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Dialects are linguistic varieties which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English in terms of pronunciation only, see Regional accents of English.

Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible."[1] English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation), as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localized sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions.

The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the British Isles dialects, those of North America, and those of Australasia.[2] Dialects can be associated not only with place, but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there will often be a form of the language considered to be Standard English – the Standard Englishes of different countries differ, and can themselves be considered dialects. Standard English is often associated with the more educated layers of society, as well as more formal registers.

British and American English are the reference norms for English as spoken, written, and taught in the rest of the world, excluding countries where English is spoken natively such as Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand. In many former British Empire countries where English is not spoken natively, British English forms are closely followed, alongside numerous AmE usages which have become widespread throughout the English-speaking world.[citation needed] Conversely, in many countries historically influenced by the United States where English is not spoken natively, American English forms are closely followed. Many of these countries, while retaining strong BrE or AmE influences, have developed their own unique dialects, which include Indian English and Philippine English.

Chief among other native English dialects are Canadian English and Australian English, which rank third and fourth in the number of native speakers. For the most part, Canadian English, while featuring numerous British forms alongside indigenous Canadianisms, shares vocabulary, phonology and syntax with American English, leading many to recognize North American English as an organic grouping of dialects.[3] Australian English likewise shares many American and British English usages alongside plentiful features unique to Australia, and retains a significantly higher degree of distinctiveness from both the larger varieties than does Canadian English. South African English, New Zealand English and the Hiberno-English of Ireland are also distinctive and rank fifth, sixth and seventh in the number of native speakers.

ListEdit

EuropeEdit

World Global EnglishEdit

These dialects are used in everyday conversation almost all over the world, and are used as lingua francas and to determine grammar rules and guidelines.

EnglandEdit

English language in England:

ScotlandEdit

WalesEdit

Isle of ManEdit

Channel IslandsEdit

GibraltarEdit

IrelandEdit

ExtinctEdit

North AmericaEdit

North American English

United StatesEdit

American English:

CanadaEdit

Canadian English:

BermudaEdit

Caribbean, Central, and South AmericaEdit

AnguillaEdit

AntiguaEdit

The BahamasEdit

BarbadosEdit

BelizeEdit

ColombiaEdit

Falkland IslandsEdit

GuyanaEdit

HondurasEdit

JamaicaEdit

Saint Kitts and NevisEdit

Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEdit

Trinidad and TobagoEdit

AsiaEdit

BangladeshEdit

BruneiEdit

BurmaEdit

Hong KongEdit

IndiaEdit

Indian English:

MalaysiaEdit

NepalEdit

PakistanEdit

PhilippinesEdit

SingaporeEdit

Sri LankaEdit

AfricaEdit

CameroonEdit

The GambiaEdit

GhanaEdit

KenyaEdit

LiberiaEdit

MalawiEdit

NamibiaEdit

NigeriaEdit

South AfricaEdit

South AtlanticEdit

South SudanEdit

SudanEdit

UgandaEdit

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

Australian English (AusE, AusEng):

FijiEdit

Fiji English (FijEng, en-FJ)

New ZealandEdit

New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ)

Papua New GuineaEdit

CreolesEdit

Pidgins and creoles exist which are based on, or incorporate, English, including Chinook Jargon (a mostly extinct trade language), American Indian Pidgin English, and Manglish (Malaysian English-Malay-Chinese-Tamil).

A pan-Asian English variation called Globalese has been described.[9]

ConstructedEdit

Several constructed languages exist based on English, which have never been adopted as a vernacular. Language scholars have stated that constructed languages are "no longer of practical use" with English as a de facto global language.[10]

Manual encodingsEdit

These encoding systems should not be confused with sign languages such as British Sign Language and American Sign Language, which, while they are informed by English, have their own grammar and vocabulary.

Code-switchingEdit

The following are portmanteaus devised to describe certain local varieties of English and other linguistic phenomena involving English. Although similarly named, they are actually quite different in nature, with some being genuine mixed languages, some being instances of heavy code-switching between English and another language, some being genuine local dialects of English used by first-language English speakers, and some being non-native pronunciations of English. A few portmanteaus (such as Greeklish and Fingilish) are transliteration methods rather than any kind of spoken variant of English.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wakelin, Martyn Francis (2008). Discovering English Dialects. Oxford: Shire Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7478-0176-4.
  2. ^ Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2003
  3. ^ Trudgill and Hannah, 2002
  4. ^ JC Wells, Accents of English, Cambridge University Press, 1983, page 351
  5. ^ A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894
  6. ^ a b Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 196–198. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
  7. ^ Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English (PDF). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0. ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)
  8. ^ Daniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill. The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Mar 4, 2010 pg. 10
  9. ^ Nunan 2012, p. 186.
  10. ^ Fischer 2004, p. 181 "[T]he goal [of constructed languages] is no longer of practical use... Living languages are of far greater influence in the world ... world languages are emerging naturally for the first time in history. Indeed, the English language -- by historical circumstance, not by design -- presently counts more second-language speakers than any other tongue on Earth and numbers are growing."

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit