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Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of the region. The Interstate generally follows the course of the Connecticut River. Its southern end is in New Haven, Connecticut,[2] at Interstate 95. The northern end of the American-maintained road is in the village of Derby Line, Vermont, at the Canadian border. I-91 then continues past the Derby Line-Rock Island Border Crossing, where the roads official name changes to Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states (the other two highways being I-89 and I-93) and is also the only primary (two-digit) Interstate Highway in New England to intersect all five of the others that run through the region. The largest cities along its route are New Haven, Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, Springfield, Massachusetts, Brattleboro, Vermont, White River Junction, Vermont, and St. Johnsbury, Vermont in order from south to north.

Interstate 91 marker

Interstate 91
I-91 highlighted in red
Route information
Length290.37 mi[1] (467.31 km)
Major junctions
South end I-95 / Conn. Turnpike / US 1 in New Haven, CT
 
North end A-55 at the Canadian border in Derby Line, VT
Location
StatesConnecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont
CountiesCT: New Haven, Middlesex, Hartford
MA: Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin
VT: Windham, Windsor, Orange, Caledonia, Orleans
Highway system
  • Routes in Connecticut
State highways in Vermont
Route 89CTRoute 94
I‑90MAI‑93
I-89VTI-93

Route descriptionEdit

Lengths
  mi[3][4] km
CT 58.00 93.34
MA 54.90 88.35
VT 177.43 285.55
Total 290.33 467.24

I-91 is 290 miles (470 km) long and travels nearly straight north and south: 58 miles (93 km) in Connecticut, 55 miles (89 km) in Massachusetts, and 177 miles (285 km) in Vermont. I-91 parallels U.S. Route 5 (US 5) for all of its length, and many of the exits along I-91 provide direct or indirect access to the older highway. Much of the route of I-91 follows the Connecticut River, traveling from Hartford, Connecticut, northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont.[5][6][7]

Beginning of I-91 in New Haven, CT
I-91 north at exit 32 (I-84 west) in Hartford
I-91 has an HOV Lane between Hartford and Windsor, CT
I-91 looking northbound in Brattleboro
Northbound I-91 just north of exit 6 in Rockingham, VT
Southbound I-91 in Wheelock, VT

ConnecticutEdit

I-91 is the major north–south transportation corridor for the center of the state. It is the main route between the larger cities of New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts. As such, it is almost always heavily trafficked (especially during rush hour), and maintains at least three lanes in each direction through Connecticut except for a short portion in Hartford at the interchange with I-84 and in Meriden at the interchange with Route 15. The three cities also serve as Connecticut's control points along its length of the Interstate.[8][9]

I-91 begins just east of downtown New Haven at an interchange with I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike), and Route 34. At the bottom of the ramp for exit 5, US 5 begins at the first of its many interchanges with the freeway.[10] Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek into North Haven, where it meets the southern end of the Route 40 expressway.[11] It travels through the eastern part of Wallingford before entering the eastern part of the city of Meriden. In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees a complex set of interchanges with the Wilbur Cross Parkway (Route 15), the Route 66 expressway, and its first spur route, I-691.[10] I-691 provides a westward link to I-84 and the city of Waterbury.[10] Leaving Meriden, I-91 enters Middlesex County as it briefly travels through the western part of Middletown before entering Cromwell, where it has an interchange with the Route 9 expressway.[12][13]

It then enters Hartford County in the town of Rocky Hill, and then enters Wethersfield, where it meets the southern end of the Route 3 expressway, which leads to Glastonbury and the Route 2 expressway via the Putnam Bridge over the Connecticut River. From here to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, I-91 parallels the river, never more than five miles (8.0 km) from its shore.[14] I-91 then enters the Hartford city limits. In Hartford, I-91 it has a set of interchanges with US 5/Route 15 (Wilbur Cross Highway), which provides access from I-91 north to I-84 east, and from I-84 west to I-91 south via the Charter Oak Bridge.[15] I-91 then has an interchange with I-84, where all other movements to and from I-84 take place. Before leaving the city limits, an HOV lane begins that has its own set of interchanges up to exit 38.[16]

I-91 then enters Windsor, where it meets the western end of its other Connecticut spur route, I-291. At the Windsor–Windsor Locks town line, it meets the eastern terminus of the Route 20 expressway, which provides direct access to Bradley International Airport.[9] A couple miles north, I-91 crosses the Connecticut River on the Dexter Coffin Bridge into East Windsor. After traveling through East Windsor and Enfield, it crosses the Massachusetts state line into Longmeadow at milepost 58.[10]

MassachusettsEdit

I-91 travels 55 miles (89 km) through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River.[17] I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield, Northampton, and Greenfield.[17] The three cities serve as the control cities listed on guide and mileage signs, along with Brattleboro, Vermont beginning with the first northbound conventional mileage sign (63 miles (101 km)) in Longmeadow.[3]

In Springfield, I-91 has an interchange with I-291 at exit 8, a 5.44-mile-long (8.75 km) spur going eastbound connecting with the Massachusetts Turnpike, for travelers going either east to Boston or west to Albany, New York.[18][19] North of Springfield, I-91 briefly enters Chicopee itself where there is an interchange with the spur of I-391 at exit 12 before turning westward to cross the Connecticut River into West Springfield. I-391 provides direct access to Holyoke center, while I-91 continues on the western side of the river.[13]

Just after the river crossing, exit 14 is a major interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) before entering the city of Holyoke where exit 15 is located. Just after exit 16 U.S. Route 202, I-91 goes from three lanes to two lanes in each direction to the Vermont state line.[13] After a short exit-less stretch, I-91 enters Northampton, passing the Northampton Airport and an oxbow lake. The towns of Hadley and Amherst, home to the main campus of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, are accessible from I-91 exits in Northampton via Route 9.[13]

Continuing north, I-91 enters Hatfield, and where it begins a straight section—nearly six miles (9.7 km) without a bend in the road. Several exits provide access to US 5 and Route 10 in Hatfield and Whately before entering Deerfield.[20] I-91 has two exits in Greenfield. At exit 26, there is a rest area/visitor information center for Franklin County.[21] Exit 28 in Bernardston is the last exit in Massachusetts. Beyond exit 28, I-91 continues for about five miles (8.0 km) more before crossing into Vermont.[3]

Massachusetts is the only state traversed by I-91 where another numbered highway is concurrent with the Interstate (in this case, US 5, for a one-half mile (800 m) spur near the Springfield-Longmeadow town line and Route 2, for approximately three miles (4.8 km) in Greenfield).[22]

VermontEdit

I-91 travels along the eastern border of Vermont and serves as a major transportation corridor for eastern Vermont and western New Hampshire. Many exits along Vermont's length of I-91 feature New Hampshire towns on the guide signs (for example, exit 3, which lists Brattleboro and Keene, as the points of access). The length of I-91 within Vermont is 177 miles (285 km) and has two lanes in each direction the entire way from the Massachusetts state line at Guilford to Derby Line at the Canadian border (nearly two-thirds of I-91's length) with 29 Vermont interchanges. The highway's rural character and long distances between exits in Vermont are in stark contrast to its south, where exits are more frequent and the road carries four lanes of traffic in each direction at some points. The major control cities in Vermont are Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport. When re-entering northbound I-91 at exit 28 in Derby, the control city sign is for Canada. Of these destinations, only Newport is a city, although the other towns are sizable. In general, the road parallels its predecessor, US 5.[23][24][25]

I-91 enters Vermont in the town of Guilford. Just before exit 1 in Brattleboro is the Vermont Welcome Center in Guilford. The first three Vermont exits (northbound) serve the town of Brattleboro. At exit 1, northbound Route 5 provides access to stores and a small industrial area before reaching the south end of the town's center, where a bridge crosses the Connecticut River into Hinsdale, New Hampshire via NH 119. Exit 2 (VT 9) provides access to the western village of the town (West Brattleboro), then continues west to Marlboro, Wilmington, and Bennington. Brattleboro's main retail strip is located at and just south of the exit 3 trumpet interchange and traffic circle. Following VT 9 eastward, one can reach Keene, New Hampshire in 15 miles (24 km).[26][27]

After exit 3, I-91 heads north to travel through the towns of Dummerston, Putney, Westminster, Rockingham, Springfield, Weathersfield, Windsor, Hartland, and Hartford, home of the village of White River Junction. White River Junction, listed as a control city on mileage signs as far south as Greenfield, Massachusetts, is where I-91 and I-89 meet and provide access to many points in Vermont and New Hampshire, at exit 10.[28]

North of the interchange with I-89, I-91 continues towards St. Johnsbury and travels through the towns of Norwich, Thetford, Fairlee, Bradford, Newbury (with access to the village of Wells River), Ryegate, Barnet, and Waterford, before coming to its next major intersection. Towns in New Hampshire on the other side of the river can also be easily accessed in this stretch. At exit 19 is the northern terminus of I-93, a major interstate highway in New England, which provides a direct route south through the White Mountains and to almost all major cities in New Hampshire. Just after exit 19, there are three exits for St. Johnsbury, including a major intersection with US 2. Along westbound US 2, the capital of Vermont, Montpelier, is eventually reached from I-91, although I-89 provides Montpelier with immediate Interstate access.[29][30]

I-91 continues northward, now following the Passumpsic River valley. It travels through Vermont's Northeast Kingdom region and the town of Lyndon. Two exits in Lyndon serve the village of Lyndonville and Lyndon State College. After exit 24, I-91 departs Route 5, which it had been closely paralleling since the Massachusetts state line. I-91 follows the valley of Miller Run,[31][a] and there are no convenient services until Barton at exit 25.[32]

The interstate proceeds through Sheffield. Here it reaches the highest point on the road, just north of mile marker 150 on Sheffield Heights, elevation 1,856 feet (566 m).[33]

After leaving the Heights, it enters Orleans County and follows the Barton River valley north with exits in Barton, Orleans, and Derby. Exit 29 is the final U.S. exit on I-91 just after mile marker 177 at Derby Line. Beyond the exit ramp, northbound motorists enter Canada Customs at Stanstead, Quebec, and continue into Canada on Autoroute 55 through the Eastern Townships.[34][27]

As with Connecticut and Massachusetts, US 5 closely parallels I-91 for their entire lengths in Vermont. While paralleling I-91 in Vermont, US 5 is never concurrent with the freeway, but remains its own two-lane road, except for a portion in White River Junction where it is a four-lane divided surface arterial.[35][36]

Traffic and the population of each successive town tend to diminish as the road proceeds northward. The average daily traffic count for 2015 in Vermont were—St. Johnsbury (34,000), Lyndon (17,900), Barton (13,500), and Derby (Canadian border) (10,300).[37]

HistoryEdit

A limited-access highway replacement for US 5 was planned at the federal level starting in 1944. A 1953 Massachusetts plan was funded by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, along with spur I-291 (but not I-391). The Vermont section of I-91 was built in stages from 1958 to 1965.[38] In Massachusetts from Bernardston to Northampton, I-91 follows an abandoned right-of-way of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. To support plans for urban renewal along the "low value" waterfront, the highway crossed the Connecticut River to parallel active NYNHH railroad tracks on the Springfield side of the river, bypassing West Springfield, Massachusetts and Agawam, Massachusetts. Later, this path was perceived as cutting off the city from the river, restricting further commercial development. By 1960, a few miles in Massachusetts were completed, starting from the Connecticut and Vermont state lines. Massachusetts construction was completed from 1960s to 1970.[39] In the 1970s there were plans to extend I-91 along the Long Island Sound link across from New Haven, Connecticut, to Long Island in New York.[40] The extension would have continued southward to the southern shore of the island perhaps along the route of the current William Floyd Parkway in central Suffolk County. It would also provide easier access to New York City via the Long Island Expressway, as well as to The Hamptons via Sunrise Highway (New York State Route 27). The various proposals for a bridge were dropped after a 1979 study of the concept.[41] Vermont completed its last sections of I-91 in 1978.[42]

Starting in the 1990s, several rest areas were downgraded in Vermont, increasing distances between facilities. In 2008, Vermont closed the Springfield–Rockingham rest areas because of suspected use by drug abusers. In 2009, the northbound rest area in Hartford was closed, creating a 90-mile (145 km) gap in on-highway facilities. At the present time, there exist two intermediate rest areas with facilities in each direction, in addition to a welcome center at each end of the state. Several parking areas remain open.[43]

In the early 1990s after the I-284 project was canceled, the exit 44 interchange in East Windsor, Connecticut, was altered as it was designed to be part of the freeway. After alterations, exit 44 connected to Route 5 for all traffic to get on and off. As a result, exit 43 was shut down and closed in that same time frame. Exit 43 was a northbound exit/southbound entrance on State Route 510/Main Street in East Windsor, which was about 1,050 feet (320 m) away from exit 44.

