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Clay-colored thrush, the national bird of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018.[1] This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered.[2] Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.[3]

Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS).[4][5] Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica
  • (R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica
  • (E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Contents

TinamousEdit

 
Great tinamou

Order: Tinamiformes   Family: Tinamidae

Ducks, geese, and waterfowlEdit

 
Black-bellied whistling-duck

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Guans, chachalacas, and curassowsEdit

 
Gray-headed chachalaca

Order: Galliformes   Family: Cracidae

New World quailEdit

 
Buffy-crowned wood-partridge

Order: Galliformes   Family: Odontophoridae

GrebesEdit

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Pigeons and dovesEdit

 
Band-tailed pigeon
 
Pale-vented pigeon

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Cuckoos and anisEdit

 
Groove-billed ani

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

Nightjars and alliesEdit

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

OilbirdEdit

Order: Steatornithiformes   Family: Steatornithidae

PotoosEdit

 
Common potoo

Order: Nyctibiiformes   Family: Nyctibiidae

SwiftsEdit

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

HummingbirdsEdit

 
Female gray-tailed mountain-gem
 
Male coppery-headed emerald, one of Costa Rica's endemics.
 
Female green-crowned brilliant
 
Male volcano hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Trochilidae

Rails, gallinules, and cootsEdit

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

FinfootsEdit

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

LimpkinEdit

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Aramidae

Thick-kneesEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

Stilts and avocetsEdit

 
Black-necked stilt

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

OystercatchersEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

Plovers and lapwingsEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

JacanasEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

Sandpipers and alliesEdit

 
Long-billed dowitcher
 
Western sandpiper
 
Spotted sandpiper

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Skuas and jaegersEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

Gulls, terns, and skimmersEdit

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

SunbitternEdit

 
Sunbittern

Order: Eurypygiformes   Family: Eurypygidae

TropicbirdsEdit

Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

AlbatrossesEdit

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

Southern storm-petrelsEdit

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

Northern storm-petrelsEdit

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Petrels and shearwatersEdit

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

StorksEdit

 
Wood stork

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

FrigatebirdsEdit

 
Magnificent frigatebird

Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Boobies and gannetsEdit

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

CormorantsEdit

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

AnhingasEdit

Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

PelicansEdit

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Bitterns, herons, and egretsEdit

 
Boat-billed heron

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

Ibises and spoonbillsEdit

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

New World vulturesEdit

 
Black vulture

Order: Cathartiformes   Family: Cathartidae

OspreyEdit

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

Hawks, eagles, and kitesEdit

 
Swallow-tailed kite
 
Gray-lined hawk

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Barn-owlsEdit

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owl, Tyto alba

Typical owlsEdit

 
Black-and-white owl

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

Trogons and quetzalsEdit

 
Black-throated trogon

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

MotmotsEdit

 
Lesson's motmot

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Momotidae

KingfishersEdit

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

PuffbirdsEdit

Order: Piciformes   Family: Bucconidae

JacamarsEdit

Order: Piciformes   Family: Galbulidae

New World barbetsEdit

Order: Piciformes   Family: Capitonidae

Toucan-barbetsEdit

Order: Piciformes   Family: Semnornithidae

ToucansEdit

 
Northern emerald-toucanet

Order: Piciformes   Family: Ramphastidae

WoodpeckersEdit

 
Black-cheeked woodpecker

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Falcons and caracarasEdit

 
Crested caracara

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

New World and African parrotsEdit

 
Scarlet macaw

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittacidae

Typical antbirdsEdit

 
Bicolored antbird

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thamnophilidae

GnateatersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Conopophagidae

AntpittasEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Grallariidae

TapaculosEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhinocryptidae

AntthrushesEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Formicariidae

Ovenbirds and woodcreepersEdit

 
Streaked xenops
 
Spot-crowned woodcreeper

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Furnariidae

ManakinsEdit

 
Orange-collared manakin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pipridae

CotingasEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cotingidae

Tityras and alliesEdit

 
Cinnamon becard

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tityridae

SharpbillEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oxyruncidae

Royal-flycatchersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Onychorhynchidae

Tyrant flycatchersEdit

 
Common tody-flycatcher
 
Dusky-capped flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

VireosEdit

 
Rufous-browed peppershrike

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

Crows, jays, and magpiesEdit

 
White-throated magpie-jay

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

SwallowsEdit

 
Mangrove swallow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

WrensEdit

 
Bay wren

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

GnatcatchersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Polioptilidae

DippersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Thrushes and alliesEdit

 
Sooty robin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

Mockingbirds and thrashersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

WaxwingsEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

Silky-flycatchersEdit

 
Long-tailed silky-flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ptiliogonatidae

Waxbills and alliesEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

Old World sparrowsEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Wagtails and pipitsEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Finches, euphonias, and alliesEdit

 
Thick-billed euphonia

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Thrush-tanagersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhodinocichlidae

New World sparrowsEdit

 
Rufous-collared sparrow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

WrenthrushEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Zeledoniidae

Yellow-breasted chatEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteriidae

Troupials and alliesEdit

 
Great-tailed grackle
 
Montezuma oropendola

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

Wood-warblersEdit

 
Tropical parula
 
Bay-breasted warbler
 
Hooded warbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

Microspingid tanagersEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mitrospingidae

Cardinals and alliesEdit

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

Tanagers and alliesEdit

 
Blue-gray tanager
 
Crimson-collared tanager
 
Blue dacnis
 
Bananaquit
 
Green honeycreeper
 
Variable seedeater
 
Slaty flowerpiercer

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thraupidae

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This species was split from buff-throated foliage-gleaner in the 59th Check-list supplement
  2. ^ The 59th Check-list supplement lumped Cherrie's tanager into this species.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Garrigues, Richard., M. Araya-Salas, P. Camacho-Varela, M. Montoya, G. Obando-Calderón, O. Ramírez-Alán.. Enero 2018. Boletín de la Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica. http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=es&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=da&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Flistaoficialavesdecostarica.wordpress.com%2F retrieved 15 March 2018
  2. ^ The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1 <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 6 August 2017
  3. ^ Stater, Adam. "Avian Diversity in Costa Rica".
  4. ^ American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
  5. ^ R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker. "Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk 2018, vol. 135:798-813 retrieved 16 July 2018

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit