Kim Victoria Cattrall (//; born 21 August 1956) is an English-Canadian actress. She is best known for her role as Samantha Jones on HBO's Sex and the City (1998–2004), for which she received five Emmy Award nominations and four Golden Globe Award nominations, winning the 2002 Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress. She reprised the role in the films Sex and the City (2008) and Sex and the City 2 (2010).
Cattrall in February 2011
Kim Victoria Cattrall
21 August 1956
|Alma mater||London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art|
American Academy of Dramatic Arts
Cattrall made her film debut in Rosebud (1975) and went on to appear in various television roles. She came to prominence in the 1980s with films such as Ticket to Heaven (1981), Police Academy (1984), City Limits (1985), Big Trouble in Little China (1986), Mannequin (1987), Masquerade (1988), Midnight Crossing (1988), and The Return of the Musketeers (1989). She worked on several occasions with director Bob Clark, appearing in four of his films: Tribute (1980), Porky's (1981), Turk 182 (1985), and Baby Geniuses (1999). Her other film credits include The Bonfire of the Vanities (1990), Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991), Split Second (1992), Above Suspicion (1995), 15 Minutes (2001), Crossroads (2002), Ice Princess (2005), My Boy Jack (2007), The Ghost Writer (2010), and Meet Monica Velour (2010).
On stage, Cattrall appeared in the 1986 Broadway production of Michael Frayn's Wild Honey. Her other stage credits include August Strindberg's Miss Julie (McCarter Theatre Center, 1993), Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (Liverpool Playhouse, 2010), Noël Coward's Private Lives (Broadway, 2011), and Tennessee Williams' Sweet Bird of Youth (The Old Vic, 2013).
From 2014 to 2016, Cattrall starred and served as executive producer on the HBO Canada series Sensitive Skin, for which she received a nomination for the Canadian Screen Award for Best Actress in a Comedy Series. She currently stars on the web television series Tell Me a Story (2018–present).
Cattrall was born in Mossley Hill, Liverpool. Her mother, Gladys Shane (née Baugh), was a secretary, and her father, Dennis Cattrall, was a construction engineer. When she was three months old, her family emigrated to Canada, settling in the city of Courtenay on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. At age 11, she returned to England when her grandmother became sick. She took acting examinations at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art but returned to Canada after a year, and at age 16 she moved to New York City for her first acting role.
This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Cattrall began her career after graduating from Georges P. Vanier Secondary School in 1972, when she left Canada for New York City. There, she attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, and upon her graduation signed a five-year film deal with director Otto Preminger. She made her film debut in Preminger's action thriller Rosebud (1975). A year later, Universal Studios bought out that contract and Cattrall became one of the last participants in the contract player system of Universal (also referenced as MCA/Universal during this period) before the system ended in 1980. The Universal system's representative in New York, Eleanor Kilgallen (sister of Dorothy Kilgallen), cast Cattrall in numerous television guest-star roles. One of the first jobs Kilgallen got her was in a 1977 episode of Quincy, M.E. starring Jack Klugman, whom Kilgallen also represented.
In 1978, Cattrall played the love interest of a murderous psychologist in an episode of Columbo and also in "Blindfold", an episode of the 1970s action series Starsky & Hutch, in which Starsky (played by Paul Michael Glaser) is grief-stricken since he accidentally blinded Cattrall's character, young artist Emily Harrison, by a shot of his gun. She starred in The Bastard (1978) and The Rebels (1979), two television miniseries based on the John Jakes novels of the same names. In 1979, she played the role of Dr. Gabrielle White on The Incredible Hulk and would go down in television Hulk lore as one of the few characters who knew David Banner (alter ego of the title character) was alive and was the creature. Her work in television paid off and she quickly made the transition to cinema. She starred opposite Jack Lemmon in his Oscar-nominated film Tribute (1980), and in Crossbar, the film about a high jumper who loses his leg and still participates in the Olympic trials, with Cattrall's help. The following year, she appeared in Ticket to Heaven.
In 1982, Cattrall played P.E. teacher Miss Honeywell in Porky's, followed two years later by a role in the original Police Academy. In 1985, she starred in three films: Turk 182, City Limits and Hold-Up, the last with French star Jean-Paul Belmondo. In 1986, she played Kurt Russell's brainy flame in the action film Big Trouble in Little China. In 1987, her lead role in the cult comedy film Mannequin proved a huge success with audiences. One of her best-known film roles is that of Lieutenant Valeris in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country; Cattrall assisted in developing the character by designing her own hairstyle and even helped come up with the name. Near the end of filming, Cattrall had a photographer shoot a roll of film on the Enterprise bridge set, in which she wore nothing but her Vulcan ears. After finding out about the unauthorized photo session, Leonard Nimoy had the film destroyed.
