Google Cloud Platform (GCP), offered by Google, is a suite of cloud computing services that provides a series of modular cloud services including computing, data storage, data analytics and machine learning, alongside a set of management tools. It runs on the same infrastructure that Google uses internally for its end-user products, such as Google Search, Gmail, and Google Docs, according to Verma, et.al. Registration requires a credit card or bank account details.
|Industry||Web service, cloud computing|
|Revenue||US$26.3 billion (2022)|
|Operating income||US$−2.97 billion (2022)|
|Launched||April 7, 2008|
In April 2008, Google announced App Engine, a platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers, which was the first cloud computing service from the company. The service became generally available in November 2011. Since the announcement of App Engine, Google added multiple cloud services to the platform.
Google Cloud Platform is a part of Google Cloud, which includes the Google Cloud Platform public cloud infrastructure, as well as Google Workspace (G Suite), enterprise versions of Android and ChromeOS, and application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine learning and enterprise mapping services.
Google lists over 100 products under the Google Cloud brand. Some of the key services are listed below.
- App Engine – Platform as a Service to deploy applications developed with Java, PHP, Node.js, Python, C#, .Net, Ruby and Go programming languages.
- Compute Engine – Infrastructure as a Service to run Microsoft Windows and Linux virtual machines.
- Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) or GKE on-prem offered as part of Anthos platform – Containers as a Service based on Kubernetes.
- Cloud Functions – Functions as a Service to run event-driven code written in Node.js, Java, Python, or Go.
- Cloud Run – Compute execution environment based on Knative. Offered as Cloud Run (fully managed) or as Cloud Run for Anthos. Currently supports GCP, AWS and VMware management.
Storage and databases edit
- Cloud Storage – Object storage with integrated edge caching to store unstructured data.
- Cloud SQL – Database as a Service based on MySQL, PostgreSQL and Microsoft SQL Server.
- Cloud Bigtable – Managed NoSQL database service.
- Cloud Spanner – Horizontally scalable, strongly consistent, relational database service.
- Cloud Datastore – NoSQL database for web and mobile applications.
- Persistent Disk – Block storage for Compute Engine virtual machines.
- Cloud Memorystore – Managed in-memory data store based on Redis and Memcached.
- Local SSD: High-performance, transient, local block storage.
- Filestore: High-performance file storage for Google Cloud users.
- AlloyDB: Fully managed PostgreSQL database service.
- Cloud Load Balancing – Software-defined, managed service for load balancing the traffic.
- Cloud Armor – Web application firewall to protect workloads from DDoS attacks.
- Cloud CDN – Content Delivery Network based on Google's globally distributed edge points of presence.
- Cloud Interconnect – Service to connect a data center with Google Cloud Platform
- Cloud DNS – Managed, authoritative DNS hosting service running on the same infrastructure as Google.
- Network Service Tiers – Option to choose Premium vs Standard network tier for higher-performing network.
Big data edit
- BigQuery – Scalable, managed enterprise data warehouse for analytics.
- Cloud Dataflow – Managed service based on Apache Beam for stream and batch data processing.
- Cloud Data Fusion – A managed ETL service based on the Open Source Cask Data Application Platform.
- Dataproc – Big data platform for running Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark jobs.
- Cloud Composer – Managed workflow orchestration service built on Apache Airflow.
- Cloud Datalab – Tool for data exploration, analysis, visualization and machine learning. This is a fully managed Jupyter Notebook service.
- Cloud Dataprep – Data service based on Trifacta to visually explore, clean, and prepare data for analysis.
- Cloud Pub/Sub – Scalable event ingestion service based on message queues.
- Cloud Data Studio – Business intelligence tool to visualize data through dashboards and reports.
- Looker – Business intelligence platform used to deliver value through real-time dashboards, integrated insights, and custom applications.
Cloud AI edit
- Cloud AutoML – Service to train and deploy custom machine learning models. As of September 2018, the service is in Beta.
- Cloud TPU – Accelerators used by Google to train machine learning models.
- Cloud Machine Learning Engine – Managed service for training and building machine learning models based on mainstream frameworks.
- Cloud Talent Solution (formerly Cloud Job Discovery) – Service based on Google's search and machine learning capabilities for the recruiting ecosystem.
- Dialogflow Enterprise – Development environment based on Google's machine learning for building conversational interfaces.
- Cloud Natural Language – Text analysis service based on Google Deep Learning models.
- Cloud Speech-to-Text – Speech to text conversion service based on machine learning.
- Cloud Text-to-Speech – Text to speech conversion service based on machine learning.
- Cloud Translation API – Service to dynamically translate between thousands of available language pairs.
- Cloud Vision API – Image analysis service based on machine learning.
- Cloud Video Intelligence – Video analysis service based on machine learning.
Management tools edit
- Operations suite (formerly Stackdriver ) – Monitoring, logging, tracing, and diagnostics for applications on Google Cloud Platform.
- Cloud Deployment Manager - Tool to deploy Google Cloud Platform resources defined in templates created in YAML, Python or Jinja2.
- Cloud Console – Web interface to manage Google Cloud Platform resources.
- Cloud Shell – Browser-based shell command-line access to manage Google Cloud Platform resources.
- Cloud Console Mobile App – Android and iOS application to manage Google Cloud Platform resources.
- Cloud APIs – APIs to programmatically access Google Cloud Platform resources
Identity and security edit
- Cloud Identity – Single sign-on (SSO) service based on SAML 2.0 and OpenID.
- Cloud IAM – Identity & Access Management (IAM) service for defining policies based on role-based access control.
- Cloud Identity-Aware Proxy – Service to control access to cloud applications running on Google Cloud Platform without using a VPN.
- Cloud Data Loss Prevention API – Service to automatically discover, classify, and redact sensitive data.
- Security Key Enforcement – Two-step verification service based on a security key.
- Cloud Key Management Service – Cloud-hosted key management service integrated with IAM and audit logging.
- Cloud Resource Manager – Service to manage resources by project, folder, and organization based on the hierarchy.
- Cloud Security Command Center – Security and data risk platform for data and services running in Google Cloud Platform.
- Cloud Security Scanner – Automated vulnerability scanning service for applications deployed in App Engine.
- Access Transparency – Near real-time audit logs providing visibility to Google Cloud Platform administrators.
- VPC Service Controls – Service to manage security perimeters for sensitive data in Google Cloud Platform services.
Internet of things (IoT) edit
- Cloud IoT Core – Secure device connection and management service for Internet of Things.
- Edge TPU – Purpose-built ASIC designed to run inference at the edge. As of September 2018, this product is in private beta.
- Cloud IoT Edge – Brings AI to the edge computing layer.
API platform edit
- Maps Platform – APIs for maps, routes, and places based on Google Maps.
- Apigee API Platform – Lifecycle management platform to design, secure, deploy, monitor, and scale APIs.
- API Monetization – Tool for API providers to create revenue models, reports, payment gateways, and developer portal integrations.
- Developer Portal – Self-service platform for developers to publish and manage APIs.
- API Analytics – Service to analyze API-driven programs through monitoring, measuring, and managing APIs.
- Apigee Sense – Enables API security by identifying and alerting administrators to suspicious API behaviors.
- Cloud Endpoints – An NGINX-based proxy to deploy and manage APIs.
- Service Infrastructure – A set of foundational services for building Google Cloud products.
Regions and zones edit
A region is a specific geographical location where users can deploy cloud resources. Each region is an independent geographic area that consists of zones.
A zone is a deployment area for Google Cloud Platform resources within a region. Zones should be considered a single failure domain within a region. Most regions have three or more zones.
As of Q3 2023[update], Google Cloud Platform is available in 39 regions and 118 zones. This is a list of those regions and zones:
|Region Name||Launch Date||Location||Zones|
|us-west1||Q3, 2016||The Dalles, Oregon, US||
|us-west2||Q3, 2018||Los Angeles, California, US||
|us-west3||Q1, 2020||Salt Lake City, Utah, US||
|us-west4||Q2, 2020||Las Vegas, Nevada, US||
|us-central1||Council Bluffs, Iowa, US||
|us-east1||Q4, 2015||Moncks Corner, South Carolina, US||
|us-east4||Q2, 2017||Ashburn, Virginia, US||
|us-east5||Q2, 2022||Columbus, Ohio, USA||
|us-south1||Q2, 2022||Dallas, Texas, US||
|northamerica-northeast1||Q1, 2018||Montréal, Canada||
|northamerica-northeast2||Q3, 2021||Toronto, Canada||
|southamerica-east1||Q3, 2017||São Paulo, Brazil||
|southamerica-west1||Q3, 2021||Santiago, Chile||
|europe-west1||St. Ghislain, Belgium||
|europe-west2||Q2, 2017||London, UK||
|europe-west3||Q3, 2017||Frankfurt, Germany||
|europe-west4||Q1, 2018||Eemshaven, Netherlands||
|europe-west6||Q1, 2019||Zurich, Switzerland||
|europe-west8||Q2, 2022||Milan, Italy||
|europe-west9||Q2, 2022||Paris, France||
|europe-west10||Q3, 2023||Berlin, Germany||
|europe-west12||Q1, 2023||Turin, Italy||
|europe-central2||Q2, 2021||Warsaw, Poland||
|europe-north1||Q2, 2018||Hamina, Finland||
|europe-southwest1||Q2, 2022||Madrid, Spain||
|me-west1||Q4, 2022||Tel Aviv, Israel||
|me-central1||Q2, 2023||Doha, Qatar||
|asia-south1||Q4, 2017||Mumbai, India||
|asia-south2||Q2, 2021||Delhi, India||
|asia-southeast1||Q2, 2017||Jurong West, Singapore||
|asia-southeast2||Q2, 2020||Jakarta, Indonesia||
|asia-east2||Q3, 2018||Hong Kong||
|asia-east1||Changhua County, Taiwan||
|asia-northeast1||Q4, 2016||Tokyo, Japan||
|asia-northeast2||Q2, 2019||Osaka, Japan||
|asia-northeast3||Q1, 2020||Seoul, Korea||
|australia-southeast1||Q3, 2017||Sydney, Australia||
|australia-southeast2||Q2, 2021||Melbourne, Australia||
Similarity to services by other cloud service providers edit
For those familiar with other notable cloud service providers, a comparison of similar services may be helpful in understanding Google Cloud Platform's offerings.
|Google Cloud Platform||Amazon Web Services||Microsoft Azure||Oracle Cloud|
|Google Compute Engine||Amazon EC2||Azure Virtual Machines||Oracle Cloud Infra OCI|
|Google App Engine||AWS Elastic Beanstalk||Azure App Services||Oracle Application Container|
|Google Kubernetes Engine||Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service||Azure Kubernetes Service||Oracle Kubernetes Service|
|Google Cloud Bigtable||Amazon DynamoDB||Azure Cosmos DB||Oracle NoSQL Database|
|Google BigQuery||Amazon Redshift||Azure Synapse Analytics||Oracle Autonomous Data Warehouse|
|Google Cloud Functions||AWS Lambda||Azure Functions||Oracle Cloud Fn|
|Google Cloud Datastore||Amazon DynamoDB||Azure Cosmos DB||Oracle NoSQL Database|
|Google Cloud Storage||Amazon S3||Azure Blob Storage||Oracle Cloud Storage OCI|
- April 2008 – Google App Engine announced in preview
- May 2010 – Google Cloud Storage launched
- May 2010 – Google BigQuery and Prediction API announced in preview
- October 2011 – Google Cloud SQL is announced in preview
- June 2012 – Google Compute Engine is launched in preview
- May 2013 – Google Compute Engine is released to GA
- August 2013 - Cloud Storage begins automatically encrypting each Storage object's data and metadata under the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128), and each encryption key is itself encrypted with a regularly rotated set of master keys
- February 2014 – Google Cloud SQL becomes GA
- May 2014 – Stackdriver is acquired by Google
- June 2014 – Kubernetes is announced as an open source container manager
- June 2014 – Cloud Dataflow is announced in preview
- October 2014 – Google acquires Firebase
- November 2014 – Alpha release Google Kubernetes Engine (formerly Container Engine) is announced
- January 2015 – Google Cloud Monitoring based on Stackdriver goes into Beta
- March 2015 – Google Cloud Pub/Sub becomes available in Beta
- April 2015 – Google Cloud DNS becomes generally available
- April 2015 – Google Dataflow launched in beta
- July 2015 – Google releases v1 of Kubernetes; Hands it over to The Cloud Native Computing Foundation
- August 2015 – Google Cloud Dataflow, Google Cloud Pub/Sub, Google Kubernetes Engine, and Deployment Manager graduate to GA
- November 2015 – Bebop is acquired, and Diane Greene joins Google
- February 2016 – Google Cloud Functions becomes available in Alpha
- September 2016 – Apigee, a provider of application programming interface (API) management company, is acquired by Google
- September 2016 – Stackdriver becomes generally available
- November 2016 – Qwiklabs, an EdTech company is acquired by Google
- February 2017 – Cloud Spanner, highly available, globally-distributed database is released into Beta
- March 2017 – Google acquires Kaggle, world's largest community of data scientists and machine learning enthusiasts
- April 2017 – MIT professor Andrew Sutherland breaks the record for the largest ever Compute Engine cluster with 220,000 cores on Preemptible VMs.
- May 2017 – Google Cloud IoT Core is launched in Beta
- November 2017 – Google Kubernetes Engine gets certified by the CNCF
- February 2018 – Google Cloud IoT Core becomes generally available
- February 2018 – Google announces its intent to acquire Xively
- February 2018 – Cloud TPUs, ML accelerators for Tensorflow, become available in Beta
- May 2018 – Gartner names Google as a Leader in the 2018 Gartner Infrastructure as a Service Magic Quadrant
- May 2018 – Google Cloud Memorystore becomes available in Beta
- April 2019 – Google Cloud Run (fully managed) Beta release
- April 2019 – Google Anthos announced
- November 2019 – Google Cloud Run (fully managed) General availability release
- March 2020 – Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Google Cloud postponed the online streaming version of its Google Cloud Next mega-conference, two weeks after it canceled the in-person version.
- October 2020 – Google Cloud announced that it will become a block producer candidate for the EOS network and EOS.IO protocol. Currently the top block producers are cryptocurrency exchanges like OKEx and Binance.
- February 2021 – Google Kubernetes Engine Autopilot introduced. 
- May 2021 – Vertex AI announced at Google.io 
- April 2022 – MobiledgeX acquired and joins Google Cloud.
- March 2023 – Google brings generative AI capabilities to Google Cloud.
Public Customers edit
See also edit
- "Alphabet Inc. 2022 Annual Form 10-K Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 3, 2023. Archived from the original on March 17, 2023. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
- "Google Cloud Products". Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Verma, Abhishek; Pedrosa, Luis; Korupolu, Madhukar; Oppenheimer, David; Tune, Eric; Wilkes, John (April 17, 2015). "Large-scale cluster management at Google with Borg". Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer Systems. Article 18, sec. 2.1 (p. 1), sec. 6.1 (p. 11). doi:10.1145/2741948.2741964. ISBN 9781450332385.
- "Google Cloud Free Tier – Google Cloud Platform Free Tier". Google Cloud.
- "Google Doubles Down on Enterprise by Re-Branding Its Cloud". Fortune. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Making hybrid- and multi-cloud computing a reality". Google Cloud Blog.
- "Running Anthos on-premises". Google Cloud.
- "Knative". Knative.
- "Cloud Run". Google Cloud.
- "Anthos technical overview". [Google Cloud]. December 16, 2020. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "As the data rush continues Google opens up massive Bigtable database to all". Fortune. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Weinberger, Matt. "Google is turning a key technology into a weapon in its cloud war with Amazon and Microsoft". Business Insider. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Gallagher, Sean (May 16, 2013). "Google wants your WordPress blog—and everything else—in its cloud". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- "Google Cloud Platform Gets SSD Persistent Disks And HTTP Load Balancing". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Condon, Stephanie. "Google rolls out Memorystore for Memcached in beta". ZDNet. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Bednarz, Ann (June 29, 2018). "Google cloud storage gets a boost with managed NAS service". Network World. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Lardinois, Frederic. "Google Cloud launches AlloyDB, a new fully managed PostgreSQL database service". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
- "Google BigQuery: Self-service cloud data analysis, from your iPad or desktop". ZDNet. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google Opens Cloud Dataflow To All Developers, Launches European Zone For BigQuery". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Cloud Data Fusion". Google Cloud. Retrieved December 21, 2022.
- "Google Launches Cloud Dataproc, A Managed Spark And Hadoop Big Data Service". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google launches Cloud Composer, a new workflow automation tool for developers". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google Launches Cloud Datalab, An Interactive Tool For Exploring And Visualizing Data". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google launches Cloud Dataprep, an embedded version of Trifacta". VentureBeat. March 9, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google's Cloud Pub/Sub Real-Time Messaging Service Is Now In Public Beta". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Frank, Blair Hanley (May 26, 2016). "Google goes after Microsoft, Tableau and others with a free analytics tool". Computerworld. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Ghoshal, Anirban (October 19, 2021). "Google Cloud tools aim to ease machine-learning, cross-cloud analytics". InfoWorld.
- Goodison, Donna (June 23, 2022). "Thomas Kurian remade Google Cloud into an enterprise-first company. Customers and partners approve". Protocol.
- Novet, Jordan (January 17, 2018). "Google hopes to draw more cloud customers by making A.I. easier to use". CNBC. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Freund, Karl (May 26, 2016). "Google's TPU Chip Creates More Questions Than Answers". Forbes. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google launches new machine learning platform". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Developers can now use Google's Cloud Talent Solution to power job searches". VentureBeat. August 16, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google's Dialogflow Enterprise helps businesses create AI-powered chatbots". TechRepublic. April 17, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google Launches Cloud Natural Language API". InfoQ. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Li, Abner (July 20, 2016). "Google Natural Language and Speech APIs enter beta, West Coast Cloud Region opens". 9to5Google. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Vincent, James (March 27, 2018). "Google launches more realistic text-to-speech service powered by DeepMind's AI". The Verge. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Launch of Google Cloud Vision Revolutionizes How Machines See". Futurism. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "Google's Video Intelligence API can recognise objects in a video". The Indian Express. March 9, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- "What is Google Cloud Operations? (Formerly Stackdriver)". TechTarget. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Gonzalez, Jose Ugia; Krishnan, S. P. T. (June 15, 2015). Building Your Next Big Thing with Google Cloud Platform: A Guide for Developers and Enterprise Architects. Apress. ISBN 978-1-4842-1004-8.