After the September 11 attacks, a seldom-staffed temporary border patrol checkpoint was installed near White River Junction, Vermont, about 100 miles (160 km) from the Canadian border.[44]

In 2005, the Massachusetts Highway Department completed a rebuild of on- and off-ramps in Springfield, to reduce accidents caused by weaving near the tightly spaced exits.[39]

FutureEdit

During its construction in the 1960s, I-91 sliced through three Springfield neighborhoods: the North End, Metro Center, and the South End. Widely regarded as positive progress at the time, by 2011, Springfield's portion of I-91 was perceived as disrupting the urban fabric of each riverfront neighborhood, while in effect amputating everything east of the highway—the majority of the city—from the Connecticut River, the Connecticut River Walk Park, and the Basketball Hall of Fame. However, I-91 was erected without tunnels, footbridges, and other paths leading to the riverfront, and thus continues to pose logistical problems for people getting to the riverfront, which in turn poses problems for businesses that would like to set up along Springfield's riverfront. The placement of I-91 has left Springfield's riverfront virtually undeveloped aside from the sliver of land surrounding the Basketball Hall of Fame.[45]

In 2010, the Urban Land Institute made recommendations for how Springfield might reconnect with its riverfront, suggesting the most cost-effective but also the most development-limiting strategy (constructing pathways beneath I-91). No decision has been reached regarding those recommendations.[46] As of 2011, academic and civic studies are still underway. Preliminary findings indicate that I-91's placement negatively impacts tourism in Springfield's Metro Center—the site of many of Springfield's historic, cultural, and entertainment venues. Springfield's most popular tourist attraction, the riverfront Basketball Hall of Fame, is separated from Metro Center by a 20-foot (6.1 m) stone wall, buttressing an elevated portion of the six-lane Interstate 91, and greatly discouraging travel between the two areas. Academic suggestions that involve the demolition of the current highway and moving it to a less obtrusive site in the city have been proposed, including the demolition of the highway and following the original path suggested, Riverdale Road, and, least obtrusive but still requiring a great deal of work, a plan to construct numerous walkways beneath the elevated highway to better integrate the neighborhoods with the waterfront despite the highway's presence.[47]

 
I-91 looking north in Downtown Hartford at the I-84 interchange. The Bulkeley Bridge is visible to the right.

Exit listEdit

All interchanges in Massachusetts were to be renumbered to milepost-based numbers under a project scheduled to start in 2016. However, this project has now been indefinitely postponed.[48][27]

