Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman (born Elizabeth Jane Cochran; May 5, 1864 – January 27, 1922), better known by her pen name Nellie Bly, was an American journalist, who was widely known for her record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days in emulation of Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg, and an exposé in which she worked undercover to report on a mental institution from within.[1] She was a pioneer in her field and launched a new kind of investigative journalism.[2]

Nellie Bly
Cochran at 26 years old, circa 1890
Elizabeth Jane Cochran

(1864-05-05)May 5, 1864
DiedJanuary 27, 1922(1922-01-27) (aged 57)
Other namesElly Cochran, Elizabeth Jane Cochrane, and most commonly known as Nellie Bly as her pen-name
(m. 1895; died 1904)
AwardsNational Women's Hall of Fame (1998)
Signature reads: "Nellie Bly"
After her marriage, Bly used the name "Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman."

Early life edit

Elizabeth Jane Cochran was born May 5, 1864,[3] in "Cochran's Mills", now part of Burrell Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania.[4][5][6] Her father, Michael Cochran, born about 1810, started out as a laborer and mill worker before buying the local mill and most of the land surrounding his family farmhouse. He later became a merchant, postmaster, and associate justice at Cochran's Mills (which was named after him) in Pennsylvania. Michael married twice. He had 10 children with his first wife, Catherine Murphy, and 5 more children, including Elizabeth Cochran his thirteenth daughter, with his second wife, Mary Jane Kennedy.[7] Michael Cochran died in 1870, when Elizabeth was 6.[8]

As a young girl, Elizabeth often was called "Pink" because she so frequently wore that color. As she became a teenager, she wanted to portray herself as more sophisticated, and she dropped the nickname and changed her surname to "Cochrane".[9] In 1879, she enrolled at Indiana Normal School (now Indiana University of Pennsylvania) for one term but was forced to drop out due to lack of funds.[10] In 1880, Cochrane's mother moved her family to Allegheny City, which was later annexed by the City of Pittsburgh.[11]

Career edit

Portrait of a 21-year-old Bly in Mexico

Pittsburgh Dispatch edit

In 1885, a column in the Pittsburgh Dispatch titled "What Girls Are Good For" stated that girls were principally for birthing children and keeping house. This prompted Elizabeth to write a response under the pseudonym "Lonely Orphan Girl".[12][11][13] The editor, George Madden, was impressed with her passion and ran an advertisement asking the author to identify herself. When Cochran introduced herself to the editor, he offered her the opportunity to write a piece for the newspaper, again under the pseudonym "Lonely Orphan Girl".[13] Her first article for the Dispatch, titled "The Girl Puzzle", argued that not all women would marry and that what was needed were better jobs for women.[14] Her second article, "Mad Marriages", was about how divorce affected women. In it, she argued for reform of divorce laws.[15][failed verification] "Mad Marriages" was published under the byline of Nellie Bly, rather than "Lonely Orphan Girl".[14] It was customary for women who were newspaper writers at that time to use pen names. The editor chose "Nellie Bly", after the African-American title character in the popular song "Nelly Bly" by Stephen Foster.[16] Cochrane originally intended that her pseudonym be "Nelly Bly", but her editor wrote "Nellie" by mistake, and the error stuck.[17] Madden was impressed again and offered her a full-time job.[11]

As a writer, Nellie Bly focused her early work for the Pittsburgh Dispatch on the lives of working women, writing a series of investigative articles on women factory workers. However, the newspaper soon received complaints from factory owners about her writing, and she was reassigned to women's pages to cover fashion, society, and gardening, the usual role for women journalists, and she became dissatisfied. Still only 21, she was determined "to do something no girl has done before."[18] She then traveled to Mexico to serve as a foreign correspondent, spending nearly half a year reporting on the lives and customs of the Mexican people; her dispatches later were published in book form as Six Months in Mexico.[15] In one report, she protested the imprisonment of a local journalist for criticizing the Mexican government, then a dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz.[19] When Mexican authorities learned of Bly's report, they threatened her with arrest, prompting her to flee the country. Safely home, she accused Díaz of being a tyrannical czar suppressing the Mexican people and controlling the press.[11]

