The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent,[1][2][3] is a consciously learned accent of English, fashionably used by the late 19th-century and early 20th-century American upper class and entertainment industry, which blended together features regarded as the most prestigious from both American and British English (specifically Received Pronunciation). It is not a native or regional accent; rather, according to voice and drama professor Dudley Knight, "its earliest advocates bragged that its chief quality was that no Americans actually spoke it unless educated to do so".[4] The accent was embraced in private independent preparatory schools, especially by members of the American Northeastern upper class, as well as in schools for film and stage acting,[5] with its overall use sharply declining after the Second World War.[6] A similar accent that resulted from different historical processes, Canadian dainty, was also known in Canada, existing for a century before waning in the 1950s.[7] More recently,[when?] the term "mid-Atlantic accent" can also refer to any accent with a perceived mixture of American and British characteristics.[8][9][10]

Elite use edit

History edit

In the 19th century and into the early 20th century, formal public speaking in the United States focused primarily on song-like intonation, lengthily and tremulously uttered vowels (including overly articulated weak vowels), and a booming resonance.[11] Moreover, since at least the mid-19th century, upper-class communities on the East Coast of the United States increasingly adopted many of the phonetic qualities of Received Pronunciation—the standard accent of the British upper class—as evidenced in recorded public speeches of the time, with some of these qualities, like non-rhoticity (sometimes called "r-lessness"), also shared by the regional dialects of Eastern New England and New York City. Sociolinguist William Labov et al. describe that such "r-less pronunciation, following Received Pronunciation, was taught as a model of correct, international English by schools of speech, acting, and elocution in the United States up to the end of World War II".[6]

Early recordings of prominent Americans born in the middle of the 19th century provide some insight into their adoption (or not) of a carefully employed non-rhotic Mid-Atlantic speaking style. President William Howard Taft, who attended public school in Ohio, and inventor Thomas Edison, who grew up in Ohio and Michigan in a family of modest means, both used natural rhotic accents. Yet presidents William McKinley of Ohio and Grover Cleveland of Central New York, who attended private schools, clearly employed a non-rhotic, upper-class, Mid-Atlantic quality in their public speeches that does not align with the rhotic accents normally documented in Ohio and Central New York State at the time; both men even use the distinctive and especially archaic affectation of a "tapped r" at times when r is pronounced, often when between vowels.[12] This tapped articulation is additionally sometimes heard in recordings of Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley's successor from an affluent district of New York City, who used a cultivated non-rhotic accent but with the addition of the coil-curl merger once notably associated with New York accents.[12] His distant cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt also employed a non-rhotic Mid-Atlantic accent,[13] though without the tapped r.

In and around Boston, Massachusetts, a similar accent, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, was associated with the local urban elite: the Boston Brahmins. In the New York metropolitan area, particularly including its affluent Westchester County suburbs and the North Shore of Long Island, other terms for the local Transatlantic pronunciation and accompanying facial behavior include "Locust Valley lockjaw" or "Larchmont lockjaw", named for the stereotypical clenching of the speaker's jaw muscles to achieve an exaggerated enunciation quality.[14] The related term "boarding-school lockjaw" has also been used to describe the accent once considered a characteristic of elite New England boarding-school culture.[14]

Vocal coach and scholar Dudley Knight describes how the Australian phonetician William Tilly ( Tilley), teaching at Columbia University from 1918 to around the time of his death in 1935, introduced a version of the Mid-Atlantic accent that, for the first time, was standardized with an extreme and conscious level of phonetic consistency. Linguistic prescriptivists, Tilly and his adherents emphatically promoted their new Mid-Atlantic speech standard, which they called "World English". World English would eventually define the pronunciation of American classical actors for decades, though Tilly himself actually had no special interest in acting. Mostly attracting a following of English-language learners and New York City public-school teachers,[15] he was interested in popularizing his standard of a "proper" American pronunciation for teaching in public schools and using in one's public life:[16]

