List of Pomeranian duchies and dukes

This is a list of the duchies and dukes of Pomerania.

Map of the historical Duchy of Pomerania from the 17th century

Dukes of the Slavic Pomeranian tribes (All Pomerania) edit

The lands of Pomerania were firstly ruled by local tribes, who settled in Pomerania around the 10th and 11th centuries.

Non-dynastic edit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Siemomysł c.1000 or 1020 After 1000–1046 c.29 June 1046 All Pomerania Unknown First known duke of all Pomerania. His origins are unknown.
Świętobor before 1046 1060–1106 1106 All Pomerania Anna Son of Siemomysl.
Świętopełk I before 1106 1106–1113 1113 Gdańsk Pomerania (future Pomerelia) Unknown

In 1106, Pomerania is divided by his two older sons: Wartislaw, who founded the House of Pomerania and the Duchy of Pomerania, and Świętopełk I. After Swietopelk's death, his lands were occupied by the Saxon prince Lothar of Supplinburg. In 1155, the lands regained independence under Sobieslaw I, who founded the dynasty of the Samborides, and the Duchy of Pomerelia.

Duchy of Pomerania edit

The Duchy resulted from the partition of Świętobor, Duke of Pomerania, in which his son Wartislaw inherited the lands that would become in fact known as Pomerania.

 
The Pomeranian Griffin

Partitions of Pomerania edit

First partition 1155–1264 edit

In 1155, Pomerania was divided in Pomerania-Szczecin and Pomerania-Demmin. In the struggle to shake off Polish and Danish claims to feudal overlordship, Pomerania approached the Holy Roman Empire. In 1181, while staying in the camp outside the walls of Lübeck, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa recognised Bogislaw I as duke of S(c)lavia, as it was called in the document.[1] However, three years later in the Battle in the Bay of Greifswald (1184) the Danish Canute VI forced Pomerania to accept him as liege lord.[2] In 1190 the Land of Słupsk-Sławno separated itself from Szczecin. With the defeat of Denmark in the Battle of Bornhöved (1227) Pomerania shook off the Danish liege-lordship,[3] except for the city of Szczecin which remained under Danish suzerainty until 1235.

In 1231 Emperor Frederick II granted the immediate liege lordship over Pomerania to the Margrave of Brandenburg, who enforced this claim by the Treaties of Kremmen (1236) and of Landin (1250). Thus Pomerania had become a fief of Brandenburg, thus an only mediate (indirect) subfief of the Empire, with Brandenburg itself being an immediate imperial fief.

In 1227, Słupsk came to Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) within fragmented Poland, Sławno to Western Pomerania. In 1238 both became part of Pomerelia, ruled by the House of Sobiesław, and following the extinction of the line in 1294, both were directly reintegrated with Poland in accordance with the Treaty of Kępno. In 1317, the area became part of the Pomerania-Wolgast (Wołogoszcz), first as a pawn from Brandenburg, and definitively in 1347.

After Wartislaw III died heirless in 1264, Barnim I became sole duke of the whole duchy. After Barnim's death, the duchy was to be ruled by his sons Barnim II, Otto I and Bogislaw IV. The first years, Bogislaw, being the eldest, ruled in place of his too young brothers.

Second partition 1295–1368 edit

In 1295, the Duchy of Pomerania was divided roughly by the Peene and Ina rivers, with the areas north of these rivers ruled by Bogislaw IV became Pomerania-Wolgast, whereas Otto I received Pomerania-Szczecin south of these rivers.

Third partition 1368–1376 edit

In 1368, Pomerania-Wolgast was divided into a western part (German: Wolgast diesseits der Swine, including the name-giving residence in Wolgast) and an eastern part (German: Wolgast jenseits der Swine, in literature also called Pomerania-Stolp or Duchy of Słupsk after the residence in Słupsk (Stolp)), which came back under Polish suzerainty as a fief.

Fourth partition 1376/1377–1478 and Pomeranian immediacy edit

In 1376, the western part of Pomerania-Wolgast (German: Wolgast diesseits der Swine) was subdivided in a smaller western part sometimes named Pomerania-Barth (Bardo) after the residence in Barth, and an eastern part which included the residence in Wolgast. In the following year, the Duchy of Słupsk was divided into a western part which included Stargard and an eastern part which included the residence in Słupsk (Stolp).

In 1459, the eastern partitions of Pomerania-Wolgast around Stargard and Stolp ceased to exist. In 1478, after 200 years of partition, the duchy was reunited for a short period when all her parts were inherited by Bogislaw X. By the Treaty of Pyritz in 1493 Pomerania shook off the Marcher liege lordship and became again an immediate imperial estate, after new disputes finally confirmed by the Treaty of Grimnitz in 1529, both treaties provided Brandenburg succession in case the Pomeranian dukes would become extinct in the male line.

