List of Italian football champions

Wikimedia list article
List of Italian football champions
Scudetto.svg
Scudetto
Country Italy
Confederation UEFA
Founded 1898
Number of teams 20
Current champions Juventus
(32nd title)
(2015–16)
Most championships Juventus
(32 titles)
2015–16 season

The Italian football champions (Italian: Scudetto, "little shield", plural: scudetti) are the annual winners of Serie A, Italy's premier football league competition. The title has been contested since 1898 in varying forms of competition. Juventus are the current champions, and have won a record of 32 titles. The first time the Scudetto was used was in 1924 when Genoa won its 9th championship title and decided to add a little shield to their shirt as to reward and celebrate themselves as champions.

The finals of the first Italian Football Championship was decided in a single day with four teams competing, three from Turin and one from Genoa. The title was decided using a knock-out format between the finalists with Genoa, the inaugural winners. The knock-out format was used until the 1909–10 season, when a league consisting of nine teams was formed. The championship, which had been confined to a single league in the north of Italy, became a national competition in 1929 with the foundation of Serie A and Serie B.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Prima CategoriaEdit

 
Juventus, 1903 runners-up

The first official national football tournament was organised in 1898 by the Italian Football Federation (Italian: Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio, FIGC).[1] This tournament, the final matches of the first Italian Football Championship, were held in a single day on 8 May 1898 in Turin. Genoa were crowned as champions, defeating Internazionale F.C. Torino by 3–1, following extra time.[1] In the following years, the tournament (called Prima Categoria) was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions.

In November 1907, FIF organised two championships in the same season:[2]

  1. Federal Championship, where also foreign players (if they live in Italy) are allowed to play; the Federal Champions win Coppa Spensley[3]
  2. Italian Championship, where only Italian players are allowed to play; the Italian Champions win Coppa Buni

FIF wanted to organize two different championships in order to allow weaker clubs composed only by Italian players ("squadre pure italiane", "pure italian teams") to compete and win against the big clubs composed mostly by stronger foreign players ("squadre spurie internazionali", "spurious international teams"). The big clubs (Genoa, Torino and Milan) withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria.[4] However, Juventus didn't receive Spensley Cup because Milan (the former champions) refused to give the Cup to the new Champion, Juventus, giving it to Spensley and his team, Genoa.[5] In November 1908, FIF decided to award permanently Spensley Cup to Milan. The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, only Pro Vercelli was later recognized as "Italian Champions 1908", forgetting the Federal Championship won by Juventus.

In 1909 season, too, two different championships were organised:

  1. Federal Championship, where also foreign players (if they live in Italy) are allowed to play; the Federal Champions win Coppa Oberti
  2. Italian Championship, where only Italian players are allowed to play; the Italian Champions win Coppa Buni

The Federal Championship was won by Pro Vercelli, beating in the Final US Milanese. The Italian Championship was won by Juventus, beating in the Final US Milanese.[6] However, only Pro Vercelli was later recognized as "Italian Champions 1909", forgetting the Italian Championship won by Juventus.

The format was modified for the 1909–10 season which was played in a league format. Nine clubs participated playing each other both home and away. The split between Federal and Italian championship was not completely abolished, because, while unifying these tournaments, it was decided to assign to the end of the season two titles:

I Campionati Nazionali di calcio sono di I e II Categoria. Quello di I Categoria è suddiviso in Campionato Federale e Campionato Italiano. Al primo possono prendere parte anche giuocatori di nazionalità estera, residenti in Italia, il secondo è riservato esclusivamente ai giuocatori di nazionalità italiana.["There are two National Football Championships: Prima and Seconda Categoria. The Prima Categoria Championship is divided into Federal and Italian championship. In the first one foreign players living in Italy, too, are allowed to play, in the second one only players of Italian nationality are allowed to play. " (Article 2 of the Championship Rules promulgated the FIGC to Milan on August 8, 1909)][7]

According to an article in the newspaper La Stampa dated December 24, 1909, at the end of the season will be "proclaimed Italian Champions the best placed club among pure italian teams and Federal Champions the best placed club among Spurious International Clubs".[8] At the end of the season, Pro Vercelli and Inter placed both in the first place, so a playoff was needed in order to assign the Federal title (the Italian one was won by Pro Vercelli). This season was the first victory for Internazionale, who defeated Pro Vercelli in the final by a score of 10–3.[9]

In the 1910–11 season, teams from Veneto and Emilia were admitted for the first time to the championship. The championship was divided in two groups: Liguria-Piemonte-Lombardia group, the most important one, and Veneto-Emilia group. The winners of each group qualified to the Final for the title. The 1912–13 season saw the competition nationalised with North and South divisions.[10] The 1914–1915 Championship was suspended because of World War I while Genoa was placed in the first place in Northern Italy Finals and only when the war ended, in 1919, FIGC decided to award the 1915 title to Genoa. In 1916, Milan won the Coppa Federale, which for that season was a substitute for the championship, which had been suspended because of World War I.[11] The tournament that year was limited to clubs from the north, with the exception of Pro Vercelli, but was not treated as an official trophy or recognised by FIGC as an Italian title.

Prima DivisioneEdit

Controversy hit the Championship in the 1921–22 season which saw the major clubs (including Pro Vercelli, Bologna and Juventus) in dispute with the FIGC. The best 24 teams had asked for a reduction in the number of clubs in the top division in accordance with a plan drawn up by Vittorio Pozzo, the Italian national team coach. Pozzo's plan was dismissed and the CCI (Italian: Confederazione Calcistica Italiana) was founded and organised a 1921–22 CCI league (Prima Divisione) to run concurrently with the 1921–22 season (Prima Categoria) organised by the FIGC.[12] Therefore, that season saw two champions: Novese (FIGC) and Pro Vercelli (CCI). The schism ended when FIGC accepted to reduce the Northern Championship 1922–23 to only 36 clubs ("Compromesso Colombo/Colombo compromise"); from 1923–24 the Northern Championship was reduced to 24 clubs divided into two groups.[13]

Divisione NazionaleEdit

The Carta di Viareggio/Viareggio charter (1926) was drawn up to legalise professionalism, ban foreign players, and rationalise the championship creating a new national top league where Northern and Southern teams play in the same championship: Divisione Nazionale. To the new Championship were admitted 17 teams from Lega Nord (Northern League) and 3 teams from Lega Sud (Southern League) for a total of 20 teams, divided into two national groups of 10 teams each.

Further scandal followed in the 1926–27 season when title-winners Torino Football Club were stripped of their Scudetto following an FIGC investigation. A Torino official was found to have bribed opposing defender Luigi Allemandi in Torino's match against Juventus on 5 June 1927, and thus the season finished with no declared champions.[14]

Serie AEdit

In 1929 Divisione Nazionale (two groups of 16 teams each) split into two Championships: Divisione Nazionale Serie A (the new Top Division) and Divisione Nazionale Serie B (the new second level of Italian Football).[15][16] The 1929–30 season was the inaugural Serie A season and was won by Internazionale (called Ambrosiana at the time). The next 11 years were also dominated by Juventus and Bologna, when all of the Scudetti were won between the three of them, Juventus winning five times in a row, a record only equalled by Grande Torino in 1948, by Internazionale in 2010 and Juventus itself in 2016. The competition was truncated as the Championship was suspended in 1943 due to World War II.[12] A Championship was held in 1944, the Campionato Alta Italia, and won by Spezia.[17] The title was not officially recognised by FIGC until 2002 and even then the Scudetto is considered a "decoration."[18]

The post-war years were dominated by a Torino side known as Il Grande Torino ("The Great Torino"), a team which found a dramatic end in the Superga air disaster in 1949.[12] The 1950s saw the gradual emergence of Milan, with the help of Swedish striker Gunnar Nordahl, who was Serie A's leading scorer (Italian: Capocannonieri) for five out of six seasons. Juventus began to dominate throughout the 1970s and early 1980s with nine Scudetti in fifteen seasons while the 1990s saw Milan come to prominence.[12]

