Baroness Karen Christenze von Blixen-Finecke (born Dinesen; 17 April 1885 – 7 September 1962) was a Danish author who wrote works in Danish and English. She is best known under her pen names Isak Dinesen, used in English-speaking countries, and Tania Blixen, used in German-speaking countries. She also published works using the aliases Osceola and Pierre Andrézel.
Blixen in 1957
|Born||Karen Christenze Dinesen|
17 April 1885
Rungsted, Zealand, Denmark
|Died||7 September 1962 (aged 77)|
Rungsted, Zealand, Denmark
|Pen name||Isak Dinesen, Tania Blixen|
|Notable works||Out of Africa, Seven Gothic Tales, Shadows on the Grass, Babette's Feast|
Blixen is best known for Out of Africa, an account of her life while living in Kenya, and for one of her stories, Babette's Feast, both of which have been adapted into Academy Award-winning motion pictures. She is also noted, particularly in Denmark, for her Seven Gothic Tales.
Blixen was considered several times for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Karen Dinesen was born in the manor house of Rungstedlund, north of Copenhagen. Her father, Wilhelm Dinesen (1845–1895), was a writer and army officer from a family of Jutland landowners closely connected to the monarchy, the established church and conservative politics. Her mother, Ingeborg Westenholz (1856–1939), came from a wealthy Unitarian bourgeois merchant family. Karen Dinesen was the second oldest in a family of three sisters and two brothers. Her younger brother, Thomas Dinesen, grew up to earn the Victoria Cross in the First World War. Dinesen was known to her friends as "Tanne".
Dinesen's early years were strongly influenced by her father's relaxed manner and his love of the outdoor life. He also wrote throughout his life and his memoir, Boganis Jagtbreve (Letters from the Hunt) became a minor classic in Danish literature. From August 1872 to December 1873, Wilhelm had lived among the Chippewa Indians in Wisconsin, where he fathered a daughter. On returning to Denmark, he suffered from syphilis which resulted in bouts of deep depression. After conceiving a child out of wedlock with his maid Anna Rasmussen, he was devastated by breaking his promise to his mother-in-law to remain faithful to his wife. He hanged himself on 28 March 1895 when Karen was almost ten.
Karen Dinesen's life at Rungstedlund changed significantly after her father's death. From then on her life was dominated by her Westenholz family. Unlike her brothers, who attended school, she was educated at home by her maternal grandmother and by her aunt, Mary B. Westenholz, who brought her up in the staunch Unitarian tradition. Aunt Bess, as Westenholz was known to Dinesen, had a significant impact on her niece. They engaged in lively discussions and correspondence on women's rights and relationships between men and women.
During her early years, Dinesen spent part of her time at her mother's family home, the Mattrup seat farm near Horsens, while in later years there were visits to Folehavegård, an estate near Hørsholm that had belonged to her father's family. Longing for the freedom she had enjoyed when her father was alive, she was able to find some satisfaction in telling her younger sister Ellen hair-raising good-night stories, partly inspired by Danish folk tales and Icelandic sagas. In 1905, these led to her Grjotgard Ålvesøn og Aud in which her literary talent began to emerge. Around this time, she also published fiction in Danish periodicals under the pseudonym Osceola, the name of her father's dog, which she had often walked in her father's company.
In 1898, Dinesen and her two sisters spent a year in Switzerland, where she learned to speak French. In 1902, she attended Charlotte Sode's art school in Copenhagen before continuing her studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts under Viggo Johansen from 1903 to 1906. In her mid-twenties, she also visited Paris, London and Rome on study trips.
While still young, Dinesen spent many of her holidays with her paternal cousin's family, the Blixen-Fineckes, in Skåne in the south of Sweden. She first fell in love with the dashing equestrian Hans, but he did not reciprocate. She therefore decided to accept the favours of his twin brother, Baron Bror Blixen-Finecke, and they announced their engagement on 23 December 1912, to the family's surprise. Given the difficulties both were experiencing in settling in Denmark, the family suggested they should move abroad. Their common uncle, Aage Westenholz (1859–1935) who had made a fortune in Siam, suggested they should go to Kenya to start a coffee farm. He and his sister Ingeborg Dinesen invested 150,000 Danish crowns in the venture. Early in 1913, Bror Blixen-Finecke left for Kenya. He was followed by his fiancée in December.
Life in KenyaEdit
Soon after Dinesen arrived in Kenya, which at the time was part of British East Africa, she and Blixen were married in Mombasa on 14 January 1914. After her marriage, she became known as Baroness Blixen, and she used the title until her ex-husband remarried in 1929. Initially, Karen and Bror Blixen planned to raise cattle on their farm, but eventually they became convinced that coffee would be more profitable. The Karen Coffee Company was established by Aage Westerholz, who chose the name after his daughter Karen, Blixen's cousin, rather than to create an association with Karen Blixen. The couple soon established their first farm, M'Bagathi, in the Great Lakes area.
They quickly ran into difficulties caused by the outbreak of the First World War. Fighting between the Germans and the British in East Africa led to a shortage of workers and supplies. Nevertheless, in 1916, the Karen Coffee Company purchased a larger farm, M'Bogani, near the Ngong Hills to the south–west of Nairobi. The property covered 6,000 acres of land: 600 acres were used for a coffee plantation, 3,400 acres were used by the natives for grazing, and 2,000 acres of virgin forest were left untouched.