World English was a speech pattern that very specifically did not derive from any regional dialect pattern in England or America, although it clearly bears some resemblance to the speech patterns that were spoken in a few areas of New England, and a very considerable resemblance ... to the pattern in England which was becoming defined in the 1920s as "RP" or "Received Pronunciation". World English, then, was a creation of speech teachers, and boldly labeled as a class-based accent: the speech of persons variously described as "educated," "cultivated," or "cultured"; the speech of persons who moved in rarefied social or intellectual circles; and the speech of those who might aspire to do so.[17]

As a phonetically consistent version of Mid-Atlantic pronunciation, World English (known at the time by a variety of names) was advocated most strongly from the 1920s to the mid-1940s and was particularly embraced during this period in the Northeastern independent preparatory schools accessible to and supported by wealthy American families. However, the prestige of Mid-Atlantic accents had largely ended by 1950, presumably as a result of cultural and demographic changes in the United States in the aftermath of the Second World War.[18]

Example speakers edit

Wealthy or highly educated Americans known for being lifelong speakers of a Mid-Atlantic accent include William F. Buckley Jr.,[19] Gore Vidal, H. P. Lovecraft,[20] Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Averell Harriman,[21][22] Dean Acheson,[23] George Plimpton,[24][25] Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (who began affecting it permanently while at Miss Porter's School),[26] Louis Auchincloss,[27] Norman Mailer,[28] Diana Vreeland (though her accent is unique, with not entirely consistent Mid-Atlantic features),[29] C. Z. Guest[30] Joseph Alsop,[31][32][33] Robert Silvers,[34] Julia Child[35] (though, as the lone non-Northeasterner in this list, her accent was consistently rhotic), and Cornelius Vanderbilt IV.[36] Except for Child, all of these example speakers were raised, educated, or both in the Northeastern United States. This includes just over half who were raised specifically in New York (most of them New York City) and five of whom were educated specifically at the independent boarding school Groton in Massachusetts: Franklin Roosevelt, Harriman, Acheson, Alsop, and Auchincloss.

Examples of individuals described as having a cultivated New England accent or "Boston Brahmin accent" include Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.,[note 1] Charles Eliot Norton,[37] Samuel Eliot Morison,[38] Harry Crosby,[39] John Brooks Wheelwright,[40] George C. Homans,[41] Elliot Richardson,[42] George Plimpton (though he was actually a lifelong member of the New York City elite),[43] and John Kerry,[44] who has noticeably reduced this accent since his early adulthood toward a more General American one.

Excerpt of FDR's "Fear Itself" speech

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who came from a privileged New York City family, has a non-rhotic accent, though it is not an ordinary New York accent; one of Roosevelt's most frequently heard speeches has a falling diphthong in the word fear, which distinguishes it from other forms of surviving non-rhotic speech in the United States.[45] "Linking r" appears in Roosevelt's delivery of the words "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"; this pronunciation of r is also famously recorded in his Pearl Harbor speech, for example, in the phrase "naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan".[46]

Decline edit

After the accent's decline following the end of World War II, this American version of a "posh" accent has all but disappeared even among the American upper classes, as Americans have increasingly dissociated from the speaking styles of the East Coast elite;[13] if anything, the accent is now subject to ridicule in American popular culture.[47] The clipped, non-rhotic English accents of George Plimpton and William F. Buckley Jr. were vestigial examples.[48] Marianne Williamson, a self-help author and a 2020 and 2024 Democratic presidential candidate, has a unique accent that, following her participation in the first 2020 presidential debate in June 2019,[49][50][51] was widely discussed and sometimes described as a Mid-Atlantic accent.[52] An article from The Guardian, for example, stated that Williamson "speaks in a beguiling mid-Atlantic accent that makes her sound as if she has walked straight off the set of a Cary Grant movie."[53]