Serie A was dealt another blow by the 2006 Italian football scandal which involved alleged widespread match fixing implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio, and Reggina.[19] The FIGC ruled Juventus be stripped of their title, relegated to Serie B and start the following season with a nine-point deduction. The other clubs involved suffered similarly with relegation and points deduction.[20]

Prima CategoriaEdit

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1898 Genoa (1) Internazionale Torino (Unknown) (Unknown)
1899 Genoa (2) Internazionale Torino - (Unknown)
1900 Genoa (3) Torinese - (Unknown)
1901 Milan (1) Genoa -   Umberto Malvano (Juventus) (4)
1902 Genoa (4) Milan - (Unknown)
1903 Genoa (5) Juventus - (Unknown)
1904 Genoa (6) Juventus - (Unknown)
1905 Juventus (1) Genoa US Milanese (Unknown)
1906 Milan (2) Juventus Genoa (Unknown)
1907 Milan (3) Torino Andrea Doria (Unknown)
1908 Pro Vercelli (1) US Milanese Andrea Doria (Unknown)
1909 Pro Vercelli (2) US Milanese Genoa (Unknown)
1909–10 Internazionale (1) Pro Vercelli Juventus (Unknown)
1910–11 Pro Vercelli (3) Vicenza - (Unknown)
1911–12 Pro Vercelli (4) Venezia - (Unknown)
1912–13 Pro Vercelli (5) Lazio - (Unknown)
1913–14 Casale (1) Lazio - (Unknown)
1914–15 Genoa (7)[21] - - (Unknown)
1916–19
Postponed due to First World War
1919–20 Internazionale (2) Livorno - (Unknown)
1920–21 Pro Vercelli (6) Pisa - (Unknown)
1921–22
(F.I.G.C.)
Novese (1) Sampierdarenese - (Unknown)

Prima DivisioneEdit

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1921–22
(C.C.I.)
Pro Vercelli (7) Fortitudo Roma - (Unknown)
1922–23 Genoa (8) Lazio - (Unknown)
1923–24 Genoa (9) Savoia -   Heinrich Schönfeld (Torino) (22)
1924–25 Bologna (1) Alba Trastevere -   Mario Magnozzi (Livorno) (19)
1925–26 Juventus (2) Alba Trastevere -   Ferenc Hirzer (Juventus) (35)

Divisione NazionaleEdit

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1926–27 Not awarded Bologna Juventus   Anton Powolny (Internazionale) (22)
1927–28 Torino (1) Genoa Alessandria/Juventus   Julio Libonatti (Torino) (35)
1928–29 Bologna (2) Torino -   Gino Rossetti (Torino) (36)

