-stop) at age 71 he was already the oldest.
  • PlanetSolar; 2010-2012; first solar vehicle to circumnavigate the globe.
  • Laura Dekker; 2011–2012; youngest person (aged 14–16 years) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (with stops, through Panama Canal).
  • British sailor Jeanne Socrates; 2012-2013; oldest woman (aged 70) to single-handedly sail around the world, non-stop without outside assistance,[16] also making her first woman to make solo non-stop unassisted circumnavigation from west coast of North America (Victoria BC, Canada). Oldest, in 2010-2011 (aged 68), to sail single-handedly around the world, with stops. Both were eastbound via Cape Horn.[17]
  • Abhilash Tomy (Indian Navy); 2012-2013; First Indian to sail solo, nonstop around the world without outside assistance. Sailed south of the five southernmost capes.
  • Gerry Hughes; 2012-2013; First deaf yachtsman to sail single-handed around the world to pass the five great capes. On 1 September 2012, Hughes left Troon, Scotland to start his eight-month journey across the world. Hughes travel around the world solo, sailed 32,000 miles and became the first deaf yachtsman to passed all five southernmost capes - Cape Agulhas, Cape Leeuwin, South East Cape, South West Cape and Cape Horn.

Fastest nautical circumnavigations of the globeEdit

(Ordered by ascending date of completion of voyage)

  • Operation Sandblast; 1960; USS Triton; first underwater circumnavigation, and fastest mechanically powered circumnavigation (disputed with Earthrace, 2008), in 60 days 21 hours.
  • Jon Sanders; 1986–1988; holds the world record for completing a single-handed, non-stop, triple circumnavigation, in 657 days 21 hours and 18 minutes.
  • Jean-Luc Van Den Heede (French); 2004; fastest westward single-handed circumnavigation, 122 days 14 hours 3 minutes 49 seconds.
  • Adrienne Cahalan (Australian); February–March 2004; fastest woman to complete a circumnavigation (crew of "Cheyenne") 58 days 9 hours 32 minutes 45 seconds.
  • Earthrace; 2008; wave-piercing trimaran, with two 540 horsepower multi-fuelled engines; current world record holder for a motorized vessel (disputed with USS Triton, 1960), in 60 days 23 hours and 49 minutes.
  • Thomas Coville (French); Nov 2016–Dec 2016; current fastest single-handed circumnavigation, in 49 days, 3 hours, 7 minutes, 38 seconds.
  • Francis Joyon and crew of five sailors; Dec 2016–Jan 2017; the Maxi trimaran IDEC SPORT; current absolute (wind or mechanically powered) fastest maritime circumnavigation, in 40 days 23 hours 30 minutes 30 seconds of sailing. Average speed of 26.85 knots (30.71 MPH), covering a total distance of 26,412 nautical miles (48,915 km; 30,394 mi).


