Football at the 1920 Summer Olympics

Football was one of the 154 events at the 1920 Summer Olympics, held in Antwerp, Belgium. It was the fifth time association football was on the Olympic schedule. The tournament was expanded to 14 countries, including a non-European nation (Egypt) for the first time.[1]

1920 Men's Olympic Football Tournament
Olympic rings without rims.svg
Tournament details
Host countryBelgium
Dates28 August – 5 September 1920
Teams15 (from 2 confederations)
Venue(s)4 (in 3 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Belgium (1st title)
Runners-up Spain
Third place Netherlands
Fourth place Italy
Tournament statistics
Matches played17
Goals scored70 (4.12 per match)
Attendance150,600 (8,859 per match)
Top scorer(s)Sweden Herbert Carlsson
(7 goals)
1912
1924

As these were the first Olympics after World War I, Central Power countries involved in the conflict (Germany, Austria, Hungary, and their allies Bulgaria and Turkey) were not invited. The English FA had withdrawn from FIFA (together with the associations of the other UK nations, Scotland, Ireland and Wales) after their demand that the federations of Germany, Austria and Hungary be excluded had been rejected. FIFA nevertheless accepted the entry of a Great Britain football team, judging that countries entering the Olympic Games in other sports should not be hindered from entering the football tournament.[2]

However, the gold medalists of the previous two Olympic football tournaments would not enjoy their participation long, as they were defeated 1–3 in the first round by Norway, who thus celebrated one of their iconic victories (to be followed by the elimination of Nazi Germany at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, the 1993 win over England in World Cup qualifying, and the 2–1 defeat of reigning world champions Brazil at the 1998 World Cup).

The final (and gold) was won by host Belgium against Czechoslovakia (which participated in an international competition for the first time in their history) after the Czechoslovaks walked off to protest the officiating, and were subsequently disqualified from the tournament.[1]

Since Belgium had received a first-round bye, the tournament to determine the silver and bronze medalists had the beaten quarter-finalists (Italy, Norway, Spain and Sweden) facing each other to determine who would play the Netherlands, now assured of a medal.

The tournament ended with Spain winning the silver medal match, while the Netherlands won the bronze.[3][4][2]

VenuesEdit

Antwerp Antwerp
Olympisch Stadion Stadion Broodstraat
Capacity: 35,000 Capacity: Not known
 
Ghent Brussels
Jules Ottenstadion Stade Joseph Marien
Capacity: Not known Capacity: Not known
   

SquadsEdit

TournamentEdit

15 teams entered the competition, which was organized on a knockout basis, but Switzerland withdrew on the morning before the first round due to internal dissent, meaning France were given a first-round forfeit.

As such, 12 teams entered the first round, with the winners joining host Belgium in the quarter-finals.

Norway defeated Great Britain in the first round, considered by Elo as one of the greatest football upsets of all time.[5]

Czechoslovakia, participating in their first international tournament, made it to the final, beating Yugoslavia (who also played their first ever international match in the competition), Norway, and France, while Belgium, after their first-round bye, beat Spain and the Netherlands to qualify for the final.

The final was abandoned in the 39th minute and Belgium were awarded the gold medal after Czechoslovakia walked off to protest the performance of the English referee, John Lewis and his linesmen.[6]

A form of the Bergvall System[7] was used to determine second and third places. Firstly, the beaten quarter-finalists played off, and Spain emerged triumphant, overcoming Sweden 2-1 and Italy 2-0.

Under the original format, Spain would have played off against the teams beaten in the main tournament by gold medalists Belgium, with the winners playing off for second and third, but Czechoslovakia had been disqualified, and Belgium had received a first-round bye.

Therefore, Spain advanced straight to the silver medal match against the Netherlands, who had been beaten by Belgium in their semi-final. Spain won 3–1.

Exhibition matchEdit

This match was not part of the tournament, but was organised after both teams were eliminated. Some sources erroneously refer to this as an eighth-place match or as part of the silver and bronze medal tournament.