Aside from her film work, Cattrall is also a stage actress, with performances in Arthur Miller's A View from the Bridge and Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters and Wild Honey to her credit. In addition, she can be heard reading the poetry of Rupert Brooke on the CD Red Rose Music SACD Sampler Volume One. In 1997, she was cast in Sex and the City, Darren Star's series which was broadcast on HBO. As Samantha Jones, Cattrall gained international recognition. She capitalized on her success by appearing in steamy television commercials promoting Pepsi One. Sex and the City ran for six seasons and ended as a weekly series in spring 2004 with 10.6 million viewers. Cattrall reprised the role of Samantha Jones in the Sex and the City film, released on 30 May 2008. She also appeared in the sequel released in May 2010. For her role on the television series, she was nominated for five Emmy Awards, and four Golden Globe Awards, winning one in 2002. She also won two ensemble Screen Actors Guild Awards, shared with her co-stars Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon. She was ranked number eight in TV Guide's 50 sexiest stars of all-time list in 2005.
In 2005, she appeared in the Disney film Ice Princess, in which she played Tina Harwood, ice skating coach of the film's lead character. She portrayed Claire, a paralysed woman who wants to die, in the West End drama revival of Whose Life Is It Anyway?. In October 2006, she appeared in a West End production of David Mamet's The Cryptogram at the Donmar Warehouse in London. Since late 2005, she has appeared in a number of British television commercials for Tetley Tea. In July 2006, a commercial for Nissan cars, which featured Cattrall as Samantha Jones, was withdrawn from New Zealand television, apparently because of complaints about its innuendo. She later starred alongside Brendan Gleeson in John Boorman's film The Tiger's Tail (2006), a black comedy that focuses on the impact of the Celtic Tiger economy on Irish people. On ITV, she starred alongside David Haig, Daniel Radcliffe and Carey Mulligan in My Boy Jack, the story of author Rudyard Kipling's search for his son lost in the First World War.
In early 2009, Cattrall played Amelia Bly in Roman Polanski's well received The Ghost Writer, which was released in 2010. On 16 June 2009, it was announced that Cattrall would receive a star on Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto, Ontario. The induction ceremony was held on 12 September 2009. In November 2009, while filming Sex and the City 2 in Marrakech, Morocco, she took part in a seminar, 'Being directed' with director John Boorman as part of the third edition of the Arts in Marrakech Festival. On 24 February 2010, Cattrall began a run in the West End of London at the Vaudeville Theatre as leading lady, Amanda, opposite Matthew Macfadyen, in a revival of Noël Coward's play Private Lives. She performed until 3 May 2010. In the same year, Cattrall starred as Gloria Scabius (alongside Macfadyen once again) in the critically acclaimed Channel 4 adaptation of William Boyd's novel Any Human Heart.
Cattrall played Cleopatra in a production of Antony and Cleopatra, directed by Janet Suzman, opposite Jeffery Kissoon as Anthony, in Liverpool at the Playhouse in October 2010, with a subsequent revival at Chichester Festival Theatre (with Michael Pennington as Anthony) in September 2012. In 2010, Cattrall was named an Honorary Fellow of Liverpool John Moores University in recognition of her contributions to the dramatic arts. In 2011, Cattrall reprised her role as Amanda in a production of Noël Coward's Private Lives opposite Canadian actor Paul Gross in Toronto and on Broadway. That year, Cattrall also appeared in Uptown Downstairs Abbey, the Comic Relief parody of the critically acclaimed historical television dramas Downton Abbey and Upstairs, Downstairs. Playing Lady Grantham, she starred alongside Jennifer Saunders, Joanna Lumley, Victoria Wood, Harry Enfield, Patrick Barlow, Dale Winton, Olivia Colman, Tim Vine, Simon Callow, Michael Gambon and Harry Hill.