In 1999, Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones achieved the first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3.
  • United States Army Air Service, 1924, first aerial circumnavigation, 175 days, covering 44,360 kilometres (27,560 mi).
  • Friedrich Karl von Koenig-Warthausen, in a Klemm L.20, circumnavigated the globe solo, between August 1928 and November 1929 (oceanic legs via ship).
  • LZ-127 Graf Zeppelin, 1929, piloted by Hugo Eckener set a record for the fastest aerial circumnavigation, 21 days, which was also the first circumnavigation in an airship.
  • On 1 July 1931, pilot Wiley Post and navigator Harold Gatty completed their circumnavigation of the world in a Lockheed Vega aeroplane, Winnie Mae, in 8 days, 15 hours and 51 minutes; the record for fastest circumnavigation was once again held by an aeroplane.
  • In 1932, Wolfgang von Gronau flew around the world in a twin-engine Dornier seaplane, Gronland-Wal D-2053, in nearly four months, making 44 stops en route. He was accompanied by co-pilot Gerth von Roth, mechanic Franzl Hack, and radio operator Fritz Albrecht.[18]
  • In 1933, Wiley Post repeated his circumnavigation by aeroplane, but this time solo, using an autopilot and radio direction finder. He made the first solo aerial circumnavigation in a time one day faster than his previous record: 7 days, 19 hours, 49 minutes, in which he covered 25,110 kilometres (15,600 mi).
  • Richarda Morrow-Tait became the first and still-youngest woman pilot to fly around the world, accompanied by navigator Michael Townsend, in a year and a day, from 18 August 1948 to 19 August 1949.
  • In 1949, the United States Air Force B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II made the first non-stop aerial circumnavigation in 94 hours and 1 minute. Four in-air refuelings were required for the flight, which covered 37,743 kilometres (23,452 mi).
  • Geraldine Mock, 1964, first woman to complete a solo aerial circumnavigation.
  • Don Taylor, 1976, first general aviation circumnavigation by homebuilt aircraft.
  • Dick Smith, 1982–1983, first solo circumnavigation by helicopter.
  • Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, 1986, Voyager, first non-stop non-refueled circumnavigation in an airplane, 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds.
  • In 1992 an Air France Concorde achieved the fastest non-orbital circumnavigation in 32 hours 49 minutes and 3 seconds.
  • Brian Milton, 1998, first microlight circumnavigation. He used an open-cockpit single engine Pegasus Quantum 912. No support aircraft escorted the flight. Keith Reynolds was copilot from Webridge, Surrey, to Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Siberia. Then, as required by the Russian authorities, navigator Petr Petrov accompanied Milton to Nome, Alaska. Milton completed the rest of the 120-day-voyage solo (71 flying days).[19][20][21][22]
  • Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones, 1999, first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3, 19 days, 1 hour and 49 minutes, covering 42,810 kilometres (26,600 mi).