Egypt  4–2  Kingdom of SCS
Abaza   43'??'
Allouba   ??'
Hegazi   ??'
Report Dubravčić   ??'
Ružić   ??'
Attendance: 500
Referee: Rafael van Praag (NED)

ResultsEdit

Original BracketEdit

First round Quarter-finals Semi-finals Final
        
  Belgium Bye
 
  Belgium 3
  Spain 1
  Spain 1
  Denmark 0
  Belgium 3
  Netherlands 0
  Sweden 9
  Greece 0
  Sweden 4
  Netherlands (a.e.t.) 5
  Luxembourg 0
  Netherlands 3
  Belgium 2
  Czechoslovakia 0
  France 2
   Switzerland 0
  France 3
  Italy 1
  Italy 2
  Egypt 1
  France 1
  Czechoslovakia 4
  Czechoslovakia 7
  Yugoslavia 0
  Czechoslovakia 4
  Norway 0
  Great Britain 1
  Norway 3

First roundEdit

Belgium  Bye

Czechoslovakia  7–0  Kingdom of SCS
Vanik   20'46'79'
Janda   34'50'75'
Sedláček   43'
Report
Attendance: 600
Referee: Raphael Van Praag (BEL)

Spain  1–0  Denmark
Arabolaza   54' Report
Attendance: 3,000
Referee: Willem Eymers (NED)

Italy  2–1  Egypt
Baloncieri   25'
Brezzi   57'
Report Osman   30'
Attendance: 2,000
Referee: Paul Putz (BEL)

Norway  3–1  Great Britain
Gundersen   13'51'
Wilhelms   63'
Report Nicholas   25'
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Johannes Mutters (NED)

Netherlands  3–0  Luxembourg
J. Bulder   30'
Groosjohan   47'85'
Report
Attendance: 3,000
Referee: Georges Hubrecht (BEL)

France  2–0
Awarded
   Switzerland

Sweden  9–0  Greece
Olsson   4'79'
Karlsson   15'20'21'51'85'
Wicksell   25'
Dahl   31'
Report
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Charles Barette (BEL)

Quarter-finalsEdit

Netherlands  5–4 (a.e.t.)  Sweden
Groosjohan   10'57'
J. Bulder   44'88' (pen.)
De Natris   115'
Report Karlsson   16'32'
Olsson   20'
Dahl   72'
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Josef Fanta (TCH)

Czechoslovakia  4–0  Norway
Vanik   8'
Janda   17'66'77'
Report
Attendance: 4,000
Referee: Charles Barette (BEL)

France  3–1  Italy
Boyer   10'
Nicolas   14'
Bard   54'
Report Brezzi   33' (pen.)
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Henri Christophe (BEL)

Belgium  3–1  Spain
Coppée   11'52'55' Report Arrate   62' (pen.)
Attendance: 18,000
Referee: Johannes Mutters (NED)

Semi-finalsEdit

Czechoslovakia  4–1  France
Mazal   18'75'87'
Steiner   70'
Report Boyer   79'
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Johannes Mutters (NED)

Belgium  3–0  Netherlands
Larnoe   46'
Van Hege   55'
Bragard   85'
Report
Attendance: 22,000
Referee: John Lewis (GBR)

Gold medal matchEdit

 
Belgian striker Robert Coppée opens the scoring of the final, with a penalty kick against goalkeeper Rudolf Klapka

The final was highly controversial, and is the only time as of 2021 that an international final has been abandoned. Belgium were awarded the gold medal by default after Czechoslovakia walked off the field in the 39th minute (with Belgium leading 2-0) to protest the officiating after Czechoslovak left-back Karel Steiner was ejected for assaulting Robert Coppée.

The Czechoslovaks were also unhappy with the performance of the 65-year-old English referee, John Lewis, who had already refereed the Belgian semi-final victory over the Netherlands, a match observed by the Czechoslovaks (it had taken place on the same day and in the same stadium as their own victory against France), as well as the English linesmen, Charles Wreford-Brown and A. Knight, who had allowed a contentious second Belgian goal in the 30th minute that Henri Larnoe had converted.

The Czechoslovaks immediately protested the result of the final, [note 1] but their protest was dismissed, and the Czechoslovak team was disqualified from the tournament.

Belgium  2–0  Czechoslovakia
Coppée   6' (pen.)
Larnoe   30'
Report
Attendance: 35,000
Referee: John Lewis (GBR)

Silver medal tournamentEdit

Repechage bracketEdit

The original format had a knockout tournament between the four teams eliminated during the quarter-finals, with the winner of that tournament playing off against the teams beaten in the main tournament by gold medalists Belgium, and the winners of these matches playing off for silver and bronze medals.