Asylum exposé edit

The New York City Mental Health Hospital on Blackwell's Island, c. 1893
Illustration of Bly being examined by a psychiatrist, from Ten Days in a Mad-House

Burdened again with theater and arts reporting, Bly left the Pittsburgh Dispatch in 1887 for New York City. She faced rejection after rejection as news editors would not consider hiring a woman.[20] Penniless after four months, she talked her way into the offices of Joseph Pulitzer's newspaper, the New York World, and took an undercover assignment for which she agreed to feign insanity to investigate reports of brutality and neglect at the Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell's Island, now named Roosevelt Island.[21]

It was not easy for Bly to be admitted to the asylum: she first decided to check herself into a boarding house called "Temporary Homes for Females". She stayed up all night to give herself the wide-eyed look of a disturbed woman and began making accusations that the other boarders were insane. Bly told the assistant matron: "There are so many crazy people about, and one can never tell what they will do."[22] She refused to go to bed and eventually scared so many of the other boarders that the police were called to take her to the nearby courthouse. Once examined by a police officer, a judge, and a doctor, Bly was taken to Bellevue for a few days, then after evaluation was sent by boat to Blackwell's Island.[22]

Committed to the asylum, Bly experienced the deplorable conditions firsthand. After ten days, the asylum released Bly at The World's behest. Her report, published October 9, 1887[23] and later in book form as Ten Days in a Mad-House, caused a sensation, prompted the asylum to implement reforms, and brought her lasting fame.[24] She had a significant impact on American culture and shed light on the experiences of marginalized women beyond the bounds of the asylum as she ushered in the era of stunt girl journalism.[20]

In 1893, Bly used the celebrity status she had gained from her asylum reporting skills to schedule an exclusive interview with the allegedly insane serial killer Lizzie Halliday.[25]

United for Libraries Literary Landmark on Roosevelt Island that mentions Bly's connection to the island

Biographer Brooke Kroeger argues:

Her two-part series in October 1887 was a sensation, effectively launching the decade of "stunt" or "detective" reporting, a clear precursor to investigative journalism and one of Joseph Pulitzer's innovations that helped give "New Journalism" of the 1880s and 1890s its moniker. The employment of "stunt girls" has often been dismissed as a circulation-boosting gimmick of the sensationalist press. However, the genre also provided women with their first collective opportunity to demonstrate that, as a class, they had the skills necessary for the highest level of general reporting. The stunt girls, with Bly as their prototype, were the first women to enter the journalistic mainstream in the twentieth century.[26]

Around the world and general impact edit

A publicity photograph taken by the New York World newspaper to promote Bly's around-the-world voyage

In 1888, Bly suggested to her editor at the New York World that she take a trip around the world, attempting to turn the fictional Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) into fact for the first time. A year later, at 9:40 a.m. on November 14, 1889, and with two days' notice,[27][clarification needed] she boarded the Augusta Victoria, a steamer of the Hamburg America Line,[28] and began her 24,898 mile (40,070 kilometer) journey.

To sustain interest in the story, the World organized a "Nellie Bly Guessing Match" in which readers were asked to estimate Bly's arrival time to the second, with the Grand Prize consisting at first of a trip to Europe and, later on, spending money for the trip.[29][30] During her travels around the world, Bly went through England, France (where she met Jules Verne in Amiens), Brindisi, the Suez Canal, Colombo (in Ceylon), the Straits Settlements of Penang and Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan.

A woodcut image of Nellie Bly's homecoming reception in Jersey City printed in Frank Leslie's Illustrated News on February 8, 1890

Just over seventy-two days after her departure from Hoboken, Bly was back in New York. She had circumnavigated the globe, traveling alone for almost the entire journey.[28] Bly's journey was a world record, though it only stood for a few months, until George Francis Train completed the journey in 67 days.[31]

Novelist edit

After the fanfare of her trip around the world, Bly quit reporting and took a lucrative job writing serial novels for publisher Norman Munro's weekly New York Family Story Paper. The first chapters of Eva The Adventuress, based on the real-life trial of Eva Hamilton, appeared in print before Bly returned to New York. Between 1889 and 1895 she wrote eleven novels. As few copies of the paper survived, these novels were thought lost until 2021, when author David Blixt announced their discovery of 11 lost novels in Munro's British weekly The London Story Paper.[32] In 1893, though still writing novels, she returned to reporting for the World.