From June to August 2013, Cattrall was scheduled to star in the Old Vic's production of Tennessee Williams's Sweet Bird of Youth, directed by Olivier Award-winner Marianne Elliott. In 2014, she starred as Davina Jackson in HBO Canada's Sensitive Skin. On 17 July 2015, Cattrall was cast in the title role of the play Linda, written by Penelope Skinner, directed by Michael Longhurst, and produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London. She was forced to drop out of that production a few days before the opening, due to "chronic, debilitating insomnia". She then returned to New York, and started a program of cognitive behaviour therapy to train herself to be able to sleep better. The therapy was successful; it included developing certain evening rituals, removing electronic devices from her bedroom, and limiting the use of the bed to two activities, one of which would be sleeping. Her role in Linda was recast and played by Noma Dumezweni, and the play opened in December 2015.
Cattrall has been married three times and does not have any children. Her 1977 to 1979 marriage to Larry Davis was annulled. Her second marriage was from 1982 to 1989 to Andre J. Lyson, with whom she lived in Frankfurt and learned to speak German fluently, but admits she has forgotten a lot over the years. From 1998 to 2004, she was married to audio designer and jazz bassist Mark Levinson. The two co-wrote the book Satisfaction: The Art of the Female Orgasm (2002).
Cattrall also has been linked with former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (in a 1981 photo), actor Daniel Benzali, musician Gerald Casale of the new wave group Devo, French public intellectual Bernard-Henri Lévy, and her Whose Life Is It Anyway? co-star, Alexander Siddig.
In August 2009, Cattrall took part in the BBC One documentary series Who Do You Think You Are?, where she discovered some facts about her grandfather, George Baugh. Baugh, who disappeared in 1938, having abandoned his family – including Cattrall's then 8-year-old mother and two younger sisters – turned out to have bigamously married his new wife, Isabella Oliver, the following year in Tudhoe, County Durham, and subsequently had another four children. She was told that in 1961, he emigrated to Australia, where he became a postmaster, retiring in 1972 and dying in Sydney in 1974. Cattrall's mother and aunts had known nothing of their father's life after he left until they heard what the Who Do You Think You Are? researchers had discovered, nor had the family previously seen a clear photograph of him. An edited version of the episode was later shown as a part of the U.S. series of the same name.
|1977||Deadly Harvest||Susan Franklin|
|1981||Ticket to Heaven||Ruthie|
|1982||Porky's||Miss Lynn "Lassie" Honeywell|
|1984||Police Academy||Cadet Karen Thompson|
|1985||Turk 182||Danny Boudreau|
|1986||Big Trouble in Little China||Gracie Law|
|1987||Mannequin||Ema "Emmy" Hesire|
|1988||Midnight Crossing||Alexa Schubb|
|1988||Palais Royale||Odessa Muldoon|
|1989||The Return of the Musketeers||Justine de Winter|
|1989||La famiglia Buonanotte||Aunt Eva|
|1990||The Bonfire of the Vanities||Judy McCoy|
|1991||Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country||Lieutenant Valeris|
|1992||Split Second||Michelle McLaine|
|1994||Breaking Point||Allison Meadows|
|1995||Above Suspicion||Gail Cain|
|1995||Live Nude Girls||Jamie|
|1996||Where Truth Lies||Racquel Chambers|
|1997||Exception to the Rule||Carla Rainer|
|2003||Shortcut to Happiness||Constance Hurry|
|2005||Ice Princess||Tina Harwood|
|2006||The Tiger's Tail||Jane O'Leary|
|2008||Sex and the City||Samantha Jones|
|2010||The Ghost Writer||Amelia Bly|
|2010||Meet Monica Velour||Monica Velour|
|2010||Sex and the City 2||Samantha Jones|
|2019||Horrible Histories: The Movie – Rotten Romans||Agrippina|
|1976||Dead on Target||Secretary||Uncredited; television film|
|1977||Good Against Evil||Linday Isley||Television film|
|1977||Quincy, M.E.||Joy DeReatis||Episode: "Let Me Light the Way"|
|1977||Logan's Run||Rama II||Episode: "Half Life"|
|1977||Switch||Captain Judith Pierce||Episode: "Dancer"|
|1977||What Really Happened to the Class of '65?||Cynthia||Episode: "The Girl Nobody Knew"|
|1978||The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries||Marie Claire||2 episodes|
|1978||Columbo||Joanne Nicholls||Episode: "How to Dial a Murder"|
|1978||The Bastard||Anne Ware||Miniseries|
|1978||Starsky & Hutch||Emily Harrison||Episode: "Blindfold"|
|1978||The Paper Chase||Karen Clayton||Episode: "Da Da"|
|1978||Family||Susan Madison||Episode: "Just Friends"|