The land was not well-suited for coffee cultivation, given its high elevation. The couple hired local workers: most were Kikuyu who lived on the farmlands at the time of the couple's arrival, but there were also Wakamba, Kavirondo, Swahili and Masai. Initially, Bror Blixen-Finecke worked the farm, but it soon became evident that he had little interest in it and preferred to leave running the farm to Blixen while he went on safari. For the first time, English became the language she used daily. About the couple's early life in the African Great Lakes region, Karen Blixen later wrote,
Here at long last one was in a position not to give a damn for all conventions, here was a new kind of freedom which until then one had only found in dreams!
Karen Blixen and her husband were quite different in education and temperament, and Bror Blixen was unfaithful to his wife. She was diagnosed with syphilis toward the end of their first year of marriage in 1915. According to her biographer Judith Thurman, she contracted the disease from her husband. She returned to Denmark in June 1915 for treatment which proved successful. Although Blixen's illness was eventually cured (some uncertainty exists), it created medical anguish for years to come. By 1919, the marriage had run into serious difficulties, causing her husband to request a divorce in 1920. Against her wishes, the couple separated in 1921, and were officially divorced in 1925. Bror Blixen was dismissed as the farm manager by Aage Westenholz, chair of the Karen Coffee Company, and Karen Blixen took over its management in 1921.
In 1918, Karen Blixen met the English big game hunter Denys Finch Hatton (1887–1931), an English army officer from an upper-class background. He often travelled back and forth between Africa and England, and visited her occasionally. After her separation from her husband she and Finch Hatton developed a close friendship, which eventually became a long-term love affair. In a letter to her brother Thomas in 1924, she wrote: "I believe that for all time and eternity I am bound to Denys, to love the ground he walks upon, to be happy beyond words when he is here, and to suffer worse than death many times when he leaves..." But other letters in her collections show that the relationship was unstable, and that Blixen's increasing dependence upon Finch Hatton, who was intensely independent, was an issue.
Finch Hatton made Blixen's farmhouse his home base between 1926 and 1931. On safari with his clients, he died in the crash of his de Havilland Gipsy Moth biplane in March 1931. At the same time, the failure of the coffee plantation, as a result of mismanagement, the height of the farm, drought and the falling price of coffee caused by the worldwide economic depression, forced Blixen to abandon her beloved estate. The family corporation sold the land to a residential developer, and Blixen returned to Denmark in August 1931 to live with her mother. She remained in Rungstedlund for the rest of her life.
Life as a writerEdit
While still in Kenya, Blixen had written to her brother Thomas, "I have begun to do what we brothers and sisters do when we don't know what else to resort to, I have started to write a book. ... I have been writing in English because I thought it would be more profitable." On returning to Denmark, she continued writing in earnest. Though her first book, Seven Gothic Tales, was completed in 1933, she had difficulty finding a publisher and used her brother's contacts with Dorothy Canfield to help. The book was published in the United States in 1934 under the pseudonym Isak Dinesen, though the publisher refused to give Blixen an advance and discouraged the use of a pseudonym. When it was chosen as a Book-of-the-Month Club selection, sales skyrocketed. This first book, highly enigmatic and more metaphoric than Gothic, won wide recognition in the United States, and publication of the book in the United Kingdom and Denmark followed, though with difficulty. Unable to find a translator she was satisfied with, Blixen prepared the Danish versions herself, though they are not translations, but rather versions of the stories with differing details. Blixen's explanation for the difference was that she "very much wanted it to be published in Danish as an original Danish book, and not in any — no matter how good — translation". The Danish critics were not enthusiastic about the book and were annoyed, according to Blixen, that it had first been published abroad. Blixen never again published a book in English first. All her later books were either published first in Danish, or published simultaneously in Danish and English.
Her second book, now the best known of her works, Out of Africa, was published in 1937. Its success firmly established her reputation. Having learned from her previous experience, Blixen published the book first in Denmark and the United Kingdom, and then in the United States. Garnering another Book-of-the-Month Club choice, Blixen was assured of not only sales for this new work, but also renewed interest in Seven Gothic Tales. She was awarded the Tagea Brandt Rejselegat (a Danish prize for women in the arts or academic life) in 1939. The work brought attention from critics who were concerned not only with literary appraisal of the book, but also with defining Blixen's intentions and morality. Post-colonial criticism has linked her with contemporary British writers and in some cases branded her as just another morally bankrupt white European aristocrat. Danish scholars have not typically made judgments about her morality, perhaps understanding that while elements of racism and colonial prejudices, given the context and era, are inherent in the work, her position as an outsider, a Dane and a woman made evaluating her, rather than the work, more complex. Some critics, including Carolyn Martin Shaw and Raoul Granqvist, have judged her to be a racist and a white supremacist, while other critics, such as Abdul R. JanMohamed, have recognized both her romanticized colonial attitudes and her understanding of colonial problems, as well as her concern and respect for African nationalists.
Five years after the publication of Out of Africa, Blixen published a collection of short stories called Winter's Tales (1942; Danish: Vinter-eventyr). A departure from her previous Gothic works, the stories reflect the starkness of the times, occupation tinged with courage and pride, and hope for the future. The stories do not reflect resistance, but resilience, and explore the interdependence of opposites. She examines shame versus pride in "The Heroine", cowardice and courage in "The Pearls", master and servant in "The Invincible Slave-Owners", and life versus death as well as freedom versus imprisonment in "Peter and Rosa". In "Sorrow-acre", the best-known story of the collection, Blixen explores victimization and oppression. Because of the war, she had to be creative about getting the manuscript published, travelling to Stockholm and meeting with employees at both the American and British embassies. The Americans were unable to ship personal items, but the British embassy agreed, shipping the document to her publisher in the United States. Blixen did not receive further communication about Winter's Tales until after the war ended, when she received correspondence praising the stories from American troops who had read them in the Armed Services Editions during the conflict.
