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The Vendée Globe is a single-handed (solo) non-stop yacht race around the world without assistance. The race was founded by Philippe Jeantot in 1989, and since 1992 has taken place every four years. It is named after the Département of Vendée, in France, where the race starts and ends. The Vendée Globe is considered an extreme quest of individual endurance and the ultimate test in ocean racing.
The route of the Vendée Globe race
|Type||single-handed non-stop round-the-world race|
|Champions||Banque Populaire VIII|
Armel Le Cléac'h
|Most titles||Michel Desjoyeaux (2)|
The race was founded as "The Globe Challenge" in 1989 by French yachtsman Philippe Jeantot. Jeantot had competed in the BOC Challenge (now the Velux 5 Oceans Race) in 1982–83 and 1986–87, winning the 60-foot class ("Class I") both races. Dissatisfied with the race's format, he decided to set up a new round-the-world non-stop race, which he felt would be the ultimate challenge for single-handed sailors.
The first race was run in 1989–90, and was won by Titouan Lamazou; Jeantot himself took part, and placed fourth. The next race was in 1992–93; and it has since then been run every four years. The inaugural race included 11 Frenchmen, one South African (Bertie Reed) and one American (Mike Plant).
The race is open to monohull yachts conforming to the Open 60 class criteria. Prior to 2004, the race was also open to Open 50 boats. The Open classes are unrestricted in certain aspects, but a box rule governs parameters such as overall length, draught, appendages and stability, as well as numerous other safety features.
The race starts and finishes in Les Sables-d'Olonne, in the Département of Vendée, in France; both Les Sables d’Olonne and the Vendée Conseil Général are official race sponsors. The course is essentially a circumnavigation along the clipper route: from Les Sables d’Olonne, down the Atlantic Ocean to the Cape of Good Hope; then clockwise around Antarctica, keeping Cape Leeuwin and Cape Horn to port; then back to Les Sables d’Olonne. The race generally runs from November to February, and is timed to place the competitors in the Southern Ocean during the austral summer.
Additional waypoints may be set in the sailing instructions for a particular race, in order to ensure safety relative to ice conditions, weather, etc.
The competitors may stop at anchor, but may not draw alongside a quay or another vessel; they may receive no outside assistance, including customised weather or routing information. The only exception is that a competitor who has an early problem may return to the start for repairs and then restart the race, as long the restart is within 10 days of the official start.
The race presents significant challenges; most notably the severe wind and wave conditions in the Southern Ocean, the long unassisted duration of the race, and the fact that the course takes competitors far from the reach of any normal emergency response. A significant proportion of the entrants usually retire, and in the 1996–97 race Canadian Gerry Roufs was lost at sea.
To mitigate the risks, competitors are required to undergo medical and survival courses. They must also be able to demonstrate prior racing experience; either a completed single-handed trans-oceanic race or the completion of a previous Vendée Globe. The qualifying race must have been completed on the same boat as the one the sailor will race in the Vendée Globe; or the competitor must complete an additional trans-oceanic observation passage, of not less than 2,500 miles (4,000 km), at an average speed of at least 7 knots (13 km/h), with his or her boat.
The inaugural Vendée Globe set off from Les Sables d'Olonne, France on 26 November 1989. Frenchman, Titouan Lamazou, sailing Ecureuil d'Aquitaine II, won the race with a time of 109 days. Philippe Jeantot, Vendée Globe founder, had problems with breakdowns, and then unfavorable winds, which held him back from the race lead. Philippe Poupon's ketch Fleury Michon X capsized in the Southern Ocean; and Poupon was rescued by Loïck Peyron, who finally finished second, in what was generally a successful first run of the race. Mike Plant, the lone American in the race, disqualified himself after receiving minor assistance near Campbell Island, New Zealand after a $5 rigging part on his sloop, Duracell, was damaged in the Pacific Ocean. Plant lost the race, but to the admiring French, he emerged a real hero after repairing the rigging and finishing the course as an unofficial competitor in 135 days, a new American single-handed circumnavigation record.