StateCountyLocation[3][49]mi[3][4][50]kmExit[51]DestinationsNotes
ConnecticutNew HavenNew Haven0.000.00  I-95 south – New York CityExit 48 on (I-95) north
0.090.141MLK Boulevard (Route 34) – Downtown New HavenSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; eastern terminus of Route 34
  I-95 north – New LondonIncludes direct entrance ramp from Wooster Street / Franklin Street
0.631.012Hamilton StreetNorthbound exit only from I-95S entrance ramp
Southbound exit and northbound entrance only
0.99–
1.02
1.59–
1.64
3Trumbull StreetAdditional northbound entrance merge from State Street
1.302.094State StreetSouthbound exit only (via Humphrey Street)
1.332.145  US 5 (State Street) – Fair HavenNorthbound exit and southbound entrance only
1.44–
1.80
2.32–
2.90
6  US 5 / Willow Street / Blatchley AvenueLeft exit northbound; US 5 only appears on southbound signage
1.78–
2.15
2.86–
3.46
7Ferry Street – Fair HavenSouthbound exit and northbound entrance only
2.784.478   Route 17 (Middletown Avenue) / Route 80 – North Branford
North Haven4.817.749Montowese Avenue (SR 17)
6.6310.6710  Route 40 – Hamden, Cheshire, Mount CarmelAlso serves Quinnipiac University
7.7212.4211   US 5 / Route 22 – North HavenNorthbound exit and southbound entrance only
8.5813.8112  US 5 (Washington Avenue)
Wallingford10.9417.6113  US 5 – Wallingford, North HavenAccess to Wharton Brook State Park via Connector; left exit northbound
12.3019.7914  Route 150 (Woodhouse Avenue) – WallingfordNorthbound exit and southbound entrance only
13.2521.32  Route 150 / East Center Street (SR 738) – WallingfordSouthbound exit and northbound entrance only
16.0125.7715  Route 68 – Yalesville, Durham
Meriden19.2230.9316East Main StreetSouthbound exit from exit 17
18.8730.3717    Route 15 north (Berlin Turnpike) to I-691 / Route 66Northbound signage
19.7431.77  Route 15 south (Wilbur Cross Parkway) / East Main StreetSouthbound signage; no trucks allowed on Wilbur Cross Parkway
20.1132.3618   I-691 west / Route 66 east – Middlefield, Middletown, Meriden, WaterburyNorthbound exit serves Route 66 only; southbound exit serves I-691 only
20.7433.3819Baldwin Avenue / Preston AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance only
MiddlesexMiddletown23.1637.2720Country Club Road / Middle Street
Cromwell25.7441.4221  Route 372 – Cromwell, Berlin
27.28–
27.43
43.90–
44.14
22  Route 9 – New Britain, Middletown, Old SaybrookSigned as exits 22N (north) and 22S (south)
HartfordRocky Hill29.3947.3023  Route 3 – Rocky HillVia West Street (SSR 411)
31.6750.9724  Route 99 – Wethersfield, Rocky Hill
Wethersfield33.67–
33.76
54.19–
54.33
25N  Route 3 north – GlastonburySigned as exit 25 northbound; former proposed I-491 and part of proposed extension of former I-86
25S  Route 3 south – WethersfieldSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
34.1354.9326Old WethersfieldNorthbound exit part of exit 25
Hartford35.54–
36.51
57.20–
58.76
27  Brainard Road / Airport Road (SR 530) – Brainard AirportRamps shared with Route 15 exit 87; northbound access via entrance to Route 15 north to exit 89
35.9757.8928   US 5 / Route 15 south (Berlin Turnpike) – Wethersfield, NewingtonLeft entrance northbound; due to construction, northbound exit closed through 2021
36.9959.5329    US 5 / Route 15 north to I-84 east – East Hartford, BostonNorthbound exit and southbound left entrance
37.5560.4329ACapitol AreaVia Whitehead Highway (SR 598); left exit and entrance northbound; former proposed I-484
38.3461.7030   I-84 east / Route 2 – East Hartford, New LondonSouthbound left exit and northbound entrance; I-84 exits 51–52
38.1861.4431State StreetNo northbound exit
38.4761.9132A  I-84 west – WaterburyLeft exit northbound
32BTrumbull StreetNo entrance ramps
39.5563.65Leibert RoadSouthbound exit and northbound entrance for HOV only; southern terminus of HOV lanes
39.8664.1533Jennings Road
Windsor41.1466.2134  Route 159 (Windsor Avenue / North Main Street)
42.20–
42.22
67.91–
67.95
35  I-291 east – South Windsor, Manchester, Bissell Bridge
  Route 218 – Windsor, Bloomfield
Signed as exits 35A (I-291) and 35B (Route 218); exits 1-2B on I-291
42.2267.95  Route 218 – WindsorNorthbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only
43.5270.0436  Route 178 (Park Avenue) – Bloomfield
44.5071.6237  Route 305 (Bloomfield Avenue) – Windsor CenterAdditional northbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV lanes
45.9974.01  Route 75 – PoquonockNorthbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only
38  Route 75 / Day Hill Road – Poquonock, WindsorSplit into exits 38A (Route 75) and 38B (Day Hill Road) southbound
46.69–
46.98
75.14–
75.61
Northern terminus of HOV lanes
47.4476.3539&41Kennedy Road to Center StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
WindsorWindsor Locks line48.2277.6040   Route 20 – Bradley International Airport
Windsor Locks48.6278.2541&39Center StreetSouthbound exit only
49.5879.7942  To Route 159 – Windsor Locks
Connecticut River49.58–
49.90
79.79–
80.31
Dexter Coffin Bridge