Blixen worked on a novel she called Albondocani for many years, hoping to produce a volume in the style of Les Hommes de bonne volonté by Jules Romains, with interwoven stories across several volumes. The main character, Harun al-Rashid, was taken from One Thousand and One Nights. She worked on several collections at once, categorizing them according to their themes and whether she thought they were mostly to make money or literary. She jumped between writing the collections of stories for Albondocani to Anecdotes of Destiny to New Gothic Tales and New Winter's Tales. Almost all of Blixen's tales from the 1940s and 1950s follow a traditional style of storytelling, weaving Gothic themes such as incest and murder with myth and bewitchment as a means of exploring identity, morality and philosophy. Most also take place against the background of the 19th century or earlier periods. Concerning her deliberately old-fashioned style, Blixen mentioned in several interviews that she wanted to express a spirit that no longer existed in modern times, one of being rather than doing. Her narratives hover between skillfully crafted illusion and romanticism, with a keen knowledge of the preferred tastes of her audience. Blixen crafted her English tales in a more direct manner and her Danish tales in a 19th-century writing style which she felt would appeal more to them. Because she simultaneously worked on different collections, works written in this period were not published until almost a decade after they were originally written.
During World War II, when Denmark was occupied by the Germans, Blixen started her only full-length novel, the introspective tale The Angelic Avengers, under another pseudonym, Pierre Andrezel. Though it was written in Danish, she claimed that it was a translation of a French work written between the wars and denied being its author. The book was published in 1944 and nominated for a third Book-of-the-Month Club selection. Blixen initially did not want the book to be nominated, but eventually accepted the distinction. The horrors experienced by the young heroines have been interpreted as an allegory of Nazism, though Blixen also denied that interpretation, claiming instead that the novel was a distraction that had helped her to escape the feeling of being imprisoned by the war. In 1956, in an interview for The Paris Review, she finally acknowledged that she was the author of the novel, saying that it was her "illegitimate child". Dorothy Canfield described "The Angelic Avengers" in her Book-of-the-Month Club News review as "of superlatively fine literary quality, written with distinction in an exquisite style".
A collection of stories, Last Tales (Danish: Sidste fortællinger) was published in 1957, followed in 1958 by the collection Anecdotes of Destiny (Danish: Skæbne-Anekdoter). Last Tales included seven stories that Blixen had intended to be parts of Albondocani. It also included sections called New Gothic Tales and New Winter's Tales. Blixen's concept of the art of the story is perhaps most directly expressed in the stories "The Blank Page" and "The Cardinal's First Tale" in Last Tales. These tales feature many innuendos, which Blixen employed to force her reader into participating in the creation of the story. She mixed obscure references with explicit observation. Her writing was not just a retelling of tales, however; it was a complex layering of clues and double entendres which force the reader to deduce Blixen's intent and draw conclusions. The story, for Blixen, was vital to expression: it gives a recitation of experience, and simultaneously a potential vision of the possible.
Blixen planned for Anecdotes of Destiny to be a final part of the Last Tales in 1953, but as she prepared all the stories, she decided to publish Anecdotes as a separate volume. She wanted both books to appear simultaneously, but because of publication issues Anecdotes was delayed for another year. The most famous tale from Anecdotes is "Babette's Feast", about a chef who spends her entire 10,000-franc lottery prize to prepare a final spectacular gourmet meal. The story evaluates relationships and examines whether the austere but charitable life led by the sisters, in adherence to an ideal, is less true to faith than the passionate gift from the heart of their housekeeper. The story was reproduced in a film directed and written by Gabriel Axel, which was released in 1987, and won the Best Foreign Film Oscar in 1988.
In 1959, Blixen made her only trip to the United States. It was an extended trip spanning from January to April, and while the purpose was to complete a series of educational films and discussions for the Ford Foundation and Encyclopædia Britannica, Blixen intended to enjoy herself. She was the feature of a Life Magazine article in the edition of 19 January 1959 and attended two Broadway openings. Feted by the well-to-do of New York society, Blixen was invited to dine with socialites Babe Paley and Gloria Vanderbilt. She was photographed by Richard Avedon and Cecil Beaton; the guest of John Steinbeck, who hosted a cocktail party in her honor; and serenaded by Maria Callas. Nobel laureate Pearl Buck and poets e. e. cummings and Marianne Moore came to see her, as well. When Blixen expressed a desire to meet Marilyn Monroe, the author Carson McCullers arranged a meeting with Monroe and her husband, the playwright Arthur Miller. Throughout the trip, Blixen played upon her crafted persona as a reclusive aristocrat and an outsider, but also that of an eccentric, who would eat only oysters and grapes, and drink only champagne. It was clear that she was ill, as it was reported that she was "frail" and "weighed 63 pounds" and she spent part of her time receiving "intravenous infusions".
After returning to Denmark, Blixen resumed working, despite severe illness, finishing the African sketches Shadows on the Grass in 1960. The last of her works published during her lifetime, it was awarded her fifth selection as a Book-of-the-Month. A return-to-Africa memoir, Shadows explores the stereotypes and labels of Europeans and Africans, concluding that "prejudices reveal more about the perceiver than the perceived". The book consists of four tales: "Shadows on the Grass", which focuses on her Somali servant Farah; "Faith is Revealed", which relays the importance of symbolism; "The Great Gesture", which depicts medical issues in her community; and "Echoes from the Hills", which evaluates her loneliness after leaving Africa and the tireless vigil her staff from Africa kept on her former home for many years.
Illness and deathEdit
When Blixen was diagnosed with syphilis, she was treated with mercury tablets. She took approximately 1 gram of mercury per day for almost a year according to some reports, while others show she did so for only a few months. She then spent time in Denmark for treatment and was given arsenic, which she continued to take in drop form as a treatment for the syphilis that she thought was the cause of her continued pain. Blixen had reported severe bouts of abdominal pain as early as 1921, while she was still in Kenya. Several well-known physicians and specialists of both internal medicine and neurology diagnosed her with third-stage chronic syphilis. Mogens Fog, who was Blixen's neurologist, thought that her gastric problems were attributable to syphilis, in spite of the fact that blood and spinal fluid tests were negative. By the time she left Africa, Blixen was suffering from anemia, had jaundice and had overused arsenic. As clumps of her hair had begun to fall out, she took to wearing hats and turbans.
Although it was widely believed that syphilis continued to plague Blixen throughout her lifetime, extensive tests were unable to reveal evidence of syphilis in her system after 1925. Her writing prowess suggests that she did not suffer from the mental degeneration of late stages of syphilis. She did suffer a mild permanent loss of sensation in her legs that could be attributed to use of the arsenic-based anti-syphilis drug salvarsan. Her gastric pain was often called "tropic dysentery", though no stool analyses were reported in her medical records. Concerned about gaining weight, Blixen took strong laxatives "during her whole adult life", which after years of misuse affected her digestive system. She also was a heavy smoker, which when combined with her minimal food intake led to her developing a peptic ulcer.
In 1946 and 1955 the neurosurgeon Eduard Busch performed a lumbar sympathectomy on Blixen's spinal cord, but her pain returned. In 1956 when she was diagnosed with the stomach ulcer, Professor Torben Knudtzon performed surgery at Copenhagen University Hospital, but by that time, she was in her seventies, and already in poor health. Over the next several years, she continued to suffer from dehydration and a lack of nutrition, which rendered her weak and led to four additional hospitalizations at the Central Hospital in Hillerød. Very late in her treatment, she finally confessed her use of laxatives to her doctors. The source of her abdominal problems remains unknown. A 1995 report published by the Danish physician, Kaare Weismann, concluded that the cause of her chronic pain and ailment was likely heavy metal poisoning. A 2002 report by Søgaard in the Danish Medical History Journal (Danish: Dansk Medicinhistorisk Årbog) attributed her misdiagnosis to a failure to communicate on both the part of Blixen and her doctors. As she didn't tell them about her laxative misuse, and the physicians believed they were fighting syphilis, akin to the AIDS epidemic in their era, each missed the opportunity for effective treatment. Both Erik Münster and Weismann also recognized the lapse in communication, as had Blixen been treated with penicillin, which was available by the 1950s, syphilis would have been able to be ruled out.
It is also known that Blixen suffered from panic attacks, because she described them in her book Out of Africa. In her analysis of Blixen's medical history, Donelson points out that Blixen wondered if her pain was psychosomatic and states that during Blixen's lifetime her illnesses were rumored to be fabricated. Her publisher indicated that Blixen's syphilis was a myth in private, but publicly, Blixen blamed syphilis for her chronic health issues. Donelson concluded: "Whatever her belief about her illness, the disease suited the artist's design for creating her own personal legend."
Unable to eat, Blixen died in 1962 at Rungstedlund, her family's estate, at the age of 77, apparently of malnutrition. Others attribute her weight loss and eventual death to anorexia nervosa.
Among Blixen's posthumously published works are: Ehrengard (1962), Carnival: Entertainments and Posthumous Tales (1977), Daguerreotypes, and Other Essays (1979) and Letters from Africa, 1914–31 (1981). In the late 1960s, Orson Welles planned an anthology of Dinesen's films, in which he intended to release "The Heroine", "The Deluge at Norderney", "A Country Tale", and "Full Moon". After a day of shooting film in Budapest on "The Heroine", the project was canceled because his financier went bankrupt. The Immortal Story was adapted to film in 1968 by Welles and released simultaneously on French television and in theaters. Welles later attempted to film The Dreamers, but only a few scenes were ever completed. In 1982, Emidio Greco directed an Italian film, Ehrengard, based upon Blixen's work of the same name, which was not released until 2002 due to financial complications.
Awards and honorsEdit
For her literary accomplishments, Blixen was awarded the Danish Holberg Medal in 1949, the Ingenio et Arti medal in 1950, granted the inaugural Hans Christian Andersen Scholarship of the Danish Writers Association in 1955 and received the Henrik Pontoppidan Memorial Foundation Grant in 1959. Peter Englund, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, described it as "a mistake" that Blixen was not awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature during the 1930s and when Hemingway won the prize in 1954, he stated that Bernard Berenson, Carl Sandburg and Blixen deserved the prize more than he did. Although never awarded the prize, she finished in third place behind Graham Greene in 1961, the year Ivo Andrić was awarded the prize. In 2012, the Nobel records were opened after 50 years and it was revealed that Blixen was among a shortlist of authors considered for the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature, along with John Steinbeck (the eventual winner), Robert Graves, Lawrence Durrell, and Jean Anouilh. Blixen became ineligible after dying in September of that year.
Blixen's former secretary and house manager, Clara Svendsen wrote a book, Notes about Karen Blixen (Danish: Notater om Karen Blixen) in 1974, which told of the transformation of the young woman who moved to Africa into the sophisticated writer. Giving personal anecdotes about Blixen's life, Svendsen focused on the private woman behind her public image. Blixen's great-nephew, Anders Westenholz, an accomplished writer himself, wrote two books about her and her works: Kraftens horn: myte og virkelighed i Karen Blixens liv (1982) (translated into English as The Power of Aries: myth and reality in Karen Blixen's life and republished in 1987) and Den glemte abe: mand og kvinde hos Karen Blixen (1985) (The Forgotten Ape: man and woman in Karen Blixen).