Serie AEdit

Key
  Champions also won the Coppa Italia that season
* Champions also won the Coppa Italia and UEFA Champions League that season
Champions also won the European Cup/UEFA Champions League that season
Champions also won the UEFA Cup that season
# Champions also won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup that season
Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1929–30 Internazionale (3) Genoa Juventus   Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (31)
1930–31 Juventus (3) Roma Bologna   Rodolfo Volk (Roma) (29)
1931–32 Juventus (4) Bologna Roma   Pedro Petrone (Fiorentina)
  Angelo Schiavio (Bologna) (25)
1932–33 Juventus (5) Internazionale Bologna/Napoli   Felice Placido Borel (Juventus) (29)
1933–34 Juventus (6) Internazionale Napoli   Felice Placido Borel (Juventus) (31)
1934–35 Juventus (7) Internazionale Fiorentina   Enrico Guaita (Roma) (31)
1935–36 Bologna (3) Roma Torino   Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (25)
1936–37 Bologna (4) Lazio Torino   Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1937–38 Internazionale (4) Juventus Genoa/Milan   Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (20)
1938–39 Bologna (5) Torino Internazionale   Aldo Boffi (Milan)
  Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (19)
1939–40 Internazionale (5) Bologna Juventus   Aldo Boffi (Milan) (24)
1940–41 Bologna (6) Internazionale Milan   Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (22)
1941–42 Roma (1) Torino Venezia   Aldo Boffi (Milan) (22)
1942–43 Torino (2)  Livorno Juventus   Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1943–45
Canceled due to Second World War
1945–46 Torino (3) Juventus Milan   Guglielmo Gabetto (Torino) (22)
1946–47 Torino (4) Juventus Modena   Valentino Mazzola (Torino) (29)
1947–48 Torino (5) Juventus/Milan/Triestina -   Giampiero Boniperti (Juventus) (27)
1948–49 Torino (6)[22] Internazionale Milan   István Nyers (Internazionale) (26)
1949–50 Juventus (8) Milan Internazionale   Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (35)
1950–51 Milan (4) Internazionale Juventus   Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (34)
1951–52 Juventus (9) Milan Internazionale   John Hansen (Juventus) (30)
1952–53 Internazionale (6) Juventus Milan   Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1953–54 Internazionale (7) Juventus Fiorentina/Milan   Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (23)
1954–55 Milan (5) Udinese Roma   Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1955–56 Fiorentina (1) Milan Internazionale/Lazio   Gino Pivatelli (Bologna) (29)
1956–57 Milan (6) Fiorentina Lazio   Dino da Costa (Roma) (22)
1957–58 Juventus (10) Fiorentina Padova   John Charles (Juventus) (28)
1958–59 Milan (7) Fiorentina Internazionale   Antonio Valentin Angelillo (Internazionale) (33)
1959–60 Juventus (11)  Fiorentina Milan   Omar Sivori (Juventus) (28)
1960–61 Juventus (12) Milan Internazionale   Sergio Brighenti (Sampdoria) (27)
1961–62 Milan (8) Internazionale Fiorentina   José Altafini (Milan)
  Aurelio Milani (Fiorentina) (22)
1962–63 Internazionale (8) Juventus Milan   Harald Nielsen (Bologna)
  Pedro Manfredini (Roma) (19)
1963–64 Bologna (7) Internazionale Milan   Harald Nielsen (Bologna) (21)
1964–65 Internazionale (9) Milan Torino   Sandro Mazzola (Internazionale)
  Alberto Orlando (Fiorentina) (17)
1965–66 Internazionale (10) Bologna Napoli   Luis Vinicio (Vicenza) (25)
1966–67 Juventus (13) Internazionale Bologna   Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (18)
1967–68 Milan (9)# Napoli Juventus   Pierino Prati (Milan) (15)
1968–69 Fiorentina (2) Cagliari Milan   Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1969–70 Cagliari (1) Internazionale Juventus   Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1970–71 Internazionale (11) Milan Napoli   Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (24)
1971–72 Juventus (14) Milan Torino   Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (22)
1972–73 Juventus (15) Milan Lazio   Giuseppe Savoldi (Bologna)
  Paolino Pulici (Torino)
  Gianni Rivera (Milan) (17)
1973–74 Lazio (1) Juventus Napoli   Giorgio Chinaglia (Lazio) (24)
1974–75 Juventus (16) Napoli Roma   Paolino Pulici (Torino) (18)
1975–76 Torino (7) Juventus Milan   Paolino Pulici (Torino) (21)
1976–77 Juventus (17) Torino Fiorentina   Francesco Graziani (Torino) (21)
1977–78 Juventus (18) Vicenza Torino   Paolo Rossi (Vicenza) (24)
1978–79 Milan (10) Perugia Juventus   Bruno Giordano (Lazio) (19)
1979–80 Internazionale (12) Juventus Torino   Roberto Bettega (Juventus) (16)
1980–81 Juventus (19) Roma Napoli   Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (18)
1981–82 Juventus (20) Fiorentina Roma   Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (15)
1982–83 Roma (2) Juventus Internazionale   Michel Platini (Juventus) (16)
1983–84 Juventus (21)# Roma Fiorentina   Michel Platini (Juventus) (20)
1984–85 Verona (1) Torino Internazionale   Michel Platini (Juventus) (18)
1985–86 Juventus (22) Roma Napoli   Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (19)
1986–87 Napoli (1)  Juventus Internazionale   Pietro Paolo Virdis (Milan) (17)
1987–88 Milan (11) Napoli Roma   Diego Maradona (Napoli) (15)
1988–89 Internazionale (13) Napoli Milan   Aldo Serena (Internazionale) (22)
1989–90 Napoli (2) Milan Internazionale   Marco van Basten (Milan) (19)
1990–91 Sampdoria (1) Milan Internazionale   Gianluca Vialli (Sampdoria) (19)
1991–92 Milan (12) Juventus Torino   Marco van Basten (Milan) (25)
1992–93 Milan (13) Internazionale Parma   Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (26)
1993–94 Milan (14) Juventus Sampdoria   Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (23)
1994–95 Juventus (23)  Lazio Parma   Gabriel Batistuta (Fiorentina) (26)
1995–96 Milan (15) Juventus Lazio   Igor Protti (Bari)
  Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (24)
1996–97 Juventus (24) Parma Internazionale   Filippo Inzaghi (Atalanta) (24)
1997–98 Juventus (25) Internazionale Udinese   Oliver Bierhoff (Udinese) (27)
1998–99 Milan (16) Lazio Fiorentina   Márcio Amoroso (Udinese) (22)
1999–00 Lazio (2)  Juventus Milan   Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2000–01 Roma (3) Juventus Lazio   Hernán Crespo (Lazio) (26)
2001–02 Juventus (26) Roma Internazionale   David Trezeguet (Juventus)
  Dario Hübner (Piacenza) (24)
2002–03 Juventus (27) Internazionale Milan   Christian Vieri (Internazionale) (24)
2003–04 Milan (17) Roma Juventus   Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2004–05 Not awarded Milan Internazionale   Cristiano Lucarelli (Livorno) (24)
2005–06 Internazionale (14)  Roma Milan   Luca Toni (Fiorentina) (31)
2006–07 Internazionale (15) Roma Lazio   Francesco Totti (Roma) (26)
2007–08 Internazionale (16) Roma Juventus   Alessandro Del Piero (Juventus) (21)
2008–09 Internazionale (17) Juventus Milan   Zlatan Ibrahimović (Internazionale) (25)
2009–10 Internazionale (18)* Roma Milan   Antonio Di Natale (Udinese) (29)
2010–11 Milan (18) Internazionale Napoli   Antonio Di Natale (Udinese) (28)
2011–12 Juventus (28) Milan Udinese   Zlatan Ibrahimović (Milan) (28)
2012–13 Juventus (29) Napoli Milan   Edinson Cavani (Napoli) (29)
2013–14 Juventus (30) Roma Napoli   Ciro Immobile (Torino) (22)
2014–15 Juventus  (31) Roma Lazio   Mauro Icardi (Internazionale)
  Luca Toni (Hellas Verona) (22)
2015–16 Juventus  (32) Napoli Roma   Gonzalo Higuaín (Napoli) (36)

