Čáslav (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃaːslaf]; German: Tschaslau) is a town in Kutná Hora District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 10,000 inhabitants. The town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone.
|• Mayor||Vlastislav Málek|
|• Total||26.46 km2 (10.22 sq mi)|
|Elevation||231 m (758 ft)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Čáslav is made up of town parts of Čáslav-Nové Město ("New Town") and Čáslav-Staré Město ("Old Town"), and of village of Filipov.
The history of Čáslav begins after the year 800 with the founding of a citadel and settlement called Hrádek. Near Hrádek, a new town with a huge square was founded by King Ottokar II of Bohemia in around 1250. In 1421, Bohemian parliament debated in Čáslav and voted in a new Hussite government.
Two large fires in 1452 and 1522 severely damaged the town. During the Thirty Years' War, in 1639 and 1642, Čáslav was devastated and burnt down by Swedish troops. The town however recovered and in 1715, Čáslav became the centre of a region.
From the 14th century there was a Jewish settlement in Čáslav, but in the 15th century the Jews were expelled. In the middle of the 19th century, only one Jewish family lived in the town. After the equality of the Jews in 1867, many from the area moved to the town of Čáslav. Around 1893, 245 Jews lived in the town, which was about 1–2% of the population.
|Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic|
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul is an early Gothic building from the end of the 13th century. The building included the Romanesque Church of St. Michael from the 11th century (today's sacristy), which originally stood here.
The town area was delimited by walls, which are preserved in one third of their original length. A unique monument of the Čáslav Gothic fortifications is the cylindrical Otakar's Tower, which stood at the Brod Gate.
Čáslav Town Museum, one of the oldest regional museums in Bohemia, was founded in 1864. Its building is from 1884.
The synagogue was built between 1899 and 1900 in Moorish style, designed by architect Wilhelm Stiassny. It was used until 1939 by the local Jewish community, which was then almost totally wiped out during The Holocaust. After World War II the abandoned building saw use as a warehouse, and then (between 1970–1989) as a gallery. In 1994, however, it was returned to the Jewish Community in Prague and has recently been restored.
Čáslav is sometimes called a town of majorettes, because of the local team, which won medals from Czech and world competitions.
The town's football club, FK Čáslav, plays on the fourth tier of the Czech football system.
- Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760–1812), composer and pianist
- Jan Karafiát (1846—1929), calvinistic priest and children writer
- Antonín Chittussi (1847–1891), Impressionist painter
- Rudolf Těsnohlídek (1882–1928), writer
- Jiří Mahen (1882–1939), writer
- František Moravec (1895–1966), military intelligence officer
- Josef Svoboda (1920–2002), scenographer
- Antonín Rükl (1932–2016), astronomer
- Miloš Forman (1932–2018), film director
- Jarmila Kratochvílová (born 1951), athlete
- Ludmila Formanová (born 1974), athlete
- David Jarolím (born 1979), footballer
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- Opfikon, Switzerland
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
- "Historie" (in Czech). Město Čáslav. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- "Čáslavská synagoga a její architekt Wilhelm Stiassny" (in Czech). Čáslav Town Museum. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Kutná Hora" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 1–2.
- "Městské muzeum Čáslav" (in Czech). Čáslav Town Museum. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- "Čáslavská radnice vystavuje lebku Jana Žižky. Jsou vidět zranění, která ho oslepila" (in Czech). Czech Radio. 2021-07-07. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- "Základní informace" (in Czech). Město Čáslav. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Čáslav. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Čáslav.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article "Czaslau".|