Table: Order of Finish, 1989-1990 Vendée Globe
|Titouan Lamazou||Ecureuil d'Aquitaine II||109d 08h 48' 50"|
|Loïck Peyron||Lada Poch||110d 01h 18' 06"|
|Jean-Luc Van Den Heede||36.15 MET||112d 01h 14' 00"|
|Philippe Jeantot||Crédit Agricole IV||113d 23h 47' 47"|
|Pierre Follenfant||TBS-Charente Maritime||114d 21h 09' 06"|
|Alain Gautier||Generali Concorde||132d 13h 01' 48"|
|Jean-François Coste||Cacharel||163d 01h 19' 20"|
|Did not finish|
|Mike Plant||Duracell||received minor assistance (New Zealand)|
|Patrice Carpentier||Le Nouvel Observateur||damaged auto-pilot (Falklands)|
|Bertie Reed||Grinaker||damaged rudder|
|Philippe Poupon||Fleury Michon X||capsized|
The second race attracted a great deal of media coverage. American Mike Plant, one of the entrants in the first Vendée race, was lost at sea on the way to the race, his boat found capsized near the Azores.
The race set off into extremely bad weather in the Bay of Biscay, and several racers returned to the start to make repairs before setting off again (the only stopover allowed by the rules). Four days after the start, British sailor Nigel Burgess was found drowned off Cape Finisterre, having presumably fallen overboard. Alain Gautier and Bertrand de Broc led the race down the Atlantic; however, keel problems forced de Broc to abandon in New Zealand. Gautier continued with Philippe Poupon close behind, but a dismasting close to the finish held Poupon back, allowing Jean-Luc Van Den Heede to take second place.
Table: Order of Finish, 1992-1993 Vendée Globe
|Alain Gautier||Bagages Superior||110d 02h 22' 35"|
|Jean-Luc Van Den Heede||Groupe Sofap-Helvim||116d 15h 01' 11"|
|Philippe Poupon||Fleury-Michon X||117d 03h 34' 24"|
|Yves Parlier||Cacolac d'Aquitaine||125d 02h 42' 24"|
|Nándor Fa||K&H Banque Matav||128d 16h 05' 04"|
|José Luis de Ugarte||Euskadi Europ 93 BBK||134d 05h 04' 00"|
|Jean-Yves Hasselin||PRB / Solo Nantes||153d 05h 14' 00"|
|Did not finish|
|Bernard Gallay||Vuarnet Watches||rigging problems|
|Vittorio Malingri||Everlast / Neil Pryde Sails||lost rudder|
|Bertrand de Broc||Groupe LG||keel problems|
|Alan Wynne-Thomas||Cardiff Discovery||medical reasons|
|Loïck Peyron||Fujicolor III||sail failure|
|Thierry Arnaud||Maître Coq / Le Monde||unprepared|
|Nigel Burgess||Nigel Burgess Yachts||lost at sea|
|Did not start|
|Mike Plant||Coyote||lost at sea prior to departure|
Another heavy-weather start in the Bay of Biscay knocked Nándor Fa and Didier Munduteguy out of the race early, and several others returned to the start for repairs before continuing. The rest of the fleet raced to the Southern Ocean, where a second attrition began: Yves Parlier and Isabelle Autissier broke rudders, leaving Christophe Auguin to lead the way into the south.
Heavy weather took a serious toll on the sailors in the far Southern Ocean. Raphaël Dinelli's boat capsized, and he was rescued by Pete Goss. Then, within a few hours of each other, two other boats capsized, with both rescues performed by the Royal Australian Navy. Finally, contact was lost with Canadian sailor Gerry Roufs; his body was never found, but his boat was found five months later off the Chilean Coast.
Pete Goss was later awarded the Légion d'honneur for his rescue of Dinelli. The capsize of several boats in this race prompted tightening up of the safety rules for entrants, particularly regarding boat safety and stability.
Table: Order of Finish, 1996-1997 Vendée Globe
|Christophe Auguin||Geodis||105d 20h 31' (new record)|
|Marc Thiercelin||Crédit Immobilier||113d 08h 26'|
|Hervé Laurent||Groupe LG-Traitmat||114d 16h 43'|
|Éric Dumont||Café Legal-Le Goût||116d 16h 43'|
|Pete Goss||Aqua Quorum||126d 21h 25'|
|Catherine Chabaud||Whirlpool-Europe 2||140d 04h 38'|
|Did not finish|
|Isabelle Autissier||PRB||broken rudder|
|Yves Parlier||Aquitaine Innovations||broken rudder|
|Bertrand de Broc||Pommes Rhône Alpes||capsized|
|Tony Bullimore||Exide Challenger||capsized|
|Thierry Dubois||Amnesty International||capsized|
|Didier Munduteguy||Club 60è Sud||dismasted|
|Patrick de Radiguès||Afibel||beached|
|Gerry Roufs||Groupe LG2||lost at sea|
This race was the first major test of the new safety rules, introduced following the tragedies the previous races. Overall, it was a success; although some boats were again forced to retire from the race, none were lost. This race also featured the youngest entrant ever; Ellen MacArthur, who at 24 years old managed to put together a serious campaign with her custom-built boat Kingfisher.