Karen Blixen's portrait was featured on the front of the Danish 50-krone banknote, 1997 series, from 7 May 1999 to 25 August 2005. She also featured on Danish postage stamps that were issued in 1980 and 1996. The Asteroid 3318 Blixen was named in her honor on her 100th birthday.
Blixen lived most of her life at the family estate Rungstedlund, which was acquired by her father in 1879. The property is located in Rungsted, 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of Copenhagen, Denmark's capital. The oldest parts of the estate date to 1680, and it had been operated as both an inn and a farm. Most of Blixen's writing was done in Ewald's Room, named after author Johannes Ewald.
In the 1940s, Blixen contemplated selling the estate due to the costs of running it, but the house became a haven for a group of young intellectuals, including Thorkild Bjørnvig, Frank Jæger, Erling Schroeder, among others, who found the house as intriguing as its occupant. They began using the property as a literary salon, which continued to be used by artists until 1991. Bjørnvig, who edited the journal Heretica also developed a close friendship with Blixen. The house was repaired and restored between 1958 and 1960 with a portion of the estate set aside as a bird sanctuary. After its restoration, the property was deeded to the Danish Literary Academy and became managed by the Rungstedlund Foundation, founded by Blixen and her siblings. It was opened to the public as a museum in 1991. In 2013 The Karen Blixen Museum joined the Nordic museum portal.
Karen Blixen Museum, NairobiEdit
When Blixen returned to Denmark in 1931, she sold her property to a developer, Remi Martin, who divided the land into 20 acre parcels. The Nairobi suburb that emerged on the land where Blixen farmed coffee is now named Karen. Blixen herself declared in her later writings that "the residential district of Karen" was "named after me". The family corporation that owned Blixen's farm was incorporated as the "Karen Coffee Company" and the house she lived in was built by the chairman of the board, Aage Westenholz, her uncle. Though Westenholz named the coffee company after his own daughter Karen and not Blixen, the developer of the suburb named the district after its famous author/farmer rather than the name of her company.
Changing hands several times, the original farmhouse occupied by Blixen was purchased by the Danish government and given to the Kenyan government in 1964 as an independence gift. The government established a college of nutrition on the site and then when the film Out of Africa was made in 1985, the college was acquired by the National Museums of Kenya. A year later, the Karen Blixen Museum was opened and features many of Blixen's own furnishings, which had been reacquired from Lady McMillan. McMillan had purchased them when Blixen left Africa. The museum house has been judged a significant cultural landmark, not only for its association with Blixen, but as a cultural representative of Kenya's European settlement, as well as a significant architectural style—the late 19th-century bungalow.
A considerable proportion of the Karen Blixen archive at the Royal Danish Library consists of the unpublished poems, plays and short stories Karen Dinesen wrote before she married and left for Africa. In her teens and early twenties, she probably spent much of her spare time practising the art of writing. It was only when she was 22 that she decided to publish some of her short stories in literary journals, adopting the pen name Osceola.
Some of these works were published posthumously, including tales previously removed from earlier collections and essays she wrote for various occasions.
- Eneboerne (The Hermits), August 1907, published in Danish in Tilskueren under the pen name Osceola)
- Pløjeren (The Ploughman), October 1907, published in Danish in Gads danske Magasin, under the name Osceola)
- Familien de Cats (The de Cats Family), January 1909, published in Danish in Tilskueren under the name Osceola)
- Sandhedens hævn – En marionetkomedie, May 1926, published in Danish in Tilskueren, under the name of Karen Blixen-Finecke; an English translation by Donald Hannah titled The Revenge of Truth: A Marionette Comedy was published in Performing Arts Journal in 1986
- Seven Gothic Tales (1934 in the United States, 1935 in Denmark)
- Out of Africa (1937 in Denmark and England, 1938 in the United States)
- Winter's Tales (1942)
- The Angelic Avengers (1946)
- Last Tales (1957)
- Anecdotes of Destiny (1958) (including Babette's Feast)
- Shadows on the Grass (1960 in England and Denmark, 1961 in the United States)
- Ehrengard (posthumous 1963, United States)
- Carnival: Entertainments and Posthumous Tales (posthumous 1977, United States)
- Daguerreotypes and Other Essays (posthumous 1979, United States)
- On Modern Marriage and Other Observations (posthumous 1986, United States)
- Letters from Africa, 1914–1931 (posthumous 1981, United States)
- Karen Blixen in Danmark: Breve 1931–1962 (posthumous 1996, Denmark)
- Karen Blixen i Afrika. En brevsamling, 1914–31 i IV bind (posthumous 2013, Denmark)
- Jørgensen & Juhl 2016.
- Engberg 2003.
- C. Brad Faught, 'The Great Dane and her hero brother', National Post, Toronto, 4 May 2002.
- Updike 1986, p. 1.
- Wivel 2013.
- Schmidt-Madsen 2012, pp. 18–23.
- Winther 2015.
- Bjerg 2014.
- Isaacson 1991, p. 319.
- Stambaugh 1998.
- Lorenzetti 1999.
- Karen Blixen Museet 2016.
- Hannah 1971, p. 207.
- Thurman 1983, p. 150.
- Wheeler 2010, p. 153.
- Encyclopædia Britannica 2016.
- Dinesen 1984, p. 419.
- Updike 1986, p. 2.
- Alexanderson 2008, p. 234.
- Jensen, #3 2010.
- Brantly 2013, p. 30.
- Brantly 2013, p. 44.