Fifth and sixth partitions 1531–1625 edit

In 1531, Pomerania was partitioned into Pomerania-Stettin (Szczecin) and Pomerania-Wolgast. This time however, in contrast to the earlier partitions with the same names, Pomerania-Wolgast included the western, and Pomerania-Stettin the eastern parts of the duchy. In 1569, were created the duchies of -Barth (split off from -Wolgast) and -Rügenwalde (Darłowo) (split off from -Stettin).

Definitive reunification and annexation to Sweden edit

In 1625, Bogislaw XIV reunited all Pomerania under his rule. However, in 1637, Sweden hold western parts of Pomerania (Hither Pomerania), originally including Stettin, legalised by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 (Swedish Pomerania, several times reduced in favour of Brandenburgian Pomerania). Between 1637 and 1657 Lauenburg-Bütow Land (Lębork and Bytów) were reintegrated directly to Poland as a reverted fief, thereafter passed to Brandenburg under Polish overlordship until the Partitions of Poland. In 1648, Brandenburg prevailed in the Peace of Westphalia with its claim only for eastern parts of Pomerania (Farther Pomerania), with the Brandenburg electors officially holding simultaneously the title of dukes of Pomerania until 1806 (end of the Empire and its enfeoffments), but de facto integrating their Pomerania into Brandenburg-Prussia, making it one of the provinces of Prussia in 1815, then including former Swedish Pomerania.

Dukes of Pomerania: the House of Griffins edit

Partitions of Pomerania under Griffins rule edit

Duchy of Pomerania
(1st creation)
(1121–1156)
Duchy of
Demmin

(1156–1264)[4]
Duchy of Stettin[5]
(1st creation)
(1156–1264)
Duchy of
Schlawe-Stolp
[6]
(1156–1238)
      
Duchy of Pomerania
(2nd creation)
(1264–1295)
       Duchy of Stettin
(2nd creation)
(1295–1464)
Duchy of
Barth

(1368–1478)[7]
Duchy of
Wolgast

(1st creation)
(1295–1478)
Duchy of
Stolp
[8]
(1368–1459)
      
      
Duchy of Pomerania
(3rd creation)
(1478–1531)
Duchy of Wolgast
(2nd creation)
(1531–1625)
Duchy of Stettin[9]
(3rd creation)
(1531–1625)
Duchy of Pomerania
(4th creation)
(1625–1637)

Table of rulers edit

(Note: Here the numbering of the dukes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Pomerania, despite the different parts of land or particular numbering of the rulers. The dukes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Warcislaus I   c.1091
First son of Świętobor, Duke of Pomerania (?)
1121 – 9 August 1135 Duchy of Pomerania 24 pagan wives

Heila of Saxony
before 1128
one child

Ida of Denmark
1129
three children
1135
Stolpe an der Peene
aged 43-44
Possible children of Świętobor, Duke of Pomerania, divided their inheritance. Warcislaus was the first duke of Pomerania and founder of the family as a vassal of Poland. A pagan, he converted to Christianity in the beginning of the 12th century. Then, along with his son Bolesław, backed Otto of Bamberg in his successful Conversion of Pomerania.

As for Racibor, he was the ancestor of the Ratiboriden branch of the House of Pomerania that ruled Słupsk-Sławno.

Racibor I   c.1095
Second son of Świętobor, Duke of Pomerania (?)
1121 – 1156 Duchy of Schlawe-Stolp Pribislava Yaroslavna of Volhynia
1136
four children
1156
aged 60-61
Regency of Racibor I, Duke of Schlawe-Stolp (1135-1156) Children of Warcislaus, divided their inheritance, but given their minority, ceded rule to their uncle. In 1184 after the death of his nephew Warcislaus II, Boguslaus I reunited Stettin and Demmin.
Boguslaus I   1127
First son of Warcislaus I and Ida of Denmark
9 August 1135 – 18 March 1187 Duchy of Stettin Walburga of Denmark
three children