Yves Parlier was the first to establish a lead, and headlines were made by Dominique Wavre of Switzerland on 10 December 2000 when his 430 nautical miles broke the 24-hour record for distance sailed single-handed. Parlier was soon under attack by Michel Desjoyeaux, who then moved into the lead. Parlier dismasted while pushing to catch up and lost contact with race organizers, resulting in MacArthur's being diverted to provide assistance. MacArthur resumed racing when contact with Parlier was restored, and managed to maintain fourth place.
Desjoyeaux extended his lead to 600 miles (970 km) by Cape Horn, and MacArthur had closed steadily, moving up to second place. By the mid-Atlantic she had caught up, and while negotiating the calms and variable winds of the Doldrums, the two traded the lead position several times.
MacArthur's chance to win was lost when she struck a semi-submerged container and was forced to make repairs. Desjoyeaux and PRB, flying the French flag, would go on to win the race at 93d 3h 57', with MacArthur and Kingfisher under the flag of Great Britain finishing second at 94d 4h 25', and Roland Jourdain and Sill Matines La potagère, also under French flag, finishing third at 96d 1h 2'. MacArthur pulled in to a rapturous reception, as "the youngest ever competitor to finish, the fastest woman around the planet—and only the second solo sailor to get around the globe in less than 100 days." Parlier, meanwhile, had anchored off New Zealand, and managed to fabricate by himself a new carbon-fibre mast from his broken one, and continuing racing, gained an official place.
Table: Order of Finish, 2000–2001 Vendée Globe
|Michel Desjoyeaux||PRB||93d 3h 57' (new record)|
|Ellen MacArthur||Kingfisher||94d 4h 25'|
|Roland Jourdain||Sill Matines La potagère||96d 1h 2'|
|Marc Thiercelin||Active Wear||102d 20h 37'|
|Dominique Wavre||Union bancaire Privée||105d 2h 45'|
|Thomas Coville||Sodébo||105d 7h 24'|
|Mike Golding||Team Group 4||110d 16h 22'|
|Bernard Gallay||Voilà.fr||111d 16h 7'|
|Josh Hall||Gartmore||111d 19h 48'|
|Joé Seeten||Chocolats du Monde||115d 16h 46'|
|Patrice Carpentier||VM Matériaux||116d 0h 32'|
|Simone Bianchetti||Aquarelle.com||121d 1h 28'|
|Yves Parlier||Aquitaine Innovations||126d 23h 36'|
|Didier Munduteguy||DDP / 60e Sud||135d 15h 17'|
|Pasquale de Gregorio||Wind Telecommunicazioni||158d 2h 37'|
|Did not finish|
|Thierry Dubois||Solidaires||electronic problems|
|Raphaël Dinelli||Sogal Extenso||damaged rudder|
|Fyodor Konyukhov||Modern Univ./Humanities||retired|
|Javier Sansó||Old Spice||retired|
|Éric Dumont||Euroka Services||damaged rudder|
|Richard Tolkien||This Time – Argos – Help For Autistic Children||rig damage|
|Bernard Stamm||Armor-Lux/foies Gras||steering problem|
|Patrick de Radiguès||Libre Belgique||beached|
The start of the 2004 race was watched by an estimated 300,000 people, which took place in mild weather. A fast start was followed by a few minor equipment problems, allowing the first racers to cross the equator just after 10 days. This was three days faster than the previous race, with all of the starters still sailing.
Attrition began on entry into the Roaring Forties: Alex Thomson diverted to Cape Town to make unassisted repairs and continue racing. The fleet encountered a number of other problems. Hervé Laurent retired with serious rudder problems, Thomson abandoned, and Conrad Humphreys anchored to make unassisted rudder repairs. Gear problems and abandonments continued, then the fleet ran into an area of ice, and Sébastien Josse hit an iceberg head-on.
