This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is a consciously acquired accent of English, intended to blend together the "standard" speech of both American English and British Received Pronunciation. Spoken mostly in the early 20th century, it is not a vernacular American accent native to any location, but rather, according to voice and drama professor Dudley Knight, an affected set of speech patterns whose "chief quality was that no Americans actually spoke it unless educated to do so". The accent is, therefore, best associated with the American upper class, theater, and film industry of the 1930s and 1940s, largely taught in private independent preparatory schools especially in the American Northeast and in acting schools. The accent's overall use sharply declined following the Second World War.
A similar accent, known as Canadian dainty, was also known in Canada in the same era, although it resulted from different historical processes.
The term "mid-Atlantic accent" has, in some cases, also been used to refer to an accent heard in speakers who have spent large amounts of time in both North America and the United Kingdom, resulting in both dialects exerting a natural and not consciously affected influence on their speech patterns; however, this accent is not identical to the traditional mid-Atlantic accent.
At the start of the 20th century, elevated public speaking in the United States focused on song-like intonation, lengthily and tremulously uttered vowels, and a booming resonance, rather than the details of a given word's phonetic qualities. It is clear, however, that such speaking styles still sought to imitate the phonetics of educated, non-rhotic (sometimes called "r-less") British accents. Sociolinguist William Labov describes