Anastasia of Greater Poland
26 April 1177
two children
18 March 1187
Sosnitza
aged 59-60
Casimir I   c.1130
Second son of Warcislaus I and Ida of Denmark
9 August 1135 – 1180 Duchy of Demmin Pritolawa
no children
1180
aged 49-50
Swietopelk c.1140
Son of Racibor I and Pribislava Yaroslavna of Volhynia
1156–c.1190 Duchy of Schlawe-Stolp Unmarried c.1190
aged 49-50
Left no descendants. His land passed to a cousin.
Warcislaus II c.1160
Third son of Boguslaus I and Walburga of Denmark
1180–1184 Duchy of Demmin Sophia of Poland
no children
c.1184
aged 23-24
After his death Demmin returned briefly to Pomerania.
Regency of Anastasia of Greater Poland (1187-1208) Children of Bogislaw I, they split once more the duchy between them.
Boguslaus II   1177
First son of Boguslaus I and Anastasia of Greater Poland
18 March 1187 – 23 January 1220 Duchy of Stettin Miroslava of Pomerelia
1210
three children
23 January 1220
aged 42-43
Dobroslawa c.1175?
Daughter of Boguslaus I and Anastasia of Greater Poland
18 March 1187 – 1230 Duchy of Stettin
(at Schlawe and Gützkow)
Wartislaw, castellan of Stettin
c.1200
one child
c.1230
aged 44-45
Casimir II   c.1180
First son of Boguslaus I and Anastasia of Greater Poland
18 March 1187 – 1219 Duchy of Demmin Ingard of Denmark
1210
two children
1219
aged 38-39
Boguslaus III   c.1170?
Son of Boguslaus of Schlawe-Stolp
c.1190–1223 Duchy of Schlawe-Stolp A daughter of Mieszko III of Poland
before 1223
two children
1223
aged 52-53
Nephew of Swietopelk.
Regency of Ingard of Denmark (1219-1226) After his death in 1264, Barnim became the sole duke.
Warcislaus III   c.1210
Son of Casimir II and Ingard of Denmark
1219 – 17 May 1264 Duchy of Demmin Sophia
1236
three children
17 May 1264
aged 53-54
Racibor II c.1190?
Son of Boguslaus III[10]
1223–1238 Duchy of Schlawe-Stolp Unmarried 1238
aged 47-48?
After his death without descendants, the land returned to Pomerania.
Stolp annexed to Pomerania
Regency of Miroslava of Pomerelia (1220-1226) Since 1227 the dukes were again vassals of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1264 Barnim reunited all Pomerania.
Barnim I the Good   c.1217
Son of Boguslaus II and Miroslava of Pomerelia
23 January 1220 – 17 May 1264 Duchy of Stettin Anna Maria of Saxony
c.1240
three children

Margaret of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1252/3
one child

Matilda of Brandenburg
c.1265
six children
13 December 1278
Dąbie
aged 60-61
17 May 1264 – 13 December 1278 Duchy of Pomerania
Boguslaus IV   c.1255
Son of Barnim I and Margaret of Brunswick-Lüneburg
13 December 1278 – 24 February 1309 Duchy of Wolgast
(in Pomerania until 1295)
Matilda of Brandenburg-Stendal
between 1275 and 1278
no children

Margaret of Rügen
13 August 1284
six children
24 February 1309
aged 53-54
Ruled jointly. Bogislaw was the eldest son of Barnim I, and ruled with his stepmother, who was regent of her own sons. From 1294 Bogislaw ruled directly with his half-brothers Barnim and Otto, who reached majority in that year. Following the death of Barnim without descendants in 1295, Bogislaw and Otto divided Pomerania between them: Bogislaw retained Wolgast and Otto received Stettin.
Regency of Matilda of Brandenburg, co-ruling with Bogislaw IV (1278-1294)
Barnim II   c.1277
First son of Barnim I and Matilda of Brandenburg
13 December 1278 – 28 May 1295 Duchy of Pomerania Unmarried 28 May 1295
aged 17-18
Otto I   1279
Second son of Barnim I and Matilda of Brandenburg
13 December 1278 – 31 December 1344 Duchy of Stettin
(in Pomerania until 1295)
Elisabeth of Holstein
April 1296
two children
31 December 1344
aged 64-65
Warcislaus IV   c.1270
Son of Boguslaus IV and Matilda of Brandenburg-Stendal
24 February 1309 – 1 August 1326 Duchy of Wolgast Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin
11 April 1316 or 1317
three children
1 August 1326
aged 55-56
In 1325 annexed the Principality of Rügen.
Regency of Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin (1326-1330) Sons of Bogislaw IV, ruled jointly. In 1368, Boguslaus, the last surviving brother, divided the land with his brother Barnim's heirs: They kept Wolgast, and Boguslaus created Stolp for himself.
Boguslaus V the Great   c.1318
Slupsk
First son of Warcislaus IV and Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin
1 August 1326 – 23 April 1374 Duchy of Stolp
(at Wolgast until 1368)
Elisabeth of Poland
24 or 25 February 1343
three children