Table: Order of Finish, 2004–2005 Vendée Globe
|Vincent Riou||PRB||87d 10h 47' 55" (new record)|
|Jean Le Cam||Bonduelle||87d 17h 20' 8"|
|Mike Golding||Ecover||88d 15h 15' 13"|
|Dominique Wavre||Temenos||92d 17h 13' 20"|
|Sébastien Josse||VMI||93d 0h 2' 10"|
|Jean-Pierre Dick||Virbac-Paprec||98d 3h 49' 38"|
|Conrad Humphreys||Hellomoto||104d 14h 32' 24"|
|Joé Seeten||Arcelor Dunkerque||104d 23h 2' 45"|
|Bruce Schwab||Ocean Planet||109d 19h 58' 57"|
|Benoît Parnaudeau||Max Havelaar / Best Western||116d 1h 6' 54"|
|Anne Liardet||ROXY||119d 5h 28' 40"|
|Raphaël Dinelli||AKENA Vérandas||125d 4h 7' 14"|
|Karen Leibovici||Benefic||126d 8h 2' 20"|
|Did not finish|
|Marc Thiercelin||Pro-Form||technical problems|
|Roland Jourdain||Sill Véolia||keel problems|
|Alex Thomson||Hugo Boss||hole in the deck|
|Patrice Carpentier||VM Matériaux||broken boom|
|Nick Moloney||Skandia||lost the keel|
|Hervé Laurent||UUDS||rudder problem|
|Norbert Sedlacek||Brother||keel problems|
This section needs expansion with: a description of events of comparable detail and length to those preceding. You can help by adding to it. (November 2016)
The 2008 Vendée Globe began on 9 November 2008. The problems encountered by Jean Le Cam—losing his keel bulb and capsizing in the Southern Ocean—had a major impact on the order of finish. Vincent Riou diverted and found his boat, circling to try to toss a rope to Le Cam who had exited a security hatch to hang onto the rudder. After three failed attempts, Riou went in closer, managing to rescue Le Cam but also damaging his mast. Riou retired, but was awarded third place on redress, as he was third when diverted to assist the boat in distress.
The 2008 Vendée Globe was won by Michel Desjoyaux, who set a new record at 84d 3h 9' 8".
Table: Order of Finish, 2008–2009 Vendée Globe
|Michel Desjoyeaux||Foncia||84d 3h 9' 8" (new record)|
|Armel Le Cléac'h||Brit Air||89d 9h 39' 35"|
|Vincent Riou||PRB||day 59: dismasted. Redress Given: 3rd place|
|Marc Guillemot||Safran||95d 3h 19' 36"|
|Samantha Davies||Roxy||95d 4h 39' 1"|
|Brian Thompson||Bahrain Team Pindar||98d 20h 29' 55"|
|Dee Caffari||Aviva||99d 1h 10' 57"|
|Arnaud Boissières||Akena Verandas||105d 2h 33' 50"|
|Steve White||Toe In The Water||109d 0h 36' 55"|
|Rich Wilson||Great American III||121d 0h 41' 19"|
|Raphaël Dinelli||Fondation Ocean Vital||125d 2h 32' 24"|
|Norbert Sedlacek||Nauticsport-Kapsch||126d 5h 31' 56"|
|Did not finish|
|Roland Jourdain||Veolia Environnement||day 85: lost keel|
|Jean Le Cam||VM Matériaux||day 58: lost keel bulb, capsized|
|Jonny Malbon||Artemis||day 56: delaminated mainsail|
|Jean-Pierre Dick||Paprec-Virbac 2||day 53: lost port rudder|
|Derek Hatfield||Algimouss Spirit of Canada||day 50: broken spreaders|
|Sébastien Josse||BT||day 50: broken rudder system|
|Yann Eliès||Generali||day 40: fractured femur|
|Mike Golding||Ecover 3||day 38: dismasted|
|Jean-Baptiste Dejeanty||Groupe Maisonneuve||day 37: faulty halyards, broken auto-pilot|
|Loïck Peyron||Gitana Eighty||day 36: dismasted|
|Bernard Stamm||Cheminées Poujoulat||day 36: ran aground|
|Dominique Wavre||Temenos||day 35: damaged keel box|
|Unai Basurko||Pakea Bizkaia||day 28: faulty starboard rudder box|
|Jérémie Beyou||Delta Dore||day 17: damaged rig|
|Alex Thomson||Hugo Boss||day 6: cracked hull|
|Yannick Bestaven||Energies Autour du Monde||day 4: dismasted|
|Marc Thiercelin||DCNS||day 4: dismasted|
|Kito de Pavant||Groupe Bel||day 4: dismasted|
The 2012 Vendée Globe started on 10 November 2012. The race saw the 24-hour singlehanded distance record repeatedly reset by several competitors. Armel Le Cléac’h (Banque Populaire) set a new race record for shortest time to the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope, and François Gabart (Macif) set new race records for shortest time to the longitude of Cape Leeuwin in Australia and to Cape Horn. On 27 January 2013, Gabart set a new Vendée Globe record with just over 78 days to complete the circumnavigation. The interval of 3h 17’ between the arrivals of the first and second contenders is also the shortest in the race's history.
