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Ostriches

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that[1].

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

PhylogenyEdit

Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014)[2] with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013).[3]


Aves
Palaeognathae
Struthionimorphae

Struthioniformes (ostriches)[4]

Notopalaeognathae
Rheimorphae

Rheiformes (rheas)

Novaeratitae

Casuariiformes (cassowaries & emus)

Apterygiformes (kiwi)

Aepyornithiformes (elephant birds)

Tinamomorphae

Dinornithiformes (moas)

Lithornithiformes (false tinamous)

Tinamiformes (tinamous)

Neognathae
Galloanserae
Gallomorphae

Galliformes (landfowl)

Odontoanserae

Odontopterygiformes

Anserimorphae

Vegaviiformes[5]

Gastornithiformes

Anseriformes (waterfowl)

Neoaves
Columbea
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingoes)

Podicipediformes (grebes)

Columbimorphae

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)

Pterocliformes (sandgrouse)

Columbiformes (pigeons)

Passerea
Otidae
Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)

Otidiformes (bustards)

Musophagiformes (turacos)

Cypselomorphae

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)

Nyctibiiformes (oilbirds & potoos)

Podargiformes (frogmouths)

Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars)

Apodiformes (hummingbirds & swifts)

Gruae

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)

Charadriiformes (shorebirds)

Ardeae
Phaethontimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatross and petrels)

Sphenisciformes (penguins)

Ciconiiformes (storks)

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & egrets)

Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (condors and New World vultures)

Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, vultures, etc.)

Strigiformes (owls)

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)

Picodynastornithes

Coraciiformes (kingfishers etc.)

Piciformes (woodpeckers etc.)

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)

Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)

PaleognathaeEdit

The flightless and mostly giant Struthioniformes lack a keeled sternum and are collectively known as ratites. Together with the Tinamiformes, they form the Paleognathae or "old jaws", one of the two superorders recognized within the taxonomic class Aves.

StruthioniformesEdit

 
Greater rhea pair

Africa; 2 species

NotopalaeognathaeEdit

RheiformesEdit

South America; 2 species

CasuariiformesEdit

Australasia; 4 species

ApterygiformesEdit

Australasia; 5 species

AepyornithiformesEdit

Madagascar

DinornithiformesEdit

New Zealand

TinamiformesEdit

South America; 45 species

NeognathaeEdit

Nearly all living birds belong to the superorder Neognathae or "new jaws". With their keeled sternum (breastbone), unlike the ratites, they are known as carinatae.

GalloanseraeEdit

GalliformesEdit

 
Australian brush turkey

Worldwide; 250 species

GastornithiformesEdit

AnseriformesEdit

Worldwide; 150 species

MirandornithesEdit

PodicipediformesEdit

Worldwide; 19 species

PhoenicopteriformesEdit

Worldwide; 6 species

ColumbimorphaeEdit

ColumbiformesEdit

Worldwide; 300 species

PterocliformesEdit

Africa, Europe, Asia; 16 species

MesitornithiformesEdit

Madagascar; 3 species

CypselomorphaeEdit

CaprimulgiformesEdit

Worldwide; 500 species

 
Tawny frogmouth

OtidimorphaeEdit

CuculiformesEdit

Worldwide; 126 species

MusophagiformesEdit

Africa; 23 species

OtidiformesEdit

Africa and Eurasia; 27 species

GruaeEdit

OpisthocomiformesEdit

South America; 1 species

GruiformesEdit

Worldwide; 164 species

CharadriiformesEdit

Worldwide; 350 species

PhaethontimorphaeEdit

EurypygiformesEdit

Neotropics and New Caledonia; 2 species

PhaethontiformesEdit

Oceanic; 3 species

AequornithesEdit

GaviiformesEdit

North America, Eurasia; 5 species

SphenisciformesEdit

Antarctic and southern waters; 17 species

ProcellariiformesEdit

Pan-oceanic; 120 species

CiconiiformesEdit

Worldwide; 19 species

 
White stork

SuliformesEdit

Worldwide; 59 species

PelecaniformesEdit

Worldwide; 108 species

AfroavesEdit

AccipitriformesEdit

Worldwide; 200 species

StrigiformesEdit

Worldwide; 130 species

ColiiformesEdit

Sub-Saharan Africa; 6 species

LeptosomiformesEdit

Madagascar; 1 species

TrogoniformesEdit

Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, Asia; 35 species

BucerotiformesEdit

Old World, New Guinea; 64 species

CoraciiformesEdit

Worldwide; 144 species

 
Kingfisher

PiciformesEdit

Worldwide except Australasia; 400 species

AustralavesEdit

CariamiformesEdit

South America; 2 species

FalconiformesEdit

Worldwide; 60 species

PsittaciformesEdit

Pan-tropical, southern temperate zones; 330 species

PasseriformesEdit

Worldwide; 5,000 species

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Barrowclough GF, Cracraft J, Klicka J, Zink RM (2016) How Many Kinds of Birds Are There and Why Does It Matter? PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166307. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166307
  2. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713.
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. PMC 4009869. PMID 24832669.
  4. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "NEORNITHES: 46 Orders" (PDF). John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2017.[unreliable source?]
  5. ^ Worthy, T.H.; Degrange, F.J.; Handley, W.D.; Lee, M.S.Y. (2017). "The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres)". Royal Society Open Science. 11.