Adelaide of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
1362 or 1363
four children
23 April 1374
Belbuck
aged 55-56
Barnim IV the Good[11]   1325
Second son of Warcislaus IV and Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin
1 August 1326 – 22 August 1365 Duchy of Wolgast
(at Rügen and Wolgast itself)
Sophia of Mecklenburg-Werle
1343
three children
22 August 1365
aged 39-40
Warcislaus V the Father of the People   c.1 November 1326
Third son of Warcislaus IV and Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin
1 August 1326 – 1390 Duchy of Wolgast
(at Szczecinek)
Anna of Mecklenburg-Stargard
before 1390
no children
1390
aged 63-64
Szczecinek rejoined Wolgast
Barnim III the Great[11]   c.1300
Son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Holstein
31 December 1344 – 14 August 1368 Duchy of Stettin Agnes of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
1330
five children
14 August 1368
aged 67-68
Co-ruling since 1320.
Casimir III   1348
First son of Barnim III and Agnes of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
14 August 1368 – 24 August 1372 Duchy of Stettin Unmarried 24 August 1372
Chojna
aged 23-24
Warcislaus VI the One-Eyed   1345
First son of Barnim IV and Sophia of Mecklenburg-Werle
22 August 1365 – 13 June 1394 Duchy of Barth Anne of Mecklenburg-Stargard
1 October 1363
four children
13 June 1394
Klępino Białogardzkie
aged 48-49
Sons of Barnim IV, ruled jointly. In 1377, they divided the land: Bogislaw kept Wolgast and Warcislaus retained Barth. However, as Bogislaw died without heirs, Warcislaus reunited Barth with Wolgast.
7 March 1393 – 13 June 1394 Duchy of Wolgast
Boguslaus VI   1354
Second son of Barnim IV and Sophia of Mecklenburg-Werle
22 August 1365 – 7 March 1393 Duchy of Wolgast Judith of Saxe-Lauenburg
between 1369 and 1377
no children

Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
14 or 19 September 1389
Celle
two children
7 March 1393
aged 38-39
Swantibor I   1351
Second son of Barnim III and Agnes of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
24 August 1372 – 21 June 1413 Duchy of Stettin Anne of Nuremberg
17 September 1363
four children
21 June 1413
aged 61-62
Brothers of Casimir III, ruled jointly.
Boguslaus VII the Elder   c.1355
Third son of Barnim III and Agnes of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
24 August 1372 – 1404 Unknown
before 1404
no children
1404
aged 48-49
Casimir IV   1351
First son of Boguslaus V and Elisabeth of Poland
23 April 1374 – 2 January 1377 Duchy of Stolp Kenna of Lithuania
1360
no children

Margaret of Masovia
1368 or 1369
no children
2 January 1377
aged 25-26
After his death his sons divided the land.
Warcislaus VII   1363
Second son of Boguslaus V and Elisabeth of Poland
2 January 1377 – 1395 Duchy of Stolp Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
23 March 1380
one child
1395
aged 31-32
Brothers of Casimir IV. Warcislaus received Stolp, and Boguslaus and Barnim received Stargard together. The death of Warcislaus made possible, for Boguslaus and Barnim, the reunion of the inheritance of their father. However, there was an heir to Stolp: Boguslaus, who would be brought up in Denmark and changed name to Eric.
Boguslaus VIII Magnus   c.1364
First son of Boguslaus V and Adelaide of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
2 January 1377 – 11 February 1418 Duchy of Stolp
(at Stargard until 1395)
Sophia of Holstein
c.1398
two children
11 February 1418
aged 53-54
Barnim V   1369
Second son of Boguslaus V and Adelaide of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
2 January 1377 – 1403 Hedwig of Lithuania
27 September 1396
one child
1403
aged 33-34
Barnim VI   c.1365
First son of Warcislaus VI and Anne of Mecklenburg-Stargard
13 June 1394 – 22 September 1405 Duchy of Wolgast Veronica of Nuremberg
circa or before 1395
three children
22 September 1405
Pütnitz
aged 39-40
Children of Warcislaus VI, divided their inheritance.
Warcislaus VIII   1373
Second son of Warcislaus VI and Anne of Mecklenburg-Stargard
13 June 1394 – 23 August 1415 Duchy of Barth Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
circa or before 1398
four children
23 August 1415
aged 41-42
Regency of Warcislaus VIII, Duke of Pomerania-Barth (1405-1415) Sons of Barnim VI, divided their inheritance, but after Barnim VII's death without descendants, Warcislaus IX reunited it.
Barnim VII the Elder   1390
First son of Barnim VI and Veronica of Nuremberg
22 September 1405 – 22 September 1450 Duchy of Wolgast
(at Demmin)
Unmarried 22 September 1450
Gützkow or Wolgastaged 59-60
Warcislaus IX   c.1400
Second son of Barnim VI and Veronica of Nuremberg
22 September 1405 – 17 April 1457 Duchy of Wolgast Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg
1420
four children
17 April 1457
Wolgast
aged 56-57
Demmin rejoined Wolgast
Otto II   c.1380
First son of Swantibor I and Anne of Nuremberg
21 June 1413 – 27 March 1428 Duchy of Stettin Agnes of Mecklenburg-Stargard
c.1411
no children
27 March 1428
aged 47-48
Sons of Swantibor I, ruled jointly. Casimir participated in the famous Battle of Grunwald (1410).
Casimir V   c.1380
Second son of Swantibor I and Anne of Nuremberg
21 June 1413 – 13 April 1435 Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
circa or before 1420
three children