Theatrical and cinematic use edit

When the 20th century began, classical training for actors in the United States explicitly focused on imitating upper-class British accents onstage.[18] From the 1920s to 1940s, the "World English" of William Tilly, and his followers' slight variations of it taught in classes of theatre and oratory, became popular affectations onstage and in other forms of high culture in North America. The codification of a Mid-Atlantic accent in writing, particularly for theatrical training, is often credited to Edith Warman Skinner in the 1930s,[4][54] a student of Tilly best known for her 1942 instructional text on the accent: Speak with Distinction.[3][55] Skinner, who referred to this accent as Good (American) Speech or Eastern (American) Standard, described it as the appropriate American pronunciation for "classics and elevated texts".[56] She vigorously drilled her students in learning the accent at the Carnegie Institute of Technology and, later, the Juilliard School.[4]

It is also possible that a clipped, nasal, "all-treble" acoustic quality sometimes associated with the Mid-Atlantic accent arose out of technological necessity in the earliest days of radio and sound film, which ineffectively reproduced natural human bass tones.[57] As used by actors, the Mid-Atlantic accent is also known by various other names, including American Theatre Standard or American stage speech.[54]

American cinema began in the early 1900s in New York City and Philadelphia before becoming largely transplanted to Los Angeles beginning in the mid-1910s, with talkies beginning in the late 1920s. Hollywood studios encouraged actors to learn this accent into the 1940s.[48] For instance, in the 1952 movie Singin' in the Rain, the Skinner-like elocution coach who entreats Lina Lamont to use "round tones" is attempting to teach her American stage speech.

Examples of actors known for publicly using this accent include Tyrone Power,[58] Bette Davis,[58] Katharine Hepburn,[59] Laird Cregar, Vincent Price (who also went to school in Connecticut),[60][3] Christopher Plummer,[3] Sally Kellerman, Tammy Grimes,[61] and Westbrook Van Voorhis.[5] Cary Grant, who arrived in the United States from England aged 16,[62] had an accent that was often considered Mid-Atlantic, though with a more natural and unconscious mixture of both British and American features.[63] Roscoe Lee Browne, defying roles typically cast for black actors, also consistently spoke with a Mid-Atlantic accent.[64] Humorist Tom Lehrer lampooned this accent in a 1945 satirical tribute to his alma mater, Harvard University, called "Fight Fiercely, Harvard".[65] Actor and singer David Cassidy noted that his father, Jack Cassidy, used the Mid-Atlantic accent.[66]

Examples edit

Although it has disappeared as a standard of high society and high culture, the Transatlantic accent has still been heard in some media in the second half of the 20th century, or even more recently, for the sake of historical, humorous, or other stylistic reasons:

Phonology edit

The Mid-Atlantic accent was carefully taught as a model of "correct" English in American elocution classes,[6] and it was also taught for use in American theatre into the 1960s, after which it fell out of vogue.[74] It is still taught to actors for use in playing historical characters.[75]

A codified version of the Mid-Atlantic accent, American Theatre Standard, advocated by voice coaches like Edith Skinner ("Good Speech" as she called it) and Margaret Prendergast McLean, was once widely taught in acting schools of the early-mid-20th century.[76]

Vowels edit

English diaphoneme Mid-Atlantic accent Example
According to Skinner[77] According to McLean[78] Franklin D. Roosevelt's realization[79]
/æ/ [æ] [æ] trap
[æ̝] pan
/ɑː/ [a] [a], [ɑː][80] [a] bath
[æ̈] dance
[ɑː] [ɑə][81] father
/ɒ/ [ɒ] lot, top
[ɔə][81] cloth, gone
/ɔː/ [ɔː] all, taught, saw
/ɛ/ [e] [e̞] [ɛ] dress, met, bread
/ə/ [ə] about, syrup
[o] [o̞] no data obey, melody
/ɪ/ [ɪ] [ɪ] [ɪ̈] hit, skim, tip
[ɪ̞] response
/i/ city
/iː/ [iː] beam, fleet, chic
/ʌ/ [ɐ] [ʌ̈] bus, gus, coven
/ʊ/ [ʊ] book, put, would
/uː/ [uː] glue, dew
/aɪ/ [aɪ] [äɪ] shine, try
bright, dice, pike, ride
/aʊ/ [ɑʊ] [ɑ̈ʊ] ouch, scout, now
/eɪ/ [eɪ] lake, paid, pain, rein
/ɔɪ/ [ɔɪ] boy, moist, choice
/oʊ/ [oʊ] [o̞ʊ] [ɔʊ] goat, oh, show
Vowels historically followed by /r/
/ɑːr/ [ɑə] [ɑː] [ɑə] car, dark, barn
/ɪər/ [ɪə] fear, peer, tier
/ɛər/ [ɛə] [ɛə~ɛː] [ɛə] fare, pair, rare
/ʊər/ [ʊə] sure, tour, pure
/ɔːr/ [ɔə] [ɔə~ɔː] [ɔə] torn, short, port
/ɜːr/ [ɜː~əː] burn, first, herd
/ər/ [ə] doctor, martyr, surprise
Mid-Atlantic monophthongs as pronounced by Franklin D. Roosevelt, from Urban (2021)[1]. Here /ɑː/ includes the vowels of PALM and LOT and /ɔː/ includes the vowels of THOUGHT and CLOTH. The vowel /ɜː/ is pronounced as a rhotic vowel.The FLEECE, GOOSE, FOOT, THOUGHT and PALM vowels are pronounced like diphthongs, respectively [i̞i, u̟u, ʊɤ, ɔɐ, ɑɐ]
Mid-Atlantic closing diphthongs as pronounced by Franklin D. Roosevelt from Urban (2021)[2].
Mid-Atlantic centering diphthongs as pronounced by Franklin D. Roosevelt, from Urban (2021)[3].
  • Trap–bath split: The Mid-Atlantic accent commonly exhibits the TRAP-BATH split of RP. However, unlike in RP, the BATH vowel does not retract and merge with the back vowel of PALM. It is only lowered from the near-open vowel [æ] to the fully open vowel [a].
  • No /æ/ tensing: While most dialects of American English have the TRAP vowel tensed before nasals, the vowel is not particularly tensed in this environment in Mid-Atlantic accents.[55]
  • Fatherbother variability: The "a" in father is unrounded, while the "bother" vowel may be rounded, like RP. Therefore, the father-bother distinction exists for some speakers, particularly those following the 20th-century American Theatre Standard in the vein of Skinner, but not necessarily in aristocratic speakers trained before that time or outside of the entertainment industry, like Franklin Roosevelt, who indeed shows a merger.[81] The bother vowel is also used in words like "watch" and "quad".[82]
  • No cotcaught merger: The vowels in cot and caught (the LOT vowel and THOUGHT vowel, respectively) are distinguished, with the latter being pronounced higher and longer than the former, like RP.
    • Lotcloth variability: Like contemporary RP, but unlike conservative RP and General American, Theatre Standard promoted that the words in the CLOTH lexical set use the LOT vowel rather than the THOUGHT vowel.[83][84][nb 1] However, speakers trained before the Theatre Standard, like Franklin Roosevelt, indeed show a LOT-CLOTH split, with the latter aligning to the THOUGHT vowel.[81] The THOUGHT vowel is also used before /l/ in words such as "all", "salt", and "malt".
  • Lack of happy tensing: Like conservative RP, the vowel /i/ at the end of words such as "happy" [ˈhæpɪ] (listen), "Charlie", "sherry", "coffee" is not tensed and is thus pronounced with the SIT vowel [ɪ], rather than the SEAT vowel [iː].[55] This also extends to "i", "y", and sometimes "e", "ie", and "ee" in other positions in words. For example, the SIT vowel is used in "cities", "remark", "because", "serious", "variable".
  • No Canadian raising: Like RP, the diphthongs /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ do not undergo Canadian raising and are pronounced as [aɪ] and [ɑʊ], respectively, in all environments.
  • Back //, //, //: The vowels //, //, // do not undergo advancing, being pronounced farther back as [oʊ], [uː] and [ɑʊ], respectively,[86] like in conservative and Northern varieties of American English; the latter two are also similar to conservative RP.
  • No weak vowel merger: The vowels in "Rosas" and "roses" are distinguished, with the former being pronounced as [ə] and the latter as either [ɪ] or [ɨ]. This is done in General American, as well,[87] but in the Mid-Atlantic accent, the same distinction means the retention of historic [ɪ] in weak preconsonantal positions (as in RP), so "rabbit" does not rhyme with "abbot".
  • Lack of mergers before /l/: Mergers before /l/, which are typical of several accents, both British and North American,[88][89][90] do not occur. For example, the vowels in "hull" and "bull" are kept distinct, the former as [ʌ] and the latter as [ʊ].
F1/F2 values of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Mid-Atlantic vowels in Hertz according to Urban, (2021)[4]

