The tanagers (singular /ˈtænəər/) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution. The Thraupidae are the second-largest family of birds and represent about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical birds.[1]

Green-headed Tanager Ubatuba.jpg
Green-headed tanager, Tangara seledon
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male.JPG
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Thraupidae
Cabanis, 1847

Many: see text

Traditionally, about 240 species of tanagers have been described, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux. As more of these birds are studied using modern molecular techniques, some genera are expected to be relocated elsewhere. Already, species in the genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, which were once considered part of the tanager family, are now treated as members of the Fringillidae, in their own subfamily (Euphoniinae). Likewise, the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia appear to be members of the cardinal family,[2] and have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.[3]


Tanagers are small to medium-sized birds. The shortest-bodied species, the white-eared conebill, is 9 cm (4 in) long and weighs 6 g (0.2 oz), barely smaller than the short-billed honeycreeper. The longest, the magpie tanager is 28 cm (11 in) and weighs 76 g (2.7 oz). The heaviest is the white-capped tanager, which weighs 114 g (4.02 oz) and measures about 24 cm (9.4 in). Both sexes are usually the same size and weight.

Tanagers are often brightly colored, but some species are black and white. Males are typically more brightly colored than females and juveniles. Most tanagers have short, rounded wings. The shape of the bill seems to be linked to the species' foraging habits.


Tanagers are restricted to the Western Hemisphere and mainly to the tropics. About 60% of tanagers live in South America, and 30% of these species live in the Andes. Most species are endemic to a relatively small area.


Most tanagers live in pairs or in small groups of three to five individuals. These groups may consist simply of parents and their offspring. These birds may also be seen in single-species or mixed flocks. Many tanagers are thought to have dull songs, though some are elaborate.[citation needed]


Tanagers are omnivorous, and their diets vary by genus. They have been seen eating fruits, seeds, nectar, flower parts, and insects. Many pick insects off branches or from holes in the wood. Other species look for insects on the undersides of leaves. Yet others wait on branches until they see a flying insect and catch it in the air. Many of these particular species inhabit the same areas, but these specializations alleviate competition.


The breeding season is March through June in temperate areas and in September through October in South America. Some species are territorial, while others build their nests closer together. Little information is available on tanager breeding behavior. Males show off their brightest feathers to potential mates and rival males. Some species' courtship rituals involve bowing and tail lifting.

Most tanagers build cup nests on branches in trees. Some nests are almost globular. Entrances are usually built on the side of the nest. The nests can be shallow or deep. The species of the tree in which they choose to build their nests and the nests' positions vary among genera. Most species nest in an area hidden by very dense vegetation. No information is yet known regarding the nests of some species.

The clutch size is three to five eggs. The female incubates the eggs and builds the nest, but the male may feed the female while she incubates. Both sexes feed the young. Five species have helpers assist in feeding the young. These helpers are thought to be the previous year's nestlings.


Phylogenetic studies suggest the true tanagers form three main groups, two of which consist of several smaller, well-supported clades.[4][5] The list below is an attempt using information gleaned from the latest studies to organize them into coherent related groups, and as such may contain groupings not yet accepted by or are under review by the various ornithological taxonomy authorities.[6] According to the International Ornithological Committee (IOC), as of July 2020 the family contains 383 species divided into 106 genera.[7] See "List of tanagers" for all the species recognized by the International Ornithological Congress; it is sortable by common name, binomial, or taxonomic sequence.

Group 1Edit

Mainly dull-colored forms

Slaty finch, Haplospiza rustica

(a) Conebill and flowerpiercer group (Also contains Haplospiza, Catamenia, Acanthidops, Diglossa, Diglossopis, Phrygilus and Sicalis[8][5] traditionally in the Emberizidae)[9][a] This group, despite having a rather varied bill morphology, shows marked plumage similarities. Most are largely gray, blue, or black, and numerous species have rufous underparts:

(b) True seedeaters: Traditionally placed in the Emberizidae, these genera share a particular foot-scute pattern which suggests they may form a monophyletic group:[10]

Male variable seedeater, Sporophila corvina

(c) "Yellow-rumped" clade:[8]

Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius

(d) "Crested" clade (also contains Coryphospingus and Volatinia traditionally placed in the Emberizidae):

(e) "Blue finch" clade, relationships within the Thraupidae are uncertain, but may be related to Poospiza clade:[b]

Orange-headed tanager, Thlypopsis sordida

(f) The Poospiza clade - a diverse but close-knit group containing both warbler- and finch-like forms:

(g) Grass and pampa-finches, relationships within Thraupidae are uncertain, but together form a well-supported clade:[5]

Male yellow-bridled finch, Melanodera xanthogramma

(h) A miscellaneous and likely polyphyletic group of unplaced "tanager-finches" (which may or may not include the species called tanager-finch) whose members when studied will no doubt be relocated to other clades:

(i) Basal forms in group 1:

Group 2Edit

"Typical" colorful tanagers

Diversity of Darwin's finches

(a) Tropical canopy tanagers:

(b) "Tholospiza" - Darwin's finches, grassquits, atypical honeycreepers, and some seedeaters:[12] The finch-like forms in this clade were formerly classified in the Emberizidae:

Green-and-gold tanager, Tangara schrankii

(c) Mountain tanagers:

Blue-grey tanager, Thraupis episcopus

(d) Typical tanagers:

(e) Typical multicolored tanagers (includes Paroaria, traditionally placed in either the Emberizidae or Cardinalidae):

(f) Green and golden-collared honeycreepers:[8]

(g) Typical honeycreepers and relatives:[8][5][g]

  • Genus Tersina – swallow tanager
  • Genus Cyanerpes, the typical honeycreepers (four species)
  • Genus Dacnis, the dacnises (nine species)

(h) Basal lineages within group 2:

Green honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza

Thraupidae incertae sedisEdit

  • Genus Calochaetes – vermilion tanager
  • Genus Catamblyrhynchus – plushcap
  • Genus Urothraupis – black-backed bush tanager
  • Genus Incaspiza - Inca finches (five species)
  • Genus Saltator (14 species; traditionally placed in the Cardinalidae, but biochemical evidence suggests they may be tanagers or a sister group[5])
  • Genus Saltatricula – (two species)

Recently split from ThraupidaeEdit

Related to Arremonops and other American sparrows in the Passerellidae:

Related to the cardinals in the Cardinalidae:[6]

Fringillidae, subfamily Euphoniinae:

Phaenicophilidae, Hispaniolan tanagers

Mitrospingidae, Mitrospingid tanagers



  • Genus Spindalis – spindalises (four species)




  1. ^ If the presence of a free lacrimal bone as found in Haplospiza, Acanthidops, and two of the three Catamenias has any phylogenetic significance, then this clade may also include several other "tanager-finches" that share this feature.
  2. ^ See Group 1f.
  3. ^ This genus is very likely polyphyletic within its clade.
  4. ^ Some members of this genus paraphyletic with respect to certain Tangara
  5. ^ Exact affinities uncertain but probably sister species to Tiaris olivacea in the "Tholospiza"
  6. ^ Apparently close to mountain-tanagers Dubusia and Delothraupis
  7. ^ May be closer to group 1


  1. ^ Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006. PMID 24583021.
  2. ^ Yuri, T.; Mindell, D. P. (May 2002). "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, "New World nine-primaried oscines" (Aves: Passeriformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (2): 229–243. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00012-X. PMID 12069553.
  3. ^ "Family: Cardinalidae". American Ornithological Society. Retrieved Feb 1, 2019.
  4. ^ Fjeldså, J.; Rahbek, C. (2006). "Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, largely follows lowlands to montane regions of South America". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 46 (1): 72–81. doi:10.1093/icb/icj009. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Klicka, J.; Burns, K.; Spellman, G. M. (December 2007). "Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: A molecular perspective". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (3): 1014–1032. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.006. PMID 17920298.
  6. ^ a b c "A Classification of the Bird Species of South America". LSU.edu. South American Classification Committee, American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Tanagers and allies". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d Burns, K. J.; Hackett, S. J.; Klein, N. K. (2003). "Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical honeycreepers and the evolution of feeding morphology". J. Avian Biol. 34 (34): 360–370. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2003.03171.x.
  9. ^ Webster, J. D.; Webster, J. R. (1999). "Skeletons and the genera of sparrows (Emberizinae)". Auk. 116 (116): 1054–1074. doi:10.2307/4089685. JSTOR 4089685.
  10. ^ Clark (1986)
  11. ^ Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. (1989). The Birds of South America. 1. Austin: Univ. Texas Press. p. 472.
  12. ^ a b Burns, K. J.; Hackett, S. J.; Klein, N. K. (2003). "Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in Darwin's finches and their relatives". Evolution. 56 (56): 1240–1252. doi:10.1554/0014-3820(2002)056[1240:pramdi]2.0.co;2.

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