- Brantly 2013, pp. 36–37.
- Brantly 2013, p. 38.
- Welty 1994, p. 136.
- Whissen 1976, p. 58.
- Whissen 1976, p. 59.
- Whissen 1976, p. 60.
- Walter 1956.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 36.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 38.
- Power 2014.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 10.
- Stecher-Hansen 2006, p. 38.
- Henriksen 1967, p. 341.
- Behrendt 2012.
- Stecher-Hansen 2006, p. 37.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 30.
- Stecher-Hansen 2006, p. 33.
- Welty 1994, p. 137.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 37.
- Brantly 2002, pp. 160–163.
- Brantly 2002, p. 161.
- Scott 2009.
- Gagné 2008, pp. 226, 228.
- Kempley 1988.
- Gagné 2008, pp. 229–230.
- Gagné 2008, p. 232.
- Canby 1988.
- BBC News 2014.
- Brantly 2002, p. xv.
- The Bridgeport Post 1959, p. 39.
- The Standard-Sentinel 1959, p. 4.
- Life 1959, pp. 47–50.
- The Times 1959, p. 23.
- Maraniss 2012, p. 110.
- Knickerbocker 1959, p. 4.
- Donelson 2010.
- Rowe 1965, p. 9.
- The Gaffney Ledger 1959, p. 5.
- The Wilmington News-Journal 1959, p. 5.
- The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed 2015.
- Hall 1961, p. 21.
- Weismann 2007.
- Münster 2015.
- Søgaard 2002.
- Cullen 2008, p. 46.
- The New York Times 1962.
- Stuttaford 2007.
- Brantly 2002, p. 181.
- McBride 2013, p. 175.
- McBride 1996, p. xiii.
- McBride 2013, p. 315.
- La Repubblica 2012.
- Jensen, #1 2010.
- Jensen, #2 2010.
- Rising & Ritter 2010.
- Flood 2012.
- Flood 2013.
- Porte 1976, pp. 469–471.
- Hansen & Kynoch 2003, p. 158.
- Danmarks Nationalbank 2005, pp. 14–15.
- Literary Stamp Collecting 2012.
- Norbyhus 2010.
- Schmadel 2007, pp. 276–277.
- Fortune 2016.
- Bleecker 1998, pp. 1–2.
- Isaacson 1991, p. 321.
- Bleecker 1998, p. 2.
- National Museums of Kenya 2007.
- Dinesen 1989, p. 458.
- Thurman 1983, p. 141.
- Richards 2007, p. 38.
- The EastAfrican 2010.
- Det Kongelige Bibliotek 2015.
- Karen Blixen Museet 2015.
- Wilson 1991, p. 318.
- "Marionette Plays" 2016.
- Dinesen & Hannah 1986, pp. 107–127.
- Fall, John Updike; John Updike's New Novel, Roger's Version, Will Be Published In The (23 February 1986). "'SEVEN GOTHIC TALES': THE DIVINE SWANK OF ISAK DINESEN". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- Spurling, Hilary. "Book choice: Winter's Tales". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- THE ANGELIC AVENGERS by Isak Dinesen | Kirkus Reviews.
- LAST TALES by Isak Dinesen | PenguinRandomHouse.com.
- Curry 2012.
- "Shadows on the Grass by Isak Dinesen". www.penguin.co.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Ehrengard | Karen Blixen". Adelphi Edizioni (in Italian). Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- Daguerreotypes and Other Essays.
- Summary/Reviews: On modern marriage, and other observations /. www.buffalolib.org. St. Martin's Press. 1986. ISBN 9780312584436. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "The British Empire, Imperialism, Colonialism, Colonies". www.britishempire.co.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Karen Blixen i Afrika : en brevsamling, 1914–31 – Karen Blixen | bibliotek.dk". bibliotek.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- Alexanderson, Kris (2008). "Blixen, Karen". In Smith, Bonnie G. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History: 4 Volume Set. Volume 1: Abayomi-Czech Republic. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0-19-514890-9.
- Behrendt, Poul (5 September 2012). "Karen Blixen and Isak Dinesen: One woman, two authors". News KU. Copenhagen, Denmark: University of Copenhagen. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Bjerg, Hans Christian (28 May 2014). "Aage Westenholz". Dansk Biografisk Leksikon (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Bleecker, Arline (21 June 1998). "African Adventure In Denmark". Orlando, Florida: The Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Brantly, Susan (December 2013). Christiansen, Lene Bull; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten; Hansen, Nanna Kirstine Leets, eds. "Karen Blixen's Challenges to Postcolonial Criticism" (PDF). KULT Postkolonial Temaserie. Made in Denmark—Investigations of the Dispersal of “Danishness”. 11: 29–44. ISSN 1904-1594. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Brantly, Susan (2002). Understanding Isak Dinesen. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-428-2.
- Canby, Vincent (4 March 1988). "Film: 'Babette's Feast'". New York City, New York: The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Cullen, William R. (2008). Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac?: The Sociochemistry of an Element. Cambridge, England: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-363-7.
- Curry, Thomas J. (October 2012). "Babette's Feast and the Goodness of God". Journal of Religion & Film. 16 (2). ISSN 1092-1311. article 10.
- Dinesen, Isak (1984). Letters from Africa, 1914–1931. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-15311-7.
- Dinesen, Isak (1989). Out of Africa and Shadows on the grass (International Vintage ed.). New York, New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0679724759.
- Donelson, Linda (2010). "Karen Blixen's Medical History: A New Look". Karen Blixen. Iowa City, Iowa. Retrieved 25 December 2010. Excerpted from Donelson, Linda (1998). Out of Isak Dinesen in Africa. Iowa City, Iowa: Coulsong Press. ISBN 978-0-9643893-9-7.
- Dinesen, Isak; Hannah, Donald (translator) (1986). "The Revenge of Truth: A Marionette Comedy". Performing Arts Journal. 10 (2): 107–127. ISSN 0735-8393. JSTOR 3245622.
- Engberg, Charlotte (2003). "Karen Blixen (1885–1962)". Kvinfo (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Centre for Gender, Equality and Diversity. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Flood, Alison (5 January 2012). "JRR Tolkien's Nobel prize chances dashed by 'poor prose'". London, England: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013.
- Flood, Alison (3 January 2013). "Swedish Academy reopens controversy surrounding Steinbeck's Nobel prize". London, England: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013.
- Fortune, Bonnie (29 February 2016). "Aristocrat whose African tale charmed America and the Academy". Copenhagen, Denmark: The Copenhagen Post. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Gagné, Laurie Brands (Spring 2008). "The Artist as Peacemaker: "Babette's Feast" as a Narrative of Reconciliation". Renascence. 60 (3): 224–235. doi:10.5840/articledoi. ISSN 0034-4346. Retrieved 19 November 2016. – via EBSCO's Academic Search Complete (subscription required)
- Hall, Barbara Hodge (5 February 1961). "'Shadows in the Grass' Reveals Isak Dinesen's Masterful Touch". Anniston, Alabama: The Anniston Star. p. 21. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Hannah, Donald (1971). "Isak Dinesen" and Karen Blixen: the mask and the reality. New York, New York: Random House. ISBN 978-037-00011-4-2.
- Hansen, Frantz Leander; Kynoch, Gaye (translator) (2003). The Aristocratic Universe of Karen Blixen: Destiny and the Denial of Fate. Brighton, England: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-903900-33-8.
- Henriksen, Aage (March 1967). "A Portrait of Karen Blixen". Orbis Litterarum. 22 (1): 319–342. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0730.1967.tb00467.x. ISSN 1600-0730. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Isaacson, Lanae Hjortsvang (1991). "Isak Dinesen (a.k.a. Karen [Tanne] Christence Dinesen Blixen-Finecke)". In Wilson, Katharina M. An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. I: A-K. New York, New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8240-8547-6.
- Jensen, Niels (25 August 2010). "Dansk Forfatterforening" [Danish Writers Association Awards]. Litteraturpriser Denmark (in Danish). Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016. List of recipients. Self-published, but with references .
- Jensen, Niels (25 August 2010). "For videnskab og kunst medaljen Ingenio et arti: Frederik IXs tid (1947–1972)" [For science and art, the Ingenio et Arti medal: Frederik IX's time (1947–1972)]. Litteraturpriser Denmark (in Danish). Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010. List of recipients. Self-published, but with references .
- Jensen, Niels (25 August 2010). "Tagea Brandts Rejselegat" [Tagea Brandts Travel Scholarship]. Litteraturpriser Denmark (in Danish). Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016. List of recipients. Self-published, but with references .
- Jørgensen, Bo Hakon; Juhl, Marianne (1 August 2016). "Karen Blixen". Den Store Danske (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Jørgensen, Bo Hakon; Juhl, Marianne (1 August 2016). "Karen Blixen". Den Store Danske (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Kempley, Rita (8 April 1988). "'Babette's Feast'". Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Knickerbocker, Cholly (4 February 1959). "The Smart Set". Shamokin, Pennsylvania: The Shamokin News-Dispatch. p. 4. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lorenzetti, Linda Rice (1 September 1999). "'Out of Africa': Karen Blixen's coffee years". Tea & Coffee Trade Journal. ISSN 0040-0343. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2016 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
- Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Making of the Man. London, England: Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-0-85789-856-2.
- McBride, Joseph (1996). Orson Welles (Revised ed.). New York City, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80674-2.
- McBride, Joseph (2013). What Ever Happened to Orson Welles?: A Portrait of an Independent Career. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-4596-9.
- Münster, Erik (2015). "Karen Blixen Fejlbehandlet for Syfilis" [Karen Blixen Failed Treatment of Syphilis]. Sundheds Magasinet (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Porte, Michael (Autumn 1976). "Reviewed Work(s): Notater om Karen Blixen by Clara Svendsen". Scandinavian Studies. 48 (4): 469–472. ISSN 0036-5637. JSTOR 40917664.
- Power, Chris (20 May 2014). "A brief survey of the short story: Isak Dinesen". London, England: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Richards, Dave (2007). Kenya Travel Guide (5th ed.). London, England: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84537-879-0.
- Rising, Malin; Ritter, Karl (6 October 2010). "Poets buzzed about for Nobel literature prize". Washington, D.C.: The Washington Times. AP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011.
There were some prizes that went wrong, there were a number of people that the academy missed," Englund said. "This is not the Vatican of literature, we are not infallible in that way." Englund declined to name the prizes that he believed went wrong, but said it was a mistake to not give the prize to Danish author Karen Blixen, also known by her pen name, Isak Dinesen, who wrote Out of Africa about her life in Kenya in the early 1930s. Other famous writers who were not awarded the prize include Leo Tolstoy, Marcel Proust, James Joyce and Graham Greene.
- Rowe, Kaye (18 March 1965). "Book Recalls Presence of Writer Isak Dinesen". Brandon, Manitoba, Canada: The Brandon Sun. p. 9. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(3318) Blixen". Dictionary of minor planet names (5th rev. & enlarged ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 276–277. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_3319. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
- Schmidt-Madsen, Sune de Souza (2012). En lille bog om Blixen [A Small Book about Blixen] (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Lindhardt og Ringhof. ISBN 978-87-11-38035-2.