Later work edit

Patent for an improved Milk-Can
Bly speaking to a military officer in Poland

In 1895, Bly married millionaire manufacturer Robert Seaman.[33] Bly was 31 and Seaman was 73 when they married.[34] Due to her husband's failing health, she left journalism and succeeded her husband as head of the Iron Clad Manufacturing Co., which made steel containers such as milk cans and boilers. Seaman died in 1904.[35]

That same year, Iron Clad began manufacturing the steel barrel that was the model for the 55-gallon oil drum still in widespread use in the United States. There have been claims that Bly invented the barrel,[35] but the inventor was registered as Henry Wehrhahn (U.S. Patents 808,327 and 808,413).[36]

Bly was, however, an inventor in her own right, receiving U.S. patent 697,553 for a novel milk can and U.S. patent 703,711 for a stacking garbage can, both under her married name of Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman. For a time, she was one of the leading women industrialists in the United States. But her negligence, and embezzlement by a factory manager, resulted in the Iron Clad Manufacturing Co. going bankrupt.[37]

According to biographer Brooke Kroeger:

She ran her company as a model of social welfare, replete with health benefits and recreational facilities. But Bly was hopeless at understanding the financial aspects of her business and ultimately lost everything. Unscrupulous employees bilked the firm of hundreds of thousands of dollars, troubles compounded by protracted and costly bankruptcy litigation.[26]

Back in reporting, she covered the Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913 for the New York Evening Journal. Her article's headline was "Suffragists Are Men's Superiors" and in its text she accurately predicted that it would be 1920 before women in the United States would be given the right to vote.[38]

Bly wrote stories on Europe's Eastern Front during World War I.[39] Bly was the first woman and one of the first foreigners to visit the war zone between Serbia and Austria. She was arrested when she was mistaken for a British spy.[40]

Death edit

Bly's grave in Woodlawn Cemetery

On January 27, 1922, Bly died of pneumonia at St. Mark's Hospital, New York City, aged 57.[26] She was interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City.[41]

Legacy edit

Honors edit

In 1998, Bly was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.[42]

Bly was one of four journalists honored with a US postage stamp in a "Women in Journalism" set in 2002.[43][44]

In 2019, the Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation put out an open call for artists to create a Nellie Bly Memorial art installation on Roosevelt Island.[45] The winning proposal, The Girl Puzzle by Amanda Matthews, was announced on October 16, 2019.[46] The Girl Puzzle opened to the public in December, 2021.[47]

Nellie Bly depicted as part of The Girl Puzzle Monument Honoring Nellie Bly, by artist Amanda Matthews, located in Lighthouse Park on Roosevelt Island in New York City.

The New York Press Club confers an annual Nellie Bly Cub Reporter journalism award to acknowledge the best journalistic effort by an individual with three years or fewer of professional experience. In 2020, it was awarded to Claudia Irizarry Aponte, of THE CITY.[48]

Theater edit

Bly was the subject of the 1946 Broadway musical Nellie Bly by Johnny Burke and Jimmy Van Heusen. The show ran for 16 performances.[49]

During the 1990s, playwright Lynn Schrichte wrote and toured Did You Lie, Nellie Bly?, a one-woman show about Bly.[50]

An opera based on 10 Days in a Madhouse premiered in Philadelphia, PA in September 2023. The music was by Rene Orth and the libretto by Hannah Moscovitch.[51]

Film and television edit

Bly has been portrayed in the films The Adventures of Nellie Bly (1981),[52] 10 Days in a Madhouse (2015),[53] and Escaping the Madhouse: The Nellie Bly Story (2019).[54] In 2019, the Center for Investigative Reporting released Nellie Bly Makes the News, a short animated biographical film.[55] A fictionalized version of Bly as a mouse named Nellie Brie appears as a central character in the animated children's film An American Tail: The Mystery of the Night Monster.[56]