Table: Order of Finish, 2012–2013 Vendée Globe
|François Gabart||Macif||78d 2h 16' 40" (new record)|
|Armel Le Cléac’h||Banque Populaire||78d 5h 33' 52"|
|Alex Thomson||Hugo Boss||80d 19h 23' 43"|
|Jean-Pierre Dick||Virbac-Paprec 3||86d 3h 3' 40"|
|Jean Le Cam||SynerCiel||88d 0h 12’ 58"|
|Mike Golding||Gamesa||88d 6h 36' 26"|
|Dominique Wavre||Mirabaud||90d 3h 14' 42"|
|Arnaud Boissières||Akena Vérandas||91d 2h 09' 02"|
|Bertrand De Broc||Votre Nom autour du Monde avec EDM Projets||92d 17h 10' 14" (incl. 12h time penalty for unsealing and using emergency water supply)|
|Tanguy De Lamotte||initiatives cœur||98d 21h 56' 10"|
|Alessandro Di Benedetto||Team Plastique||104d 02h 34' 30"|
|Did not finish|
|Javier Sanso||Acciona 100% EcoPowered||day 84: capsized|
|Bernard Stamm||Cheminées Poujoulat||day 51: disqualified after receiving assistance, however he completed the course in 88d 10h 27' 50"|
|Vincent Riou||PRB||day 14: broken outrigger stay resulting from collision|
|Zbigniew Gutkowski||Energa||day 11: electrical issues resulting in autopilot not being able to work|
|Jérémie Beyou||Maître CoQ||day 9: broken keel ram|
|Samantha Davies||Savéol||day 5: dismasted|
|Louis Burton||Bureau Vallée||day 3: collision|
|Kito de Pavant||Groupe Bel||day 2: collision|
|Marc Guillemot||Safran||day 1: damaged keel|
The 2016 - 17 race started from Les Sables d'Olonne on 6 November 2016; it was the eighth competition, with 29 skippers from ten countries. It lasted 124.5 days while going around the three great capes - the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), Cape Leeuwin (Australia) and Cape Horn (Chile) and saw a record 18 skippers make it to the finish line.
This edition of the race was the first to feature foiling monohull boats equipped with hydrofoils and was therefore closely watched to evaluate the durability of foils in such circumstances. Of note, the four foiling boats sailed by professional skippers that made it to the finish line took the top places, indicating that such appendages are likely to be adopted by other sailors (see table below). The winner of this edition was Armel Le Cléac'h, finishing on 19 January 2017 in a record breaking time of 74 days, three hours and 35 minutes. Other records were set during the course, including the greatest distance covered by a monohull over the course of 24h, the fastest southbound crossing of the Equator and Cape of Good Hope by Alex Thomson. Winner Armel le Cleac'h also broke the record for the fastest crossing of Cape Leeuwin, Cape Horn and the Equator (northbound).
The race featured the youngest and oldest skippers ever to complete the race - on consecutive days (Alan Roura, 23 years old; Rich Wilson, aged 66). Also, Didac Costa was forced to return to harbour after less than one hour of sailing as a result of water damage to the boat's electric system. He returned to the race four days later and finished in 14th place. In addition, Conrad Colman finished under jury rig after dismasting 715 nm from the finish, while running short on food and electric power. The latter was compounded by the fact that his boat - Foresight Natural Energy - was propelled solely by renewable energy sources and the critical speed required for using hydrogenerators as well as sunlight to feed his solar panels were short of par. Colman was the first skipper to complete the Vendée Globe without using fossil fuels, two weeks after breaking his mast.