  • Colin Bodill, 2000, first solo circumnavigation by a microlight (Mainair Blade) in 99 days. Also held fastest circumnavigation by microlight until broken. Bodill was part of an entourage of 4 aircraft, one of which carried supplies and support.[23]
  • Polly Vacher, 2001, in the smallest aircraft flown in a solo circumnavigation by a woman, via Australia and the Pacific.
  • Steve Fossett, 2 July 2002, first solo balloon circumnavigation.
  • Steve Fossett, 3 March 2005, GlobalFlyer, first non-stop, non-refueled solo circumnavigation in an airplane, 67 hours, covering 37,000 kilometres (23,000 mi).
  • Steve Fossett, 11 February 2006, GlobalFlyer, longest non-stop, non-refueled solo flight (with circumnavigation) in an airplane, covering 42,469.5 kilometres (26,389.3 mi), in 76 hours and 45 minutes.[24][25]
  • Barrington Irving, 27 June 2007, Inspiration, youngest solo circumnavigation in an airplane, at that time, 23 years, 228 days; first solo circumnavigation in an airplane by a black pilot and first Jamaican. Left Miami, Florida, March 23, 2007, first stop, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • Rahul Monga and Anil Kumar, 2007, fastest circumnavigation in a microlight, 79 days. Team from the Indian Air Force to commemorate the 75 Anniversary of the founding of the Indian Air Force. Aircraft used was a Flight Design CTSW. They covered 40,529 kilometres (25,184 mi) in a total flight time of 247 hours and 27 minutes.[26][27]
  • Jack Wiegand, 2013, then youngest pilot to circumnavigate the globe, solo (21).[28]
  • Amelia Rose Earhart joined by co-pilot Shane Jordon, completed a global circumnavigation flight on 11 July 2014.
  • Australian pilot Ryan Campbell completed a global circumnavigation flight on 7 September 2013 making him the then youngest person (19 year, 7 months, 25 days) to fly around the world.
  • Matt Guthmiller completed a global circumnavigation flight on 14 July 2014 making him the youngest person (19 years, 7 months, 15 days) to ever fly around the world.
  • Swiss pilots Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg took off from Abu Dhabi aboard the solar-powered airplane Solar Impulse 2 on 9 March 2015, and were originally scheduled to complete their circumnavigation of the Northern Hemisphere in five months.[29] Due to battery damage, continuation of the flight has been postponed until April 2016.[30] This circumnavigation was completed on 26 July 2016.
  • Robert DeLaurentis completed a global circumnavigation flight on 19 August 2015[31] - Single plane, single engine, single pilot,[32] across the Atlantic,[33] Pacific and Indian Oceans.[34]
  • Fyodor Konyukhov, 23 July 2016, broke the record for the fastest circumnavigation of the world in a hot air balloon. He took "just over 11 days", breaking Steve Fossetts 2002 record of 13 and a half days.[35]
  • Wang Zheng on September 19, 2016, completed a solo global circumnavigation in a single piston-engine aircraft and became the first Asian woman to fly around the world, the first Chinese person to fly solo around-the-world and the first Chinese female pilot to fly around the world.[36]