PerformancesEdit

ClubsEdit

The following table lists the performance of each club describing winners of the Championship. 16 clubs have been champions.

Performance by club
Club Champions Winning seasons
Juventus
32
1905, 1925–26, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1966–67, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1976–77, 1977–78, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1994–95, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2004–05,[nb 1] 2005–06,[nb 1] 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16
Milan
18
1901, 1906, 1907, 1950–51, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1961–62, 1967–68, 1978–79, 1987–88, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04, 2010–11
Internazionale
18
1909–10, 1919–20, 1929–30, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1970–71, 1979–80, 1988–89, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10
Genoa
9
1898, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1914–15, 1922–23, 1923–24
Torino
7
1926–27,[nb 2] 1927–28, 1942–43, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1975–76
Bologna
7
1924–25, 1928–29, 1935–36, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1940–41, 1963–64
Pro Vercelli
7
1908, 1909, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1920–21, 1921–22 (C.C.I.)
Roma
3
1941–42, 1982–83, 2000–01
Lazio
2
1973–74, 1999–2000
Napoli
2
1986–87, 1989–90
Fiorentina
2
1955–56, 1968–69
Sampdoria
1
1990–91
Verona
1
1984–85
Cagliari
1
1969–70
Novese
1
1921–22 (F.I.G.C.)
Casale
1
1913–14

Bold indicates clubs currently playing in the top division.

