Kolín (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkoliːn]; German: Kolin, Köllein, Collin) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 32,000 inhabitants. It lies some 55 kilometers (34 mi) east from Prague, on the Elbe River. The town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation.

Kolín
Town hall on the Karlovo Square
Town hall on the Karlovo Square
Flag of Kolín
Coat of arms of Kolín
Kolín is located in Czech Republic
Kolín
Kolín
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°1′41″N 15°12′2″E / 50.02806°N 15.20056°E / 50.02806; 15.20056Coordinates: 50°1′41″N 15°12′2″E / 50.02806°N 15.20056°E / 50.02806; 15.20056
Country Czech Republic
RegionCentral Bohemian
DistrictKolín
First mentioned1261
Government
 • MayorMichael Kašpar (STAN)
Area
 • Total34.99 km2 (13.51 sq mi)
Elevation
220 m (720 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total32,490
 • Density930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
280 02
Websitewww.mukolin.cz

Administrative partsEdit

Kolín is made up of town parts of Kolín I–VI and of villages of Sendražice, Šťáralka, Štítary and Zibohlavy.

HistoryEdit

 
Karlovo Square
 
Church of Saint Bartholomew

Ptolemy's world map mentions Budorgis in the Kolín's area in the 2nd century.[2]

Kolín was founded by King Ottokar II of Bohemia in the 13th century by relocation, when Starý Kolín ("Old Kolín") was threatened by floods and the king decided to move the settlement. The first written mention of Kolín is from 1261, when it was mentioned that Přelouč obtain town privileges, same as Kolín and Kouřim have. It lied on a trade route PragueČeský BrodČáslavMoravia.[3]

In 1437–1438, a castle was founded in Kolín. It was built on ruins of burned down monastery. During the Thirty Years' War, it was damaged, and in the 17th century, it was rebuilt to a brewery. In 1911, the castle burn down and its Renaissance look disappeared.[4]

The 1757 Battle of Kolín was fought during the Seven Years' War, and in 1944 a refinery in Kolín was bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Zyklon B for Nazi concentration camps was produced there.

SightsEdit

The historical centre of the town has many gothic and baroque buildings. Most notable are the main market (Karlovo Square) with the Neo-Renaissance town hall, and Church of Saint Bartholomew from the 13th century, rebuilt in 1360 by the architect Peter Parler.[3][5]

In Kolín there is the original Jewish ghetto with a synagogue from 1696. It is the second oldest and most valuable synagogue in Bohemia.[6] The Jewish cemetery is one of the oldest and largest Jewish cemeteries in Bohemia. It was established in the first half of the 15th century.[7]

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186910,239—    
188012,538+22.5%
189014,481+15.5%
190016,339+12.8%
191018,138+11.0%
YearPop.±%
192118,029−0.6%
193020,568+14.1%
195022,528+9.5%
196125,301+12.3%
197028,538+12.8%
YearPop.±%
198032,501+13.9%
199131,595−2.8%
200130,258−4.2%
201130,922+2.2%
202132,490+5.1%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[8]

IndustryEdit

In Kolín there is the smaller part of Kolín-Ovčáry Industrial Zone, known mostly for the factory of the automobile manufacturing company TPCA.[9] As of 2020, TPCA employs 2,400 people as it is the most important employer in the region.[10]

Kolín is home to the packaging, paper and playing card manufacturers, OTK.

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Kolín is twinned with:[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
  2. ^ Kleineberg, Andreas, Christian Marx, Eberhard Knobloch and Dieter Lelgemann (2010). Germania und die Insel Thule. Die Entschlüsselung von Ptolemaios' "Atlas der Oikumene". Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-534-23757-9.
  3. ^ a b "Historie" (in Czech). Město Kolín. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  4. ^ "Hrad Kolín" (in Czech). Hrady.cz. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  5. ^ "Návštěvník" (in Czech). Město Kolín. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  6. ^ "Synagoga" (in Czech). Město Kolín. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  7. ^ "Starý židovský hřbitov" (in Czech). Město Kolín. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  8. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Kolín" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 5–6.
  9. ^ "Investoři v zóně" (in Czech). Kolín-Ovčáry Industrial Zone. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Automobilka TPCA investuje v Kolíně 4,5 miliardy a najme 1000 pracovníků" (in Czech). Echo 24. 14 February 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  11. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Kolín. Retrieved 23 July 2020.

External linksEdit