  • On 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin made the first human flight in space, and completed the first orbit of the Earth, in Vostok 1, in 108 minutes.
  • The second and third orbital circumnavigations, the first two to have multiple orbits, were made by Gherman Titov (17.5 orbits, a little over a day, for the Soviet Union) and John Glenn, in Friendship 7 (3 orbits, almost five hours, for the USA, first American orbital flight), respectively.
  • The first woman to circumnavigate the Earth in orbit, and to also do so multiple times, was Valentina Tereshkova, who made forty-eight orbits between 16 and 19 June 1963, aboard Vostok 6.
  • Frank F. Borman II, James A. Lovell Jr., and William A. Anders, 21–27 December 1968, first human circumnavigation of the Earth-Moon system, 10 orbits around the moon in about 20 hours, aboard Apollo 8; total trip to the moon and back was more than 6 Earth days.
  • Sally K. Ride, 18–24 June 1983, the first American woman to circumnavigate the Earth in orbit, the youngest American to date to do so (aged 32 years, 23 days), and the first American woman to do so multiple times; she flew 97 orbits during STS-7 aboard Space Shuttle Challenger.

Mixed transportation (including on foot and various other human powered)Edit

  • King Kalākaua traveled around the world, over land and sea, thus becoming the first reigning monarch to complete such a journey in 1881.
  • Thomas Stevens was the first person to circle the globe by bicycle. The feat was accomplished between 1884 and 1886. While impressive at the time, a good portion of the trip was by steamer due to technical and political reasons.
  • Nellie Bly traveled around the world with public steamboats and trains in 72 days (from November 14, 1889 to January 25, 1890), a world record, resembling the Around the World in Eighty Days novel.
  • Dumitru Dan was the first person to have walked around the world, in 1910–1923 (he kept walking even on the boats' deck).
  • Clärenore Stinnes and Carl-Axel Söderström were the first persons to drive around the world in a car between 25 May 1927 and 24 June 1929.
  • Beginning in Montreal, Ben Carlin circumnavigated the world in a modified Ford GPA Jeep between 1950 and 1958, becoming the first person to circumnavigate the world by amphibious vehicle.
  • David Kunst walked around the world between 20 June 1970 and 10 October 1974.
  • Arthur Blessitt walked around the world carrying a 45 lb (20 kg) wooden cross, covering 42,279 miles (68,041 km) through 324 countries, between 1968 and 2018. In 2018 he is still walking carrying the cross. 2018 is his 50th year on his journey.
  • Heinz Stucke has been cycling around the world since 1962.
  • Sir Ranulph Fiennes, Charles Burton and their team circumnavigated 'vertically' via the two poles on the Transglobe Expedition.
  • Rick Hansen, a world-class paraplegic athlete, became the first person to travel around the world in a wheelchair on 22 May 1987, covering over 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi) through 34 countries on four continents.[37]
  • Robert Garside is credited by Guinness World Records as the first person to run around the world between 1997 and 2003, taking 2,062 days to cover 30,000 miles (48,000 km) across 29 countries and 6 continents.[38]
  • Jesper Olsen travelled 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) in 2004, completed circumnavigation solely on foot (except for airplane or boats over the seas).
  • Colin Angus circumnavigated the northern hemisphere solely by human power in 2006 but did not qualify under the Guinness guidelines as a human powered circumnavigation. His attempt, however, was recognized by National Geographic.[39]
  • Jason Lewis completed the first true human-powered circumnavigation of the globe in 2007, covering 46,505 miles (74,843 km) in both the southern and northern hemispheres and reaching two antipodal points, gaining accreditation from Guinness World Records[40] and Adventurestats by Explorersweb.[41]
  • Mark Beaumont broke the record for cycling around globe in 2008. He began his attempt on 5 August 2007 and completed the 18,297-mile (29,446 km) journey across 4 continents and 21 countries 194 days and 17 hours later on 15 February 2008.[42]
  • Rosie Swale-Pope travelled 32,000 kilometres (20,000 mi) in 2008 completed circumnavigation solely on foot (except for airplane or boats over the seas).
  • Garry Sowerby holds four world records for circumnavigation in an automobile.[43][44][45]
  • Erden Eruç completed the first solo human-powered circumnavigation traveling by rowboat, sea kayak, foot and bicycle from 10 July 2007 to 21 July 2012.[46] Erden crossed the equator two times, passed over 12 pairs of antipodal points, and logged 66,299 kilometres (41,196 mi).[47]
  • Vladimir Lysenko had circumnavigated the globe from west to east, deviating no more than two degrees of latitude from the Equator. Starting in Libreville (Gabon), Vladimir had successfully crossed (in a car, a motor boat, a yacht, a ship, a kayak, a bicycle, and by foot) Africa, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Pacific Ocean, South America and Atlantic Ocean with finish in Libreville in 2012.[48][49]
  • Kane Avellano became the youngest person to circumnavigate the globe by motorcycle on a trip completed just one day before his 24th birthday. The circumnavigation began on the 31st of May 2016 and ended on the 19th of January 2017, with a total duration of 233 days. Avellano covered more than 28,000 miles (45,062 km), passing through 36 countries and 6 continents.[50][51]

Significant non-global circumnavigationsEdit


Fictional circumnavigationsEdit

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

There should be references inside each article, according to a general policy for list articles. In addition further references can be located here.