American, British and Mid-Atlantic low vowels comparison
KEYWORD US Mid-Atlantic UK
General American Boston Received Pronunciation
TRAP /æ/ /æ/ /æ/
BATH /a/~/æ/ /a/~/ɑ/~/æ/ /ɑ/
PALM /ɑ/ /a/ /ɑ/
LOT /ɒ/ /ɑ/~/ɒ/ /ɒ/
CLOTH /ɔ/~/ɑ/ /ɒ/~/ɔ/

Vowels before /r/ edit

In a Mid-Atlantic accent, the postvocalic /r/ is typically either dropped or vocalized.[91] The vowels /ə/ or /ɜː/ do not undergo R-coloring. Linking R is used, but Skinner openly disapproved of intrusive R.[91][92] In Mid-Atlantic accents, intervocalic /r/'s and linking r's undergo liaison.

When preceded by a long vowel, the /r/ is vocalized to [ə], commonly known as schwa, while the long vowel itself is laxed. However, when preceded by a short vowel, the /ə/ is elided. Therefore, tense and lax vowels before /r/ are typically only distinguished by the presence/absence of /ə/. The following distinctions are examples of this concept:

  • Mirrornearer distinction: Hence mirror is [mɪɹə], but nearer is [nɪəɹə].
  • Marymerry distinction:[55] Hence merry is [mɛɹɪ], but Mary is [mɛəɹɪ]. Mary also has an opener variant of [ɛ] than merry.
  • "Marry" is pronounced with a different vowel altogether. See further in the bullet list below.

Other distinctions before /r/ include the following:

  • Marymarrymerry distinction: Like in RP, New York City, and Philadelphia, marry is pronounced as /æ/, which is distinct from the vowels of both Mary and merry.[55]
  • Cureforcenorth distinction: The vowels in cure and force–north are distinguished, the former being realized as [ʊə] and the latter as [ɔə], like conservative RP.
  • Thoughtforce distinction: The vowels in thought and forcenorth are distinguished, the former being realized as [ɔː] and the latter as [ɔə]. Hence saw [sɔː], sauce [sɔːs] but sore/sour [sɔə], source [sɔəs].[93] This does not agree with /ɔː/ horse and /ɔə/ for hoarse in traditional Received Pronunciation, but it keeps the distinction observed in rhotic accents like General American.
  • Hurry–furry distinction: The vowels in hurry and furry are distinguished, with the former pronounced as /ʌ/ and the latter pronounced as /ɜː/.(listen)
  • Palmstart distinction: The vowels in palm and start are distinguished, the former being realized as [ɑː] and the latter as [ɑə]. Hence spa [spɑː], alms [ɑːmz] but spar [spɑə], arms [ɑəmz].[94] This keeps the distinction observed in rhotic accents like General American, but not made in RP.
  • Distinction of /ɒr/ and /ɔːr/.