- "Map AWS services to Google Cloud Platform products". Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Map Microsoft Azure services to Google Cloud Platform products". Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Service Mapping". Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Introducing Google App Engine + our new blog". Google App Engine Blog. April 7, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Storage for Developers: A Preview – The official Google Code blog". Google Storage for Developers. May 19, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Cloud SQL: your database in the cloud – The official Google Code blog". Google Cloud SQL. October 6, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Compute Engine launches, expanding Google's cloud offerings". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Compute Engine is now Generally Available with expanded OS support, transparent maintenance, and lower prices". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Cloud Storage Launches Automatic Server-Side Encryption For All Files". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Cloud SQL now Generally Available with an SLA, 500GB databases, and encryption". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Acquires Cloud Monitoring Service Stackdriver". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "An update on container support on Google Cloud Platform". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Sneak peek: Google Cloud Dataflow, a Cloud-native data processing service". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Acquires Firebase To Help Developers Build Better Real-Time Apps". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Unleashing Containers and Kubernetes with Google Container Engine". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google's Stackdriver-Based Cloud Monitoring Now in Beta". Data Center Knowledge. January 14, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google's Cloud Pub/Sub Real-Time Messaging Service Is Now In Public Beta". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Cloud DNS, VPN, HTTPS load balancing ... Google looks at rivals, thinks: Yeah, we'll do all that". Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Opens Cloud Dataflow To All Developers, Launches European Zone For BigQuery". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Container Engine is Generally Available". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google paid $380M to buy Bebop, executive Diane Greene donating her $148M share". VentureBeat. January 4, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- MSV, Janakiram. "Google Brings Serverless Computing To Its Cloud Platform". Forbes. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google will acquire Apigee for $625 million". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google Stackdriver Hits General Availability". Channel Futures. October 20, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google acquires Qwiklabs". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Introducing Cloud Spanner: a global database service for mission-critical applications". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Welcome Kaggle to Google Cloud". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "220,000 cores and counting: MIT math professor breaks record for largest ever Compute Engine job". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Introducing Google Cloud IoT Core: for securely connecting and managing IoT devices at scale". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Introducing Certified Kubernetes (and Google Kubernetes Engine!)". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "The thing is . . . Cloud IoT Core is now generally available". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Google to acquire Xively IoT platform from LogMeIn for $50M". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- Gagliordi, Natalie. "Google releases Cloud TPU beta, GPU support for Kubernetes". ZDNet. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Magic Quadrant for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service, Worldwide". www.gartner.com. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Introducing Cloud Memorystore: A fully managed in-memory data store service for Redis". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Announcing Cloud Run, the newest member of our serverless compute stack". Google Cloud Blog.
- MSV, Janakiram. "Everything You Want To Know About Anthos – Google's Hybrid And Multi-Cloud Platform". Forbes.
- "Knative-based Cloud Run services are GA". Google Cloud Blog.
- "Google Cloud is indefinitely postponing the digital version of its cancelled conference as coronavirus continues to spread". Business Insider. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "EOS Block Producer". Google Cloud. October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- "Google Cloud Joins Forces With EOS". Forbes. October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- "Google Cloud Platform timeline - wikieduonline". www.wikieduonline.com.
- "Introducing GKE Autopilot". Google Cloud Blog.
- Vizard, Mike (May 25, 2021). "Google Makes Case for Managing AI Models". IT Business Edge (ITBE). Retrieved January 13, 2023.
- Maistre, Ray Le (April 29, 2022). "MobiledgeX acquired by Google". TelecomTV. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
- "The next generation of AI for developers and Google Workspace". March 14, 2023.
- "Kingfisher Chooses Google Cloud as Catalyst for Growth and Innovation". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "The Government of Kuwait Selects Google Cloud to Commence Nationwide Digital Transformation Roadmap". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "Deutsche Börse Group and Google Cloud Announce Strategic Partnership to Accelerate Innovation". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "Unity and Google Deepen Collaboration to Accelerate Game Developer Success". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "Google and Uber Deepen Partnership to Reimagine the Customer Experience - Feb 13, 2023". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "FanCode and Google Cloud Collaborate to Transform the Live Sports Viewing Experience for Users Across South Asia". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
- "Mercedes-Benz and Google Join Forces to Create Next-Generation Navigation Experience". Google Cloud Press Corner. Retrieved April 21, 2023.