However, since Czechoslovakia had been disqualified and Belgium had received a first-round bye, the third round was scratched and Spain automatically advanced to the silver and bronze medal match against the Netherlands.

  First round     Second round     Silver/Bronze medal match
                           
  QF   Italy (a.e.t.) 2  
  QF   Norway 1         SF   Netherlands 1
        QF   Italy 0     QF   Spain 3
        QF   Spain 2  
  QF   Spain 2    
  QF   Sweden 1  

First roundEdit

Italy  2–1[note 2] (a.e.t.)  Norway
Sardi   46'
Badini   123'
Report Andersen   41'
Attendance: 500
Referee: Louis Fourgous (France)

Spain  2–1  Sweden
Belauste   51'
Acedo   53'
Report Dahl   28'
Attendance: 1,500
Referee: Giovanni Mauro (Italy)

Second roundEdit

Spain  2–0  Italy
Sesúmaga   43'72' Report
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Paul Putz (Belgium)

Silver/Bronze medal matchEdit

Spain  3–1  Netherlands
Sesúmaga   7'35'
Pichichi   72'
Report Groosjohan   68'
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Paul Putz (Belgium)

Final rankingEdit

Final positions:[2][8]

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Result
    Belgium 3 3 0 0 8 1 +7 6
    Spain 5 4 0 1 8 3 +5 8
    Netherlands 4 2 0 2 9 10 −1 4
4   Italy 4 2 0 2 5 7 −2 4 Eliminated in playoffs
5   Sweden 3 1 0 2 14 7 +7 2
6   France 2 1 0 1 4 5 −1 2
7   Norway 3 1 0 2 4 7 −3 2
8   Egypt 1 0 0 1 1 2 −1 0 Eliminated in first round
9   Denmark 1 0 0 1 0 1 −1 0
10   Great Britain 1 0 0 1 1 3 −2 0
11   Luxembourg 1 0 0 1 0 3 −3 0
12   Kingdom of SCS 1 0 0 1 0 7 −7 0
13   Greece 1 0 0 1 0 9 −9 0
DSQ   Czechoslovakia 4 3 0 1 15 3 +12 6 Disqualified

MedalistsEdit

 
Hosts and tournament winners Belgium before the final
 
Team of Spain, silver medalist
Gold Silver Bronze
  Belgium

Coach: Raoul Daufresne

  Spain

Coach: Francisco Bru

  Netherlands

Coach: Fred Warburton

GoalscorersEdit

7 goals
6 goals
5 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Their protests, translated from the original French, were as follows:
    1. We were allocated an English linesman, which is in contradiction with the rules which state that each participating nation has the right to one of both linesman. This violation of the rules was prejudicial to us during the game, because the English linesman was not impartial and this is why we seek the cancellation of the match. Immediately after the game we brought this notice to the attention of M. Rodolphe Seeldrayers.
    2. The majority of the decisions of the referee Mr. Lewis were wrong and it was obvious that it gave the public the wrong impression about our game. Also both Belgian goals were the result of incorrect decisions of the referee and we seek a rigorous investigation on that point.
    3. During the match, Belgian soldiers were introduced to the crowd until they circled the pitch and because of their provocative presence our players were unable to play their normal game. As a result of the very regrettable incident at the end of the match when there was a pitch invasion led by the soldiers and our national flag was insulted we will not participate until we have received an apology from the (Belgian) soldiers.[7]
  2. ^ After 120 minutes expired with the score tied at 1–1, both captains and the referee agreed to play a second extra time of 2x15 minutes, meaning this match lasted 150 minutes.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Olympic Football Tournament, Antwerp 1920 - Overview on FIFA.com
  2. ^ a b c VII. Olympiad Antwerp 1920 Football Tournament by Karel Stokkermans on the RSSSF
  3. ^ THE VIIth SUMMER GAMES - Football Archived 22 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine on MarcOlympics.org
  4. ^ "Football at the 1920 Antwerp Summer Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  5. ^ World Football Elo Ratings: Biggest Upsets
  6. ^ "VII. Olympiad Antwerp 1920 Football Tournament". www.rsssf.com. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  7. ^ a b VIIeme Olympiade, Anvers 1920: Official report on LA84 Digital Library Collection
  8. ^ 1920 Antwerp Olympic Football Tournament on Football Mundial.com