Consonants edit

A table containing the consonant phonemes is given below:[76]

Consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant l ɹ j ʍ w
  • Wine-whine distinction: The Mid-Atlantic accent resists the modern winewhine merger: The consonants spelled w and wh are pronounced differently; words spelled with wh are pronounced as "hw" (/ʍ/). The distinction is a feature found in conservative RP and New England English, as well as in some Canadian and Southern US accents, and sporadically across the Mid-West and the West. However, it is rarely heard in contemporary RP.[95]
  • Pronunciation of /t/: the alveolar stop /t/ can be pronounced as a glottal stop, [ʔ], only if it is followed by a consonant in either the same word or the following word. Thus grateful can be pronounced [ˈɡɹeɪʔfɫ̩] . However, Skinner recommended avoiding the glottal stop altogether; she also recommended a "lightly aspirated" /t/ in place of the flapped /t/ typical of American speakers whenever /t/ appears between vowels.[96] Likewise, winter [ˈwɪntə] is not pronounced similarly or identically to winner [ˈwɪnə], as it is by some Americans.[nb 2] Generally, Skinner advocated for articulating /t/ with some degree of aspiration in most contexts.
  • Resistance to yod-dropping: Dropping of /j/ only occurs after /r/, and optionally after /s/ and /l/.[98][99] Mid-Atlantic also lacks palatalization, so duke is pronounced ([djuːk] ) rather than ([dʒuːk] ).[100] All of this mirrors (conservative) RP.
  • A "dark L" sound, [ɫ], may be heard for /l/ in all contexts, more like General American than RP. However, Skinner explicitly discouraged darker articulations.[101]
  • A tapped articulation of post-consonantal or inter-vocalic /r/ is heard in many of the earliest recordings of Mid-Atlantic accents, likely for dramatic effect in public speaking. Skinner, however, disapproved of its usage.[102]

Other pronunciation patterns edit

  • Skinner approved of the -day suffix (e.g. Monday; yesterday) being pronounced as [deɪ] or as [dɪ] ("i" as in "did"), without any particular preference.[103]
  • Instead of the unrounded STRUT vowel, the rounded LOT vowel (listen) is used in everybody, nobody, somebody, and anybody; and when stressed, was, of, from, what. This is more like RP than General American. At times, the vowels in the latter words can be reduced to a schwa.[104] However, "because" uses the THOUGHT vowel.
  • Polysyllabic words ending in -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony, -ative, -bury, -berry: The first vowel in the endings -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony, -ative, -bury, and -berry are all pronounced as [ə], commonly known as a schwa. Thus inventory is pronounced [ˈɪnvɪntəɹɪ], rather than General American [ˈɪnvɨntɔɹi] or rapidly-spoken RP [ˈɪnvəntɹi].[105]
Example Mid-Atlantic[55]
military -ary [əɹɪ]
bakery -ery
inventory -ory
Canterbury -bury [bəɹɪ]
blueberry -berry
testimony -mony [mənɪ]
innovative -ative [ətɪv ~ ˌeɪtɪv]

See also edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ A similar but unrelated feature occurred in RP. As one attempt of middle-class RP speakers to make themselves sound polished, words in the CLOTH set were shifted from the THOUGHT vowel back to the lot vowel.[85] Also see U and non-U English for details.
  2. ^ "The t after n is often silent in [regional] American pronunciation. Instead of saying internet [some] Americans will frequently say 'innernet.' This is fairly standard speech and is not considered overly casual or sloppy speech."[97]
  1. ^ Henry Cabot Lodge on the Treaty of Versailles. Retrieved 2017-05-15.