East Windsor50.3381.0044  US 5 south – East Windsor
51.0982.2245  Route 140 – Warehouse Point, Ellington
Enfield52.7484.8846  US 5 (King Street)
55.5789.4347  Route 190 – Hazardville, Somers, SuffieldSigned as exits 47E (east) and 47W (west)
56.1090.2848  Route 220 (Elm Street) – Thompsonville
57.7392.9149  US 5 (Enfield Street) – Longmeadow, MA
 58.00
0.000
93.34
0.000
Connecticut–Massachusetts line
MassachusettsHampdenSpringfield3.8366.1731  US 5 south – Forest Park, LongmeadowSouthern terminus of US 5 concurrency; southbound exit and northbound entrance
3.6945.9452  Route 83 south – Forest Park, East LongmeadowNo southbound exit
4.1426.6663   US 5 north to Route 57 (Columbus Avenue) – West Springfield, AgawamNorthern terminus of US 5 concurrency
4.7227.5994  Route 83 south (Main Street) – East LongmeadowNo northbound entrance; northbound exit combined with exit 3
4.5687.3515Broad StreetNorthbound exit only
5.2538.4546Springfield Center (northbound)
Union Street (southbound)
Old exit 5 merged with exit 6
5.9899.6387Hall of Fame Avenue – Downtown SpringfieldSouthbound exit and Northbound entrance only
6.29510.1318    I‑291 / US 20 east to I‑90 / Mass Pike east – BostonI-90 only appears on northbound signage; I-291 exit 1
6.67710.7469   US 20 west / Route 20A east – West Springfield, WestfieldNo southbound exit to or southbound entrance from Route 20A
7.17211.54210Main Street – Chicopee, North SpringfieldNo southbound entrance; southbound exit combined with exit 11
7.48112.04011  US 20 west (Birnie Avenue) – West SpringfieldSouthbound exit and entrance only
Chicopee8.28913.34012  I‑391 north – Chicopee, HolyokeI-391 exit 1
West Springfield9.17714.76913A  US 5 north (Riverdale Street)
9.18414.78013B  US 5 south – West Springfield
West SpringfieldHolyoke line11.54718.58314  I‑90 / Mass Pike – Boston, Albany, New YorkExit 4 on I-90 / Massachusetts Turnpike
Holyoke12.39619.94915Lower Westfield Road – Ingleside
14.21822.88216  US 202 – Holyoke, South Hadley, Westfield
15.18824.44317  Route 141 – Holyoke, EasthamptonSigned as exit 17A (east) and exit 17B (west) northbound
HampshireNorthampton22.81636.71918  US 5 – Northampton, Easthampton
24.76039.84719  Route 9 – Northampton, AmherstNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
26.01641.86920    US 5 / Route 9 / Route 10 – Northampton, HadleySouthbound exit and northbound entrance
27.27743.89821   US 5 / Route 10 – Hatfield, Whately
Hatfield29.93848.18122   US 5 / Route 10 – North Hatfield, WhatelyNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
FranklinWhately32.30951.99623   US 5 / Route 10 – Whately, North HatfieldSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
34.70955.85924   US 5 / Route 10 – Deerfield, WhatelyNo northbound entrance
Deerfield35.89157.76125  Route 116 – Deerfield, ConwaySouthbound exit and northbound entrance
Greenfield43.01169.21926   Route 2 west / Route 2A east – Greenfield Center, North AdamsSouthern terminus of Route 2 concurrency; also serves John W. Olver Transit Center, Mass MoCA, Shelburne Falls, Bridge of Flowers
45.75273.63127  Route 2 east – BostonNorthern terminus of Route 2 concurrency; left exit and entry southbound
Bernardston50.36081.04728  Route 10 – Bernardston, NorthfieldSigned as exit 28A (north) and exit 28B (south) northbound
 54.90
0.000
88.35
0.000
Massachusetts–Vermont line
VermontWindhamBrattleboro7.48012.0381   US 5 to VT 142 – Brattleboro, GuilfordAlso serves Vernon and Hinsdale NH
9.09514.6372  VT 9 west – Brattleboro, BenningtonAlso serves Manchester via VT 30, Marlboro College, and Wilmington
11.55018.5883   US 5 / VT 9 east – Brattleboro, Keene NHAlso serves World Learning SIT Graduate Institute
Putney17.95228.8914  US 5 – PutneyAlso serves Landmark College
Town of Westminster28.61046.0435   To US 5 / VT 123 – Westminster, Bellows Falls, Walpole NH
Rockingham35.20056.6496   US 5 / VT 103 – Rockingham, Rutland, Bellows FallsAlso serves Chester and Ludlow
WindsorSpringfield41.69067.0947   US 5 / VT 11 – SpringfieldAlso serves Charlestown NH and the Fort at Number 4
Weathersfield51.37082.6728    VT 131 / US 5 / VT 12 – Ascutney, WindsorAlso serves Ludlow and Claremont NH
Hartland60.45097.2859   US 5 / VT 12 – Hartland, WindsorAlso serves Woodstock and Killington
Hartford69.810112.34810  I-89 – Concord NH, Barre, MontpelierSigned as exits 10B (southbound) and 10A (northbound); originally exits 10S and 10N respectively
70.200112.97611  US 5 – White River JunctionAlso serves VA Hospital
72.010115.88912  To US 5 – Wilder, White River Junction
Norwich74.830120.42713   US 5 / VT 10A – Norwich, Hanover NHAlso serves Montshire Museum of Science
OrangeThetford84.210135.52314   VT 113 to US 5 – ThetfordAlso serves Chelsea and Lyme NH
Fairlee91.540147.31915  US 5 – Fairlee, Orford NHAlso serves Lake Morey and Lake Fairlee
Bradford97.630157.12016   VT 25 to US 5 – Bradford, BarreAlso serves Newbury and Piermont
Town of Newbury110.340177.57517   US 302 to US 5 – Wells River, Woodsville NHAlso serves South Ryegate and Groton