By CityEdit

City Championships Clubs
Turin
39
Juventus (32), Torino (7),
Milan
36
Milan (18), Internazionale (18)
Genoa
10
Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
Bologna
7
Bologna (7)
Vercelli
7
Pro Vercelli (7)
Rome
5
Roma (3), Lazio (2)
Florence
2
Fiorentina (2)
Naples
2
Napoli (2)
Cagliari
1
Cagliari (1)
Casale Monferrato
1
Casale (1)
Novi Ligure
1
Novese (1)
Verona
1
Verona (1)

By RegionEdit

Region Championships Clubs
Piedmont
48
Juventus (32), Torino (7), Pro Vercelli (7), Casale (1), Novese (1)
Lombardy
36
Milan (18), Internazionale (18)
Liguria
10
Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
Emilia-Romagna
7
Bologna (7)
Lazio
5
Roma (3), Lazio (2)
Campania
2
Napoli (2)
Tuscany
2
Fiorentina (2)
Sardinia
1
Cagliari (1)
Veneto
1
Verona (1)

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Almanacco Illustrato del Calcio – La Storia 1898–2004, Panini Edizioni, Modena, September 2005
  • Carlo Chiesa, La grande storia del calcio italiano (The great history of italian football), Guerin Sportivo, 2012–
    • Second installment: 1908–1910, pp. 17–32, in Guerin Sportivo #5 (maggio 2012), pp. 83–98.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b These titles were revoked through the courts following the Calciopoli Scandal. The title for 2005–06 was handed to Internazionale, the 2004–05 title was left unassigned.
  2. ^ Title was revoked.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "FIGC History – 1898". FIGC. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  2. ^ Chiesa, p. 18.
  3. ^ "La gran finale del Campionato Federale". La Stampa. 22 February 1908. p. 5. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "La Finale di Campionato a Torino.". La Stampa. 7 May 1908. p. 4. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  5. ^ Chiesa, pp. 20–21.
  6. ^ "Il F.C. Juventus vince il Campionato Italiano.". La Stampa. 7 June 1909. p. 5. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  7. ^ Chiesa, pp. 23–24.
  8. ^ Chiesa, p. 24. Original text: "proclamato campione italiano il Club meglio classificato fra le squadre pure italiane, e campione federale il Club meglio classificato tra le squadre spurie internazionali."
  9. ^ "Italy – Championship History 1898–1923". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  10. ^ "FIGC History – 1913". FIGC. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  11. ^ "Juventus vs Milan". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Italy – List of Champions". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  13. ^ Annuario 1931, pp. 18–19.
  14. ^ James Lawton (2006-07-08). "Italy are fabulously flawed". The Independent. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  15. ^ Annuario 1931, p. 40. "Il campionato di Divisione Nazionale è diviso in due serie: A e B" (The Championship of Divisione Nazionale is divided into two Serie: A and B").
  16. ^ John Foot. Calcio – a history of Italian Football. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0007175744. 
  17. ^ "Italy 1943/44 (War Championship)". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  18. ^ "Lo scudetto del '44 – 4a parte" (in Italian). Spezia Calcio 1906. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  19. ^ "Serie A quartet will stand trial". BBC Sport. 2006-06-23. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  20. ^ "Italian trio relegated to Serie B". BBC Sport. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  21. ^ Championship unfinished due to WWI, title awarded by the FIGC
  22. ^ Title awarded by FIGC following the Superga air disaster.

External linksEdit