|1979||The Incredible Hulk||Dr. Gabrielle White||Episode: "Kindred Spirits"|
|1979||How the West Was Won||Dolores||Episode: "The Slavers"|
|1979||Vegas||Princess Zara||Episode: "The Visitor"|
|1979||The Night Rider||Regina Kenton||Television film|
|1979||The Rebels||Anne Kent||Miniseries|
|1979||Crossbar||Katie Barlow||Television film|
|1979||Charlie's Angels||Sharon Kellerman||Episode: "Angels at the Altar"|
|1979||Trapper John, M.D.||Princess Allya||Episode: "The Surrogate"|
|1980||Scruples||Melanie Adams||Miniseries; 3 episodes|
|1980||The Gossip Columnist||Dina Moran||Television film|
|1980||Hagen||Carol Sawyer||Episode: "Nightmare"|
|1982||Trapper John, M.D.||Amy West||Episode: "You Pays Your Money"|
|1983||Tales of the Gold Monkey||Whitney Bunting||Episode: "Naka Jima Kill"|
|1984||Sins of the Past||Paula Bennett||Television film|
|1991||Miracle in the Wilderness||Dora Adams||Television film|
|1992||Double Vision||Caroline/Lisa||Television film|
|1993||Running Delilah||Christina/Delilah||Television film|
|1993||Wild Palms||Paige Katz||Miniseries; 5 episodes|
|1993||Angel Falls||Genna Harrison||Main role; 6 episodes|
|1994||Dream On||Jeannie||Episode: "The Homecoming Queen"|
|1994||Screen One||Sydnie||Episode: "Two Golden Balls"|
|1995||Tom Clancy's Op Center||Jane Hood||Miniseries; 2 episodes|
|1995||The Heidi Chronicles||Susan||Television film|
|1996||Every Woman's Dream||Liz Wells||Television film|
|1997||The Outer Limits||Rebecca Highfield||Episode: "Re-generation"|
|1997||Invasion||Dr. Sheila Moran||Miniseries; 2 episodes|
|1997||Rugrats||Melinda Finster (voice)||Episode: "Mother's Day"|
|1997||Duckman||Tami Margulies (voice)||Episode: "The Tami Show"|
|1998||Creature||Dr. Amanda Mayson||Miniseries; 2 episodes|
|1998–2004||Sex and the City||Samantha Jones||Main role; 94 episodes|
|1999||36 Hours to Die||Kim Stone||Television film|
|2004||The Simpsons||Chloe Talbot (voice)||Episode: "She Used to Be My Girl"|
|2005||Kim Cattrall: Sexual Intelligence||Herself||Television documentary film; also executive producer|
|2007||My Boy Jack||Caroline Kipling||Television film|
|2007||The Sunday Night Project||Herself||Guest host; series 5, episode 13|
|2009–2011||Producing Parker||Dee (voice)||26 episodes|
|2009||Who Do You Think You Are? (UK)||Herself||Episode: "Kim Cattrall"|
|2009||The Simpsons||Fourth Simpsons child (voice)||Episode: "O Brother, Where Bart Thou?"|
|2010||Any Human Heart||Gloria Scabius||Miniseries; 2 episodes|
|2011||Who Do You Think You Are? (US)||Herself||Episode: "Kim Cattrall"|
|2011||Upstairs Downstairs Abbey||Countess of Grantham||Red Nose Day 2011 telethon sketch|
|2013–2016||Sensitive Skin||Davina Jackson||Main role; 12 episodes|
|2016||The Witness for the Prosecution||Emily French||Miniseries; 2 episodes|
|2017||Modus||US President Helen Tyler||Season 2|
|2018–present||Tell Me a Story||Colleen Powell||Lead role|
Awards and nominationsEdit
|1982||Genie Award||Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role||Ticket to Heaven||Nominated|
|1991||Golden Raspberry Award||Worst Supporting Actress||The Bonfire of the Vanities||Nominated|
|1999||Women in Film Crystal + Lucy Award||Lucy Award (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon)||Sex and the City||Won|
|2000||Golden Globe Award||Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2000||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2001||Golden Globe Award||Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2001||Screen Actors Guild Award||Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon)||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2001||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2002||Screen Actors Guild Award||Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2002||Screen Actors Guild Award||Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon)||Sex and the City||Won|
|2002||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2003||Golden Globe Award||Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film||Sex and the City||Won|
|2003||Screen Actors Guild Award||Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2003||Screen Actors Guild Award||Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon)||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2003||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2004||Golden Satellite Award||Best Supporting Actress – Television Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2004||Golden Globe Award||Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2004||Screen Actors Guild Award||Sex and the City||Won|