CaledoniaBarnet120.450193.84518  To US 5 – Barnet, PeachamAlso serves West Barnet, Monroe NH, McIndoe Falls, and East Ryegate
WaterfordSt. Johnsbury line128.250206.39819  I-93 south – Littleton NH
St. Johnsbury128.890207.42820  US 5 – St. Johnsbury, Passumpsic
130.600210.18021  US 2 – St. Johnsbury, MontpelierAlso serves Danville and Hardwick
132.550213.31922  To US 5 – St. Johnsbury
Lyndon137.110220.65723   US 5 to VT 114 – Lyndonville, East BurkeAlso serves Lyndon State College
140.178225.59524    VT 122 to US 5 / VT 114 – Sheffield, Burke, LyndonvilleAlso serves Caledonia County Airport
OrleansBarton155.950250.97725   VT 16 to US 5 – Barton, GloverAlso serves Hardwick and Crystal Lake
BartonOrleans
Irasburg tripoint
161.410259.76426   US 5 / VT 58 – Orleans, IrasburgAlso serves Lake Willoughby and Jay
Derby170.060273.68527    VT 191 to US 5 / VT 105 – NewportAlso serves Lake Memphremagog
172.400277.45128   US 5 / VT 105 – Newport, Derby CenterAlso serves Seymour Lake and Lake Memphremagog
177.269285.28729  To US 5 – Derby LineLast exit in the United States
177.432285.549Derby Line–Rock Island Border Crossing
  A-55 north – CanadaContinuation into Quebec
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Miller Run feeds southeast into the Passumpsic River.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Federal Highway Administration (October 31, 2002). "Table 1: Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
  2. ^ Google (June 8, 2009). "New Haven, CT" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e Planning Division (2012). "Route Selection Page". Massachusetts Route Log Application. Massachusetts Department of Transportation. I-91 NB. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Policy, Planning and Intermodal Development Division Traffic Research Unit (May 2013). 2012 (Route Log) AADTs for State Highways (PDF). Montpelier: Vermont Agency of Transportation. pp. 4–5. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  5. ^ "Background Information on the Interstate". Town of Berlin, Connecticut. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  6. ^ Rogers, Barbara (2003). Massachusetts Off the Beaten Path: A Guide to Unique Places. Globe Pequot Press. Retrieved August 19, 2019 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Fodor's91 New England. Fodor's Travel Publications. 2003. p. 359. Retrieved August 19, 2019 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Boyle, Doe (2011). Fun with the Family Connecticut: Hundreds of Ideas for Day Trips with the Kids. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-6879-0. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ a b Bureau of Planning and Research (August 1984). I-91 Reconstruction from Hartford to Enfield; I-291 Construction from Windsor to Manchester: Environmental Impact Statement. [Wethersfield, CT]: [Connecticut Department of Transportation]. p. 49. OCLC 53099516. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ a b c d "Highway Log" (PDF). Connecticut Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  11. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation. "ConnDOT: Nighttime Installation of Rumble Strips on Route 40 in North Haven and Hamden and I-91 in Wallingford". Connecticut Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  12. ^ Google (August 10, 2018). "Route 9 Interchange" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "Interchanges" (PDF). ctps.org. Boston region Metropolitan Planning Organization. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  14. ^ "Interstate Route I-91 Corridor Planning Study" (PDF). pvpc.org. Pioneer Valley Planning Commission. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  15. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation. "Department of Transportation Event Detail". www.ct.gov. The State of Connecticut. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  16. ^ "I-84 HOV Lanes-Hartford, Connecticut – Advancing Mobility – Research – CMAQ – Air Quality – Environment – FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. The Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Olia, Maria (2013). Insiders' Guide to Massachusetts. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4930-0163-7. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Google Bools.