Elisabeth of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
circa or before 1439
one child
13 April 1435
aged 54-55?
Regency of Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg (1415-1425) Sons of Warcislaus VIII, ruled jointly. As they had no descendants, their possessions returned to the sons of Barnim VI.
Barnim VIII the Younger   c.1405
First son of Warcislaus VIII and Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
23 August 1415 – 19 December 1451 Duchy of Barth Anna of Wunstorf
c.1435
one child
19 December 1451
aged 45-46
Swantibor II the Calm c.1408Second son of 23 August 1415 – 1435 Unmarried c.1435
aged 26-27
Barth briefly joined Wolgast
Regency of Sophia of Holstein (1418-1425)
Boguslaus IX   1407
Son of Boguslaus VIII and Sophia of Holstein
11 February 1418 – 7 December 1446 Duchy of Stolp Maria of Masovia
24 June 1432
Poznań
two children
7 December 1446
aged 38-39
Regency of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg (1435-1440) Son of Casimir V.
Joachim the Younger   1424
Son of Casimir V and Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
13 April 1435 – 4 October 1451 Duchy of Stettin Elisabeth of Brandenburg
29 September 1440
one child
4 October 1451
Regency of Maria of Masovia (1446-1449) Son of Warcislaus VII and original heir of Stolp in 1394, was under regency of his cousin's widow, Maria. His absence was probably the cause of his being bypassed in the Pomeranian succession. Also King of the Union of Kalmar between Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
Eric I   1381
Darłowo
Son of Warcislaus VII and Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1449[12] – 3 May 1459 Duchy of Stolp Philippa of England
26 October 1406
Lund
one child
3 May 1459
Darłowo
aged 77-78
Regency of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg (1451-1458) After his death without descendants, Stettin was annexed to Wolgast.
Otto III   29 May 1444
Son of Joachim and Elisabeth of Brandenburg
4 October 1451 – 7 September 1464 Duchy of Stettin Unmarried 7 September 1464
aged 20
Stettin annexed to Wolgast
Sophie   1435
Daughter of Boguslaus IX and Maria of Masovia
3 May 1459[12] – 1474 Duchy of Stolp 1451
twelve children
24 August 1497
Slupsk
aged 61-62
Heir of Eric I. Despite her husband had inherited the duchy itself, the fact that she only renounced her rights to Pomerania in 1474 is possibly a sign of a co-rulership between the spouses.
Eric II   1427
First son of Warcislaus IX and Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg
17 April 1457 – 5 July 1474 Duchy of Wolgast 5 July 1474
Wolgast
aged 46-47
Children of Warcislaus IX, divided their inheritance. In 1464 Eric absorbed Stettin, but it was only with Warcislaus' death that Pomerania was reunited, already under Eric's son, Boguslaus.
Warcislaus X   1435
Second son of Warcislaus IX and Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg
17 April 1457 – 17 December 1478 Duchy of Barth Elisabeth of Brandenburg
5 March 1454
two children

Magdalena of Mecklenburg-Stargard
1472
no children
17 December 1478
Franzburg
aged 42-43
Barth annexed to Wolgast
Boguslaus X the Great   3 June 1454
Darłowo
Son of Eric II, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast and Sophie, Duchess of Pomerania-Stolp
5 July 1474 – 17 December 1478 Duchy of Wolgast Margaret of Brandenburg
20 September 1477
Prenzlau
no children

Anna Jagiellon of Poland
2 February 1491
Szczecin
eight children
5 October 1523
Szczecin
aged 69
Reunited Pomerania in 1478.
17 December 1478 – 5 October 1523 Duchy of Pomerania
George I   11 April 1493
First son of Boguslaus X and Anna of Poland
5 October 1523 – 10 May 1531 Duchy of Pomerania Amalie of the Palatinate
22 May 1513
Szczecin
three children

Margaret of Brandenburg
23 January 1530
Berlin
one child
10 May 1531
Szczecin
aged 38
Sons of Bogislaw X, ruled jointly. After George's death, Barnim divided Pomerania with his nephew Philip. After his abdication in 1569, his possessions went to Pomerania-Wolgast.
Barnim IX the Pious   2 December 1501
Second son of Boguslaus X and Anna of Poland
5 October 1523 – 1569 Duchy of Stettin
(in co-rulership in Pomerania until 1531)
Anna of Brunswick-Lüneburg
2 February 1525
Szczecin
seven children
2 November 1573
Szczecin
aged 71
Philip I the Pious   14 July 1515
Szczecin
Son of George I and Amalie of the Palatinate
10 May 1531 – 14 February 1560 Duchy of Wolgast Maria of Saxony
27 February 1536
Torgau
ten children
14 February 1560
Wolgast
aged 44
Ernest Louis the Fair   20 November 1545
Second son of Philip I and Maria of Saxony
14 February 1560 – 17 June 1592 Duchy of Wolgast Sophie Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
20 October 1577
Wolgast
three children
17 June 1592
Sons of Philip I, ruled jointly. Divided the land in 1569: Ernest Louis kept Wolgast, John Frederick received Stettin, Bogislaw received Barth and Neuenkamp (later Franzburg), and Barnim received Darłowo. In 1592 Bogislaw became tutor of his nephew Philip Julius. In 1600 after the death of John Frederick without children, the land was inherited by Barnim, who reunited it with Darłowo. At the latter's death in 1603 also with no descendants, Boguslaus received Stettin and united it with Barth. but he gave Rügenwalde to one of his sons, and gave Barth and Neuenkamp to Philip Julius.
John Frederick the Strong   27 August 1542
Wolgast
First son of Philip I and Maria of Saxony
1569 – 9 February 1600 Duchy of Stettin
(in co-rulership in Wolgast 1560-69)
Erdmuthe of Brandenburg
17 February 1577
Szczecin
no children
9 February 1600
Wolgast
aged 57
Barnim X the Younger   15 February 1549
Wolgast
Fourth son of Philip I and Maria of Saxony
1569 – 1 September 1603 Duchy of Stettin
(in co-rulership in Wolgast 1560-69; in Darłowo until 1600)
Anna Maria of Brandenburg
8 January 1581
Berlin
no children
1 September 1603
Szczecin
aged 54
Boguslaus XIII [XI][13]   9 August 1544
Wolgast
Third son of Philip I and Maria of Saxony
1569 – 7 March 1606 Duchy of Stettin
(in co-rulership in Wolgast 1560-69; in Barth until 1603)
Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8 September 1572
eleven children

Anna of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
31 May 1601
no children
7 March 1606
Szczecin
aged 61
Regency of Boguslaus XIII [XI], Duke of Pomerania (1592-1598) Reunited Barth with Wolgast in 1603. Left no descendants. His part joined Stettin.
Philip Julius   27 December 1584
Son of Ernest Louis and Sophie Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
17 June 1592 – 6 February 1625 Duchy of Wolgast Agnes of Brandenburg
25 June 1604
Berlin
no children
6 February 1625
aged 40
Wolgast annexed to Stettin
George II   30 January 1582
Fourth son of Boguslaus XIII [XI] and Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 March 1606 – 27 March 1617 Duchy of Stettin
(at Darłowo only)
Unmarried 27 March 1617
aged 35
Children of Bogislaw XIII (XI), divided their inheritance. As happened in the previous generation, each brother received a part of Stettin, and the parts were progressively reunited with each childless brother's death. In 1625 Boguslaus reunited all Pomerania, but as neither he nor his brothers had descendants, Pomerania was annexed by the Kingdom of Sweden by lack of heirs.[14]
Philip II the Pious   29 July 1573
Franzburg
First son of Boguslaus XIII [XI] and Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 March 1606 – 3 February 1618 Duchy of Stettin Sophia of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
10 March 1607
Treptow an der Rega
no children
3 February 1618
Szczecin
aged 44
Francis   24 March 1577
Barth
Second son of Boguslaus XIII [XI] and Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 March 1606 – 27 November 1620 Duchy of Stettin
(at Barth until 1618)
Sophie of Saxony
26 August 1610
Dresden
no children
27 November 1620
Szczecin
aged 43
Boguslaus XIV [XII] the Sociable[15]   31 March 1580
Barth
Third son of Boguslaus XIII [XI] and Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 March 1606 – 6 February 1625 Duchy of Stettin
(at Darłowo until 1620)
Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
1615
no children
10 March 1637
Szczecin
aged 56
6 February 1625 – 10 March 1637 Duchy of Pomerania

Principality of Rugia edit

The Principality was initially a Danish feud, under local rulers, which formed a dynasty.

House of Wizlaw edit

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Ratislaus c.1105
?
c.1130-1141 Principality of Rügen Unknown
three children
1141
aged 35-36
First known ruler of Rügen.
Tetzlav c.1130
First son of Ratislaus
1141-c.1175 Principality of Rügen Unknown
at least one child
c.1175
aged 44-45?
Children of Raclaw, ruled jointly.
Jaromar I   c.1140
Second son of Ratislaus
1141-1218 Hildegard of Denmark
(1157-?)
c.1180
five children
1218
aged 77-78?
Barnuta c.1180
First son of Jaromar I and Hildegard of Denmark
1218-1221 Principality of Rügen Slavonica
at least one child
c.1235
aged 54-55
Abdicated to his brother in 1221.
Vislav I   c.1180
Second son of Jaromar I and Hildegard of Denmark
1221 – 7 June 1250 Principality of Rügen Margaret Sverkersdotter of Sweden
(before 1200-5 March 1232)
c.1215
six children
7 June 1250
aged 69-70
Jaromar II c.1218
Son of Vislav I and Margaret Sverkersdotter of Sweden
7 June 1250 – 20 August 1260 Principality of Rügen Euphemia of Pomerelia
(c.1225–1270)
c.1240
three children
20 August 1260
aged 41-42
Vislav II   1240
First son of Jaromar II and Euphemia of Pomerelia
20 August 1260 – 29 December 1302 Principality of Rügen Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
c.1265
eight children
29 December 1302
aged 61-62
Children of Jaromar II, ruled jointly.
Jaromar III 1249
Second son of Jaromar II and Euphemia of Pomerelia
20 August 1260 – 1282 Unmarried 1282
aged 42-43
Vislav III   1265
First son of Vislav II and Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
29 December 1302 – 8 November 1325 Principality of Rügen Margaret
c.1305
no children

Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin
1310
three children
8 November 1325
aged 36-37
Children of Vislav II, ruled jointly. After their childless deaths, the principality was annexed to Pomerania-Wolgast.
Sambor   1267
Second son of Vislav II and Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
29 December 1302 – 4 June 1304 Unmarried 4 June 1304
aged 36-37

Duchy of Pomerelia edit

In 1155, the lands which belonged to Świętopełk I were organized by Sobieslaw I into the Duchy of Eastern Pomerania, also known as the Pomerelia, a provincial duchy of fragmented Poland. Sobiesław founded the House of Sobiesław.

The dukes of Pomerelia were using the Latin title dux Pomeraniae ("Duke of Pomerania") or dux Pomeranorum ("Duke of the Pomeranians").

 
The Pomerelian Griffin

Partitions of the Duchy of Pomerelia edit

In 1215, the duchy was divided in other smaller duchies: Gdańsk, Białogarda, Lubiszewo and Świecie.

  Gdańsk   Białogarda   Lubiszewo   Świecie

1155-1190
Duchy of Pomerelia-Gdańsk
Became independent in 1215.
Duchy of Pomerelia-Białogarda
Became independent in 1215.
Duchy of Pomerelia-Lubiszewo
Became independent in 1215.
Duchy of Pomerelia-Świecie
Became independent in 1215.

In 1271 the duchy is reunited and in 1294 reincorporated directly into Poland per the Treaty of Kępno.

Dukes of Pomerelia edit

Non-dynastic edit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Świętopełk I before 1106 1106–1113 1113 Pomerania-Gdańsk (future Pomerelia) Unknown He wasn't duke of Pomerelia, but ruled in the lands that became Pomerelia 40 years later.

House of Sambor (1155–1296) edit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Sobieslaw I c.1130 1155-1178 1178 Pomerelia Unknown
before 1150
two children
Sambor I   c.1150 1178-1205 7 February or 30 December 1205 Pomerelia Unknown
before 1205
two children
Mestwin I the Peaceful   c.1160 1205-1220 1/2 July 1220 Pomerelia Swinisława of Poland
c.1190
eight children
Brother of Sambor.
Świętopełk II the Great   c.1190 1220-1266 11 January 1266 Pomerelia-Gdańsk Salomea of Halych
before 1220
one child

Euphrosyne of Greater Poland
c.1220
two children

Hermengard of Schwerin
c.1230
two children
Son of Mestwin I. Ruler in Gdańsk, used the title Dux (Duke) from 1227.
Wartislaw I c.1195 1220–1233 11 January 1233 Pomerelia-Białogarda-Lubiszewo-Świecie unmarried Son of Mestwin I. Ruler in Świecie, used the title Dux (Duke) from 1227. After his death his domains were divided between the younger brothers.
Racibor I c.1212 1233–1262 6 June 1272 Pomerelia-Białogarda unmarried Son of Mestwin I. Joined the Teutonic Order in 1262, and -Białogarda was annexed by -Gdańsk.
Sambor II   c.1212 1233–1270 30 December 1277 Pomerelia-Lubiszewo Matilda of Mecklenburg
six children
Son of Mestwin I. He initially resided at a burgh located in the later village of Lubiszewo. After the town of Tczew was founded nearby in the course of the German Ostsiedlung, the dukes shifted their residence to the town.
Mestwin II   1220 1233–1270 29 December 1294 Pomerelia-Świecie Judith of Wettin
before 1275
two children

Euphrosyne of Opole
1275 (div.1288)
no children

Sulisława
after 1288
no children
Son of Swiatopelk I. In 1270, he reunited the duchy.
Wartislaw II 1237 1266–1270 9 May 1271 Pomerelia-Gdańsk unmarried Son of Swietopelk II. After his death without descendants, Gdańsk was absorbed by the reunited Duchy of Pomerelia.
Mestwin II   1220 1270–1294 29 December 1294 Pomerelia Judith of Wettin
before 1275
two children

Euphrosyne of Opole
1275 (div.1288)
no children

Sulisława
after 1288
no children
Reunites the duchy in 1270. In 1282, he transfers suzerainty back to Poland, and in 1294 Pomerelia was reincorporated directly into Poland.

Later history of Pomerelia edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza", vol. 1–4, Poznan-Torun 1969–2003
  • Edmund Kopicki, "Tabele dynastyczne", "Wykazy panujacych", in: "Katalog podstawowych monet i banknotow Polski oraz ziem z historycznie z Polska zwiazanych", vol. IX, part I
  • Zugmunt Boras, "Ksiazeta Pomorza Zachdniego", Poznań 1969, 1978, 1996
  • Casimir Kozlowski, George Podralski, "Poczet Ksiazat Pomorza Zachdniego", KAW, Szczecin 1985
  • L. Badkowski, W.Samp. "Poczet ksiazat Pomorza Gdanskiego", Gdańsk 1974
  • B. Sliwinski, "Poczet ksiazaat gdanskich", Gdańsk 1997
  • Wojciech Myslenicki, "Pomorscy sprzymierzenscy Jagiellonczylow", Wyd. Poznanskie, Poznań 1979
  • J. Spors, "Podzially administracyjne Pomorza Gdanskiego i Slawiensko-Slupksiego od XII do poczatkow XIV w", Słupsk 1983
  • K. Slaski, "Podzially terytorialne Pomorza w XII–XII w.", Poznań 1960
  • Edward Rymar, Krewni i powinowaci ksiazat pomorskich w zrodłach sredniowiecznych (XII–początek XVI w.), Materially Zachodniopomorskie, vol. XXXI

References edit

  1. ^ Julius Ficker, Vom Reichsfuerstenstande: Forschungen zur Geschichte des Reichsverfassung zunächst im XII. und XIII. Jahrhunderte: 2 vols. in 4 pts., Innsbruck: Verlag der Wagner'schen Buchhandlung, 1861, vol. 1, p. 70.
  2. ^ Hartmut Boockmann, „Barbarossa in Lübeck“, in: Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, vol. 61 (1981), pp. 7-18, here p. 18.
  3. ^ Erich Hoffmann, „Die Bedeutung der Schlacht von Bornhöved für die deutsche und skandinavische Geschichte“, in: Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, vol. 57 (1977), pp. 9-37, here p. 15.
  4. ^ Between 1184 and 1208 Demmin was reunited with Stettin.
  5. ^ Also called Szczecin.
  6. ^ Also called Sławno-Słupsk
  7. ^ Barth reannexed to Wolgast in 1393-94 and 1451-57.
  8. ^ Also called Słupsk; Between 1377 and 1395 Stargard emerged as a short-lived state.
  9. ^ Barth and Rugenwalde split off and reunited with Stettin several times between 1569 and 1620.
  10. ^ Other historians suggest that he could be also son of Bogislaw II or Mestwin I of Pomerelia.
  11. ^ a b Barnim IV seemed to have ascended first (1326) then Barnim III, who assumed his rule in 1344. However, as stated, Barnim III was co-ruling with his father since 1320, which motivated his numbering being lower.
  12. ^ a b Eric arrived in Pomerania only in 1449. This opens the question of who was Maria of Masovia being regent for in the period 1446-49. A possibility is that Sophie, the then minor daughter of Boguslaus IX, was reigning under regency of her mother, and stepped down for Eric I, returning after the latter's death.
  13. ^ Numbered XIII, because of infants Boguslaus XI (son of George I, born and died in 1514) and Boguslaus XII (son of Barnim IX, born and died in 1542) who never ruled. This skipping also compromised the numbering of Boguslaus XIV. Boguslaus XIII was the eleventh ruler of this name.
  14. ^ It's possible that the Ukrainian Hubytsky family could descend from the Pomeranian ducal family though Boguslaus II.
  15. ^ Boguslaus XIV was the twelfth ruler of this name.

External links edit