- Scott, Joanna (12 August 2009). "In the Theater of Isak Dinesen". New York City, New York: The Nation. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Søgaard, I. (2002). "Abstract: Karen Blixen and her physicians". Dansk Medicinhistorisk Arbog: 25–50. PMID 12561802.
- Stambaugh, Sara (28 October 1998). "Isak Dinesen in America". The Canadian Initiative for Nordic Studies. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Stecher-Hansen, Marianne (2006). "Picturing Karen Blixen—Artist, Charlatan, Heretic, and Iconoclast: European Storyteller in the American Marketplace" (PDF). The Bridge. 29 (2): 25–41. ISSN 0741-1200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Stuttaford, Thomas (20 September 2007). "Let's all go pear-shaped: In an age of obesity and anorexia it's vital to understand the best shape and composition for our bodies". The Times. London. (Subscription required (help)).
- Thurman, Judith (1983). Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller. New York, New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-43738-1.
- Updike, John (23 February 1986). "'Seven Gothic Tales': The Divine Swank of Isak Dinesen". New York City, New York: The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Walter, Eugene (Autumn 1956). "Isak Dinesen, The Art of Fiction". The Paris Review (14). ISSN 0031-2037. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Weismann, Kaare (8 September 2007). "Behandlingen gjorde Karen Blixen syg" [The treatment made Karen Blixen ill] (PDF) (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Berlingske. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Welty, Eudora (1994). McHaney, Pearl Amelia, ed. Eudora Welty, A Writer's Eye: Collected Book Reviews. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-60473-582-6.
- Wheeler, Sara (2010). Too Close To The Sun: The Life and Times of Denys Finch Hatton. New York, New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4070-5278-6.
- Whissen, Thomas (January 1976). "Without Fear: Isak Einesen's Winter Tales and Occupied Denmark". International Fiction Review. 3 (1): 57–61. ISSN 1911-186X. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Wilson, Katharina M. (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8240-8547-6.
- Winther, Tine Maria (21 March 2015). "Ukendt lillesøster kaster nyt lys over Karen Blixen" [Unknown sister sheds new light on Karen Blixen] (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Politiken. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Wivel, Ole (29 August 2013). "Karen Blixen". Dansk Biografisk Leksikon (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Babette's Feast director Gabriel Axel dies". London, England: BBC News. 10 February 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke (1885–1962)". Stamp Community. Literary Stamp Collecting. 19 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "Book Nook". Wilmington, Ohio: The Wilmington News-Journal. 12 January 1959. p. 5. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "50 Kroner" (PDF). The coins and banknotes of Denmark (2nd [1. oplag] ed.). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Nationalbank. 2005. ISBN 978-87-87251-55-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2006.
- "In the footsteps of Karen Blixen". Nairobi, Kenya: The EastAfrican. 2 November 2010. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- "Isak Dinesen". Britannica. London, England: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016 – via Encyclopædia Britannica. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Isak Dinesen". Encyclopedia. New York City, New York: Columbia University Press. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Isak Dinesen, Author, Is Dead; Noted for Her Gothic Fantasies; Danish Baroness, 77, Was Creator of Short Stories Set in Romantic Past". New York City, New York: The New York Times. 8 September 1962. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Isak Dinesen Comes to US to Make Educational Films". Bridgeport, Connecticut: The Bridgeport Post. 11 January 1959. p. 39. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Isak Dinesen Talks of Her Art". Hazelton, Pennsylvania: The Standard-Sentinel. 23 March 1959. p. 4. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Karen Blixen". National Museums of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- "Karen Blixen in Africa". Blixen Denmark. Rungsted Kyst, Denmark: Karen Blixen Museet. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Karen Blixen: Tidlige arbejder ("Familien de Cats" og "Sandhedens Hævn")" [Karen Blixen: Early Works ("The de Cats Family" and "Revenge of Truth")]. Det Kongelige Bibliotek (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Københavns Universitetsbibliotek. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "Marilyn Wiggles into the Literary Set". Gaffney, South Carolina: The Gaffney Ledger. 24 February 1959. p. 5. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Marionette Plays". Blixen Denmark. Rungsted Kyst, Denmark: Karen Blixen Museet. 2016. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "Morto Emidio Greco il regista con passione" [Death of Emidio Greco the director with passion] (in Italian). Rome, Italy: la Repubblica. 23 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "New Europe Stamps will be issued on 9 May 1996". Norbyhus. Cophenhagen, Denmark: Post Denmark, Stamps & Philately. 27 September 2010. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "Posthumous Publications". Blixen Denmark. Rungsted Kyst, Denmark: Karen Blixen Museet. 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Shed Real Tears". San Mateo, California: The Times. 6 February 1959. p. 23. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "A Tale-weaving sorcerous". Life. 46 (3). 19 January 1959. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karen Blixen.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Karen Blixen|
- Official website
- Works by Karen Blixen at Faded Page (Canada)
- Works by Karen Blixen at Open Library
- Works by or about Karen Blixen in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Petri Liukkonen. "Karen Blixen". Books and Writers
- Eugene Walter (Autumn 1956). "Isak Dinesen, The Art of Fiction No. 14". The Paris Review. Autumn 1956 (14).
- Stambaugh, Sara: Isak Dinesen in America, lecture at the University of Alberta, 28 October 1998
- Karen Blixen Museum, Denmark
- Karen Blixen Museum, Kenya
- Family genealogy
- A model of Karen's house in Rungstedlund in Google's 3D Warehouse, Denmark
- A model of Karen's farm near Nairobi in Google's 3D Warehouse, Kenya