Citations edit

  1. ^ Drum, Kevin (2011). "Oh, That Old-Timey Movie Accent!". Mother Jones.
  2. ^ a b Queen, Robin (2015). Vox Popular: The Surprising Life of Language in the Media. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 241–2. ISBN 9780470659922.
  3. ^ a b c d e f LaBouff, Kathryn (2007). Singing and communicating in English: a singer's guide to English diction. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 241–42. ISBN 978-0-19-531138-9.
  4. ^ a b c Knight, Dudley. "Standard Speech". In: Hampton, Marian E. & Barbara Acker (eds.) (1997). The Vocal Vision: Views on Voice. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 174–77.
  5. ^ a b Fallows, James (7 June 2015). "That Weirdo Announcer-Voice Accent: Where It Came From and Why It Went Away. Is your language rhotic? How to find out, and whether you should care". The Atlantic. Washington DC.
  6. ^ a b c Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), chpt. 7
  7. ^ "Some Canadians used to speak with a quasi-British accent called Canadian Dainty". CBC News, 1 July 2017.
  8. ^ "Mid-Atlantic definition and meaning – Collins English Dictionary".
  9. ^ "mid-Atlantic (adjective) definition and synonyms – Macmillan Dictionary".
  10. ^ "mid-Atlantic accent – meaning of mid-Atlantic accent in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English – LDOCE".
  11. ^ Knight, 1997, p. 159.
  12. ^ a b Metcalf, A. (2004). Presidential Voices. Speaking Styles from George Washington to George W. Bush. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 144–148.
  13. ^ a b Milla, Robert McColl (2012). English Historical Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-7486-4181-9.
  14. ^ a b Safire, William (18 January 1987). "On Language". The New York Times – via
  15. ^ Knight, 1997, pp. 157–158.
  16. ^ Knight, 1997, p. 163.
  17. ^ Knight, 1997, p. 160.
  18. ^ a b Knight, 1997, p. 171.
  19. ^ Konigsberg, Eric (29 February 2008). "On TV, Buckley Led Urbane Debating Club". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  20. ^ Eckhardt, Jason C. (1991). The Cosmic Yankee. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 9780838634158. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  21. ^ Murphy, Charles J.V. (30 December 1946). "W. Averell Harriman". Life. pp. 57–66. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  22. ^ LLC, New York Media (2 September 1991). "New York Magazine". New York Media, LLC – via Google Books.
  23. ^ Kagan, Robert. "How Dean Acheson Won the Cold War: Statesmanship, Morality, and Foreign Policy". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  24. ^ New York City Accents Changing with the Times Archived 11 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine[verification needed]. Gothamist (25 February 2008). Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  25. ^ "Kate Hudson and Gigi Hadid Are All About These Customized Bags". The New York Observer. 17 May 2017. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
  26. ^ Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier, Barbara A. Perry
  27. ^ Louis Auchincloss, the Last of the Gentlemen Novelists, New York Magazine (5 January 2005)
  28. ^ With Mailer's death, U.S. loses a colorful writer and character – SFGate. (11 November 2007). Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  29. ^ Empress of fashion : a life of Diana Vreeland Los Angeles Public Library Online (28 December 2012). Retrieved 2013-11-25.
  30. ^ Sally Quinn (1 May 1977). "C.Z. Guest: The Rich Fight Back". The Washington Post.
  31. ^ Sally Bedell Smith (15 August 2011). Grace & Power: The Private World of the Kennedy White House. Aurum Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84513-722-9.
  32. ^ How to Talk Fancy. May 1988. Retrieved 15 May 2017. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  33. ^ Joseph Alsop on C-SPAN's Washington Politics program, episode airing on 19 November 1984. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
  34. ^ "Robert B. Silvers (1929–2017)"
  35. ^ "Her voice sounded like money ... " (JUL 17, 2008). The Atlantic.
  36. ^ Greenhouse, Emily (May 2013). "The First American Anti-Nazi Film, Rediscovered". The New Yorker. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  37. ^ Barbara W. Tuchman (31 August 2011). Proud Tower. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-307-79811-4. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  38. ^ "Listen to Samuel Eliot Morison, 1936 - Harvard Voices by Harvard University in Harvard Voices playlist online for free on SoundCloud".
  39. ^ "Harry Grew Crosby". The AFS Story. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  40. ^ Alan M. Wald (1983). The revolutionary imagination: the poetry and politics of John Wheelwright and Sherry Mangan. UNC Press Books. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8078-1535-9. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  41. ^ A. Javier Treviño (April 2006). George C. Homans: history, theory, and method. Paradigm Publishers. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-59451-191-2. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
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General bibliography edit

Further reading edit

External links edit