  1. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 63
  2. ^ a b
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  4. ^ a b c d e "Round the World Non-Stop". World Sailing Speed Record Council. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Byrne, Dan (August 30, 1986). "GOING ONE-ON-ONE WITH THE LONELY SEA : 25 Daring Sailors Will Attempt to Go Around the World--Single-Handedly". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  6. ^ "About Sailors for the Sea > Advisors > Mark Schrader". Boston Interactive/Sailors for the Sea. n.d. Archived from the original on 2012-08-24. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  7. ^ "Remembering Bertie Reed". Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c The Museum of Yachting Retrieved March 27, 2013
  9. ^ VELUX 5 Oceans Race (BOC Challenge) Official Website Retrieved March 27, 2013
  10. ^ Roger Martin Design Retrieved March 27, 2013
  11. ^ "Home - Vendée Globe 2016-2017". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  12. ^ Thurston, Elizabeth (1991). Dolphins at Sunset. Australia: Sun. pp. 1–232. ISBN 9780725106812 – via 
  13. ^ "Performance Certificates Published". World Sailing. 23 January 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2018. 
  14. ^ wrong-way sailor back on UK soil, BBC News. Retrieved 21 May 2006.
  15. ^ "Cdr Dilip Donde". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  16. ^ "Sailor Jeanne Socrates, world's oldest non-stop female circumnavigator". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  17. ^ "Ealing grandmother's world record sail". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  18. ^ Round-the-World Flights, from WingNet. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  19. ^ The Guinness 1999 Book of Records. Guinness Publishing. 1998. p. 081. ISBN 0-85112-070-9. 
  20. ^ MacKenzie, Mark (October 19, 2003). "Bandits at 11 o'clock!". The Independent on Sunday. p. 10. 
  21. ^ Cooper, Tarquin (May 23, 2009). "Top 20 great British adventurers". The Daily Telegraph. p. W5. 
  22. ^ Guinness World Records 2018: Meet our Real-Life Superheroes. Vancouver, Canada: Jim Pattison Group. August 29, 2017. p. 130. ISBN 978-1910561720. 
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  25. ^ Steve lands as an uninvited guest! Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., from Virgin Global Flyer. Retrieved 11 February 2006.
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  28. ^ "Youngest person to circumnavigate by aircraft, solo". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  29. ^ Amos, Jonathan. "Solar Impulse plane begins epic global flight", BBC News, 9 March 2015
  30. ^ Amos, Jonathan. "Solar Impulse grounded until 2016", BBC News, 15 July 2015
  31. ^ "Around the world in 90 days, for a cause - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  32. ^ "AROUND THE WORLD — BARELY". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  33. ^ "American pilot making epic solo flight around the world". Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  34. ^ "Around the world in 90 days - Local - The Telegram". Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  35. ^ "Russian adventurer breaks world hot air balloon record". ABC News. ABC-Australia. 23 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  36. ^ "Solo Flights". Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
  37. ^ Still making a difference: Hansen continues to inspire while raising understanding and money Archived 2008-01-10 at the Wayback Machine., By Darah Hansen, Vancouver Sun, 18 May 2007.
  38. ^ Around-World Runner Honoured Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. from the New York Post
  39. ^ Human-Powered Circumnavigation Archived 2007-12-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ Guinness World Records (6 October 2007). "Human Powered Circumnavigations" (PDF). 
  41. ^ Adventurestats by Explorersweb. "Global HPC - Human Powered Circumnavigations". Explorersweb. 
  42. ^ "BBC NEWS - UK - Scotland - Edinburgh, East and Fife - Scot smashes world cycle record". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  43. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  44. ^ Green gimmick leads to striking narratives; Car becomes historian for green projects - Motoring - The Western Star
  45. ^ "In Search of Nova Scotia's 25 Funkiest Things -". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  46. ^ "Guinness World Records – First solo circumnavigation of the globe using human power". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  47. ^ "Media Kit – Project Summary Document" (PDF). Around-n-Over (PDF file linked from ""). 22 August 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  48. ^ "Union of Russian Around-the-World Travellers site" (in Russian). 
  49. ^ "Round-the-World Tour Along the Equator by Vladimir Lysenko" (in Russian). Extreme portal VVV.RU. 
  50. ^ "Youngest person to circumnavigate the globe by motorcycle (male)". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2018-01-28. 
  51. ^ "BonnieTour". BonnieTour. Retrieved 2018-01-28. 
  52. ^ "CCGS Hudson". Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. 
  53. ^ Clark, Miles. Russian Voyage. National Geographic Magazine, June 1994. p. 114 a 138.
  54. ^ Purves, Libby (30 April 1993). "Obituary: Miles Clark". The Independent. London. 
  55. ^ "The Phoenician Ship Expedition". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  56. ^ "Ousland : nearly back to Oslo". International Polar Foundation. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  57. ^ "First circumnavigation of Arctic completed". The Voice of Russia. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  58. ^ "Peter 1 arctic circumnavigation 2010". Youtube. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  59. ^ Sheinin, Dave (April 21, 2012). "Sailor Matt Rutherford welcomed home in Annapolis after sailing solo around the Americas". The Washington Post. Annapolis. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016. 
  60. ^ Schell, Andy (September 18, 2012). "Matt Rutherford: Mission Accomplished". Cruz Bay Publishing Inc., an Active Interest Media company. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.