  18. ^ "I-91 Springfield viaduct project ahead of schedule". www.recorder.com. Greenfield Recorder. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  19. ^ Fay, Tony (April 8, 2016). "Cone Zone Alert: Interstate 91 Exit 8". WWLP. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  20. ^ Google (August 10, 2018). "I-91 to 40 Old State Rd" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  21. ^ "Service Plaza Locations". Mass.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  22. ^ "Concurrent Roads" (PDF). ctps.org. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  23. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "Interstate 91 in Vermont" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  24. ^ Tree, Christina; Foulds, Diane E. (2009). Explorer's Guide Vermont. The Countryman Press. ISBN 9780881508482. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  25. ^ Tree, Christina; Hamm, Christine; Imbrie, Katherine (2010). Explorer's Guide New Hampshire. The Countryman Press. ISBN 9780881508413. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  26. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "Vermont Border to Franklin Pierce Highway" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "Vermont I-91 Exits" (PDF). vtransmaps.vermont.gov. Vermont Transportation. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  28. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to I-91" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  29. ^ Halvorsen, Lisa; O'Brien, Pat Goudey; Tree, Christina (2018). Explorer's Guide Vermont (Fifteenth Edition). The Countryman Press. ISBN 9781682681671. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  30. ^ Google (August 13, 2019). "White River Junction to St. Johnsbury" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  31. ^ "Passumpsic River Valley" (PDF). dec.vermont.gov. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  32. ^ "Trucker's Exit Guide to Interstate 91" (PDF). truckerguide.com. Trucker Guide Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  33. ^ "Highest Elevation on I-91 - Sheffield, Vermont - Elevation Signs on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Waymarking. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  34. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to 1 Autoroute 55" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  35. ^ Inc, Fodor's Travel Publications (2004). Fodor's Where to Weekend Around Boston, 1st Edition. Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 197. ISBN 9781400013012. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  36. ^ Google (August 15, 2018). "I-91 to 1 Autoroute 55 Route 5 Parallel" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  37. ^ "Interstate 91 Traffic Statistics" (PDF). vtrans.vermont.gov. Vermont Agency of Transportation. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  38. ^ "Building of Vermont section". digital.vpr.net. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "I-91 Springfield: MassDOT answers your questions about Interstate 91 reconstruction". masslive.com. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  40. ^ Madden, Steve. "Spanning the Sound". Newsday. Archived from the original on July 10, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2015.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  41. ^ Stannard, Charles (May 14, 2002). "The Bridge That Never Was: Cable Flap Brings To Mind Sound-Crossing Controversy". Hartford Courant. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  42. ^ Division for Historic Preservation (n.d.). "Vermont History Timeline". HistoricVermont.org. Vermont Agency of Commerce and Community Development. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  43. ^ "Drugs, Sex Force Rest Stop Closure". Rutland Herald. Associated Press. December 10, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
  44. ^ American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont (n.d.). "Border Patrol Stops". American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont. Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  45. ^ The Republican Editorials (February 26, 2010). "Editorial: Tapping Potential of Springfield's Riverfront". MassLive. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  46. ^ Office of Planning and Economic Development (2008). "River's Landing Project". City of Springfield, MA. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  47. ^ Fay, Tony (January 29, 2016). "Long term solutions: What could become of I-91 in Springfield?". WWLP.com/news. WWLP News. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  48. ^ Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2015). "Bid Solicitation FAP# HSIP-002S(874) Exit Signage Conversion to Milepost-Based Numbering System along Various Interstates, Routes and the Lowell Connector". COMMBUYS. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  49. ^ Division of Policy, Planning and Intermodal Development. "General Highway Maps". Vermont Agency of Transportation. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  50. ^ Connecticut Department of Transportation Bureau of Policy and Planning Data Inventory and Statewide Coordination Division of Systems Information (December 31, 2014). Highway Log: Connecticut State Numbered Routes And Roads as of December 31, 2014 (PDF). Hartford: Connecticut Department of Transportation. pp. 163–172. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  51. ^ Massachusetts Department of Transportation (2014). "Exit Numbers and Names: Route I-91 (Longmeadow to Bernardston)". Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.

External linksEdit