Anne Helm appeared as Nellie Bly in the November 21, 1960, Tales of Wells Fargo TV episode "The Killing of Johnny Lash".[citation needed] Julia Duffy appeared as Bly in the July 10, 1983 Voyagers! episode "Jack's Back".[citation needed] The character of Lana Winters (Sarah Paulson) in American Horror Story: Asylum is inspired by Bly's experience in the asylum.[57]

Bly was also a subject of Season 2 Episode 5 of The West Wing in which First Lady Abbey Bartlet dedicates a memorial in Pennsylvania in honor of Nellie Bly and convinces the president to mention her and other female historic figures during his weekly radio address.[58]

Bly has been the subject of two episodes of the Comedy Central series Drunk History. The second-season episode "New York City" featured her undercover exploits in the Blackwell's Island asylum,[59] while the third-season episode "Journalism" retold the story of her race around the world against Elizabeth Bisland.[60]

One of the protagonist's adventures in the 2003 film "The Adventures of Ociee Nash" is meeting Nellie Bly (Donna Wright) on a train.

On May 5, 2015, the Google search engine produced an interactive "Google Doodle" for Bly; for the "Google Doodle" Karen O wrote, composed, and recorded an original song about Bly, and Katy Wu created an animation set to Karen O's music.[61]

Literature edit

Bly has been featured as the protagonist of novels by David Blixt,[62] Marshall Goldberg,[63] Dan Jorgensen,[64] Carol McCleary,[65] Pearry Reginald Teo, Maya Rodale,[66] and Christine Converse.[67] David Blixt also appeared on a March 10, 2021 episode of the podcast Broads You Should Know as a Nellie Bly expert.[68]

A fictionalized account of Bly's around-the-world trip was used in the 2010 comic book Julie Walker Is The Phantom published by Moonstone Books (Story: Elizabeth Massie, art: Paul Daly, colors: Stephen Downer).[69]

Bly is one of 100 women featured in the first version of the book Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls written by Elena Favilli & Francesca Cavallo.[70]

Eponyms and namesakes edit

The board game Round the World with Nellie Bly created in 1890 is named in recognition of her trip.[71]

The Nellie Bly Amusement Park in Brooklyn, New York City, was named after her, taking as its theme Around the World in Eighty Days. The park reopened in 2007[72] under new management, renamed "Adventurers Amusement Park".[73]

A large species of tarantula from Ecuador, Pamphobeteus nellieblyae Sherwood et al., 2022, was named in her honour by arachnologists.[74]

A fireboat named Nellie Bly operated in Toronto, Canada, in the first decade of the 20th century.[75] From early in the twentieth century until 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad operated an express train named the Nellie Bly on a route between New York and Atlantic City, bypassing Philadelphia.

Works edit

Within her lifetime, Nellie Bly published three non-fiction books (compilations of her newspaper reportage) and one novel in book form.

  • Bly, Nellie (1887). Ten Days in a Mad-House. New York: Ian L. Munro.
  • Bly, Nellie (1888). Six Months in Mexico. New York: American Publishers Corporation.
  • Bly, Nellie (1889). The Mystery of Central Park. New York.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Bly, Nellie (1890). Nellie Bly's Book: Around the World in Seventy-two Days. New York: The Pictorial Weeklies Company.

Between 1889 and 1895, Nellie Bly also penned twelve novels for The New York Family Story Paper. Thought lost, these novels were not collected in book form until their re-discovery in 2021.[76]