Table: Registrants, 2016–2017 Vendée Globe
|Armel Le Cléac'h||Banque Populaire VIII §||Jun 2015/VPLP-Verdier||74d 03h 35' 46" (current record)|
|Alex Thomson||Hugo Boss §||Sep 2015/VPLP-Verdier||74d 19h 35' 15"|
|Jérémie Beyou||Maître CoQ §||Sep 2010/VPLP-Verdier||78d 06h 38' 40"|
|Jean-Pierre Dick||StMichel-Virbac §||Sep 2015/VPLP-Verdier||80d 01h 45' 45"|
|Yann Eliès||Quéguiner - Leucémie Espoir||Aug 2007/VPLP-Verdier||80d 03h 11' 09"|
|Jean Le Cam||Finistère Mer Vent||Jan 2007/Farr||80d 04h 41' 54"|
|Louis Burton||Bureau Vallée||Sep 2006/Farr||87d 19h 45' 49"|
|Nándor Fa||Spirit Of Hungary||Apr 2014/Nándor Fa & Attila Déry||93d 22h 52' 09"|
|Éric Bellion||Comme un Seul Homme||May 2008/Finot-Conq||99d 04h 56' 20"|
|Arnaud Boissières||La Mie Câline||Feb 2007/Farr||102d 20h 24' 09"|
|Fabrice Amedeo||Newrest - Matmut||Jul 2007/Farr||103d 21h 01' 00"|
|Alan Roura||La Fabrique||Jul 2000/Pierre Rolland||105d 20h 10' 32"|
|Rich Wilson||Great American IV||Sep 2006/Owen Clarke||107d 00h 48' 18"|
|Didac Costa||One Planet One Ocean||Jan 2000/Owen Clarke||108d 19h 50' 45"|
|Romain Attanasio||Famille Mary - Etamine Du Lys||Jan 1998/Marc Lombard||109d 22h 04' 00"|
|/ Conrad Colman||Foresight Natural Energy||Jan 2005/Lavranos-Artech||110d 01h 58' 41"|
|Pieter Heerema||No Way Back §||Aug 2015/VPLP-Verdier||116d 09h 24' 12"|
|Sébastien Destremau||TechnoFirst - FaceOcean||Jan 1998/Finot||124d 12h 38' 18"|
|Did not finish|
|Enda O’Coineen||Kilcullen Voyager - Team Ireland||Aug 2007/Owen Clarke & Clay Oliver||day 56: Dismasted 180 nm SE of New Zealand|
|Paul Meilhat||SMA||Jan 2011/VPLP-Verdier||day 49: Hydraulic-keel fissured|
|Thomas Ruyant||Le Souffle Du Nord Pour Le Projet Imagine||Jan 2007/VPLP-Verdier||day 44: Damaged hull due to collision with an UFO|
|Stéphane Le Diraison||Compagnie Du Lit - Boulogne Billancourt||Jan 2007/Finot-Conq||day 41: Dismasted 950 nautical miles away from Australia|
|Sébastien Josse||Edmond De Rothschild §||Aug 2015/VPLP-Verdier||day 30: Damage port foil - South of Australia|
|Kito de Pavant||Bastide Otio||May 2010/VPLP-Verdier||day 30: Damaged keel - North of Crozet Islands|
|Kojiro Shiraishi||Spirit Of Yukoh||Jan 2007/Farr||day 27: Damaged masthead - South of Cape of Good Hope|
|Tanguy De Lamotte||Initiatives-Cœur||Sep 2006/Farr||day 23: Damaged masthead - North of Cape Verde Islands|
|Morgan Lagravière||Safran §||Mar 2015/VPLP-Verdier||day 19: Damaged rudder - South Atlantic|
|Vincent Riou||PRB||Mar 2010/VPLP-Verdier||day 17: Damaged keel - South Atlantic|
|Bertrand De Broc||MACSF||Jul 2007/Finot-Conq||day 14: Damaged keel|
§ - boat equipped with hydrofoils
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vendée Globe.|
- SSN Staff (13 November 2016). "Vendée Globe: Thomson Leads into the Doldrums". Scuttlebutt Sailing News. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- VendéeGlobe.org Staff (13 November 2016). "Home Page, Vendée Globe 2016-2017 [race]". vendeeglobe.org. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- BBC Staff (27 January 2013). "Vendee Globe 2012-13: Francois Gabart Breaks Solo Record [BBC Sport: Sailing]". Retrieved 13 November 2016. Cite journal requires
- Museler, Chris (9 November 2008). "Racers in Vendée Globe Start Nonstop Solo Quest". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
Compared with other global ocean races […] the Vendée Globe is considered the most extreme sailing event in the world
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[Quote:] Inducted to Single-Handed Sailors' Hall of Fame, 1990.
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Tragically, another life was lost as French Canadian Gerry Roufs was lost at sea
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