|2004||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2005||Screen Actors Guild Award||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2006||Gemini Award||Best Host or Interviewer in a General/Human Interest or Talk Program or Series||Kim Cattrall: Sexual Intelligence||Nominated|
|2009||People's Choice Award||Favorite Cast (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis, Cynthia Nixon and Chris Noth)||Sex and the City||Nominated|
|2011||Golden Raspberry Award||Worst Actress (shared with Sarah Jessica Parker, Kristin Davis and Cynthia Nixon)||Sex and the City 2||Won|
|2011||Golden Raspberry Award||Worst Ensemble (shared with the entire Crew)||Sex and the City 2||Won|
|2011||GLAAD Media Award||Golden Gate Award||Won|
|2013||Canadian Screen Award||Best Performance in an Animated Program or Series||Producing Parker||Nominated|
|2015||International Emmy Award||Best Comedy Series||Sensitive Skin||Nominated|
|2017||Canadian Screen Award||Best Performance by an Actress in a Continuing Leading Comedic Role||Sensitive Skin||Nominated|
- "Index entry". FreeBMD. ONS. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
- "Sex And The City star Kim Cattrall: Why I'm so proud to be a Scouser". Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- England & Wales, Marriage Index, Jul–Aug–Sep 1953, Liverpool, Lancashire, 10d, 1172.
- "Happy Birthday Kim Cattrall!". London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. 23 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019.
- Altman, Mark A. (Summer 1992). "Hollywood's Most Voluptuous Vulcan". Femme Fatales. Vol. 1 no. 1. p. 41.
- "Kim Cattrall". Television Academy.
- "TV Guide: 50 sexiest stars of all-time". www.geocities.ws. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Bowers, Simon "The decline of the British cuppa", The Guardian, 27 September 2005.
- "Kim Cattrall ad too saucy for Kiwis". NineMSN. 21 July 2006. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- "The Stars Align at the 12th Annual Canada's Walk of Fame". Canada's Walk of Fame. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- "AiM Festival/AiM Biennale, Riad El Fenn, Marrakech :: Home". Aimbiennale.org. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Everyman and Playhouse Theatre, Liverpool – Everyman and Playhouse". Everymanplayhouse.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Antony and Cleopatra | Festival2012". Chichester Festival Theatre. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Shonagh Wilkie. "Kim Cattrall to receive Honorary Fellowship". Ljmu.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Kim Cattrall wrapped up in 'Private Lives'". Newsday. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Taylor, Paul. "Linda, Royal Court, London, review: Takedown of the beauty industry is only skin deep." Independent. 6 December 2015.
- Mulkerrins, Jane. "Kim Cattrall on insomnia: 'What I felt in spades was how alone I was'". The Telegraph. 8 June 2016.
- "Kim Cattrall returns to London stage in Linda". BBC News. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- "Kim Cattrall speaking German at the Life Ball 2008". Youtube.com. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "Bunte: Kim Cattrall in Interview" (in German). Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. - Catrall was in Frankfurt from 1982 to 1985.
- Gala: Kim Cattrall lived in Frankfurt with Andre J. Lyson in the 1980s.
- Kuczynski, Alex (27 January 2002). "SATC's Samantha & Husband Write Female Orgasm Book". New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "60 Minutes mixes up Margaret Trudeau and Kim Cattrall". Toronto Star. 6 March 2016.
- "Cattrall finds love with co-star". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "Kim Cattrall: You can take the girl out of Liverpool..." The Guardian. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- "CBC.ca | Q | Past Episodes Sept. 28, 2011". CBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Grimshaw, Sophy (October 2010). "Kim Cattrall: queen of parts". sophygrimshaw.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Rhys, Steffan (12 August 2009). "Sex And The City star Kim Cattrall's tragic roots". Western Mail. Trinity Mirror. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Kim Cattrall announces brother's death after earlier plea for information". BBC News. 4 February 2018.
- Otterson, Joe (23 May 2018). "Kim Cattrall to Star in CBS All Access Series 'Tell Me a Story'". Variety. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- King, Susan (26 February 2011). "The Razzie Awards: "The Last Airbender" is the best winner, er, loser". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved 6 March 2011.