  • Eva The Adventuress (1889)
  • New York By Night (1890)
  • Alta Lynn, M.D. (1891)
  • Wayne's Faithful Sweetheart (1891)
  • Little Luckie, or Playing For Hearts (1892)
  • Dolly The Coquette (1892)
  • In Love With A Stranger, or Through Fire And Water To Win Him (1893)
  • The Love Of Three Girls (1893)
  • Little Penny, Child Of The Streets (1893)
  • Pretty Merribelle (1894)
  • Twins & Rivals (1895)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Bernard, Diane (July 28, 2019). "She went undercover to expose an insane asylum's horrors. Now Nellie Bly is getting her due". The Washington Post.
  2. ^ "American Experience". PBS. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  3. ^ Kroeger 1994, pp. 3 & 5.
  4. ^ "Nellie Bly" (PDF). Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  5. ^ "Nellie Bly Historical Marker". Explore PA History. WITF-TV. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  6. ^ Cridlebaugh, Bruce S. "Cochran's Mill Rd over Licks Run". Bridges and Tunnels of Allegheny County and Pittsburgh, PA. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  7. ^ Kroeger 1994, p. 3.
  8. ^ "Nellie Bly Biography". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  9. ^ Kroeger 1994, p. 25.
  10. ^ Englert, John; Houser, Regan (1994). "The New American Girl". IUP Magazine. 12 (4). Indiana University of Pennsylvania: 4–7. Archived from the original on May 1, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Fritz, Arthur. "Nellie Bly, (1864–1922)". Nellie Bly Online. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
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  13. ^ a b Jone Johnson Lewis. "Nellie Bly". About.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Todd, Kim (2021). Sensational : the hidden history of America's "girl stunt reporters". New York. p. 17. ISBN 978-0062843616. OCLC 1244546167.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  15. ^ a b Simkin, John (September 1997). "Nellie Bly". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  16. ^ Adrian Room (2010). Dictionary of Pseudonyms: 13,000 Assumed Names and Their Origins (5th ed.). McFarland. p. 182. ISBN 978-0786457632.
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  19. ^ Bly, Nellie (1889). "Chapter XXVI" . Six Months in Mexico . New York: American Publishers Corporation – via Wikisource.
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  23. ^ Bell, Jo (2021). On this day she : putting women back into history, one day at a time. Tania Hershman, Ailsa Holland. London. p. 313. ISBN 978-1789462715. OCLC 1250378425.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
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  25. ^ Telfer, Tori (2017). Lady Killers: Deadly Women Throughout History. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 69.
  26. ^ a b c Kroeger 2000.
  27. ^ Ruddick 1999, p. 4.
  28. ^ a b Kroeger 1994, p. 146.
  29. ^ Ruddick 1999, p. 5.
  30. ^ Kroeger 1994, p. 150.
  31. ^ George Francis Train, The Bostonian Who Really Was Phileas Fogg Archived February 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine at the New England Historical Society
  32. ^ Reid, Kerry (February 2, 2021). "Almost 100 Years After Her Death, Nellie Bly Is Back". Chicago Reader.
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  40. ^ Bly 1915.
  41. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (February 23, 1979). "Woodlawn, Bronx's Other Hall of Fame". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
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  46. ^ "Amanda Matthews of Prometheus Art Selected to Create Monument to Journalist Nelly Bly on Roosevelt Island, Press Release". Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation of New York. New York State. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
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  55. ^ Reveal 2017.
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  66. ^ "The Mad Girls of New York: A Nellie Bly Novel". Maya Rodale. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
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  69. ^ "024. Julie Walker: The Phantom (A)". Moonstonebooks.com. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
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  72. ^ "Adventurer's Amusement Park". UltimaterollerCoaster.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  73. ^ "Adventurer's Park Family Entertainment Center – Brooklyn, NY". adventurerspark.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  74. ^ Sherwood, D., Gabriel, R., Brescovit, A. D. & Lucas, S. M. (2022). "On the species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901 deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, with redescriptions of type material, the first record of P. grandis Bertani, Fukushima & Silva, 2008 from Peru, and the description of four new species". Arachnology 19(3): 650–674. Online
  75. ^ a b Chris Bateman (2013). "The nautical adventures of the Trillium ferry in Toronto". Blog TO. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2018. A second fire boat, the Nellie Bly, presumably named after the American journalist famous for her round-the-world trip and exposé piece of US mental health practices, was also involved. 'Their combined efforts prevented the fire from spreading,' noted the Star.
  76. ^ McKee, Jenn (February 3, 2021). "Ann Arbor Native David Blixt Discovered a Cache of Long Lost Novels by Journalist-Adventurer Nellie Bly". Pulp | Arts Around Ann Arbor. Retrieved November 21, 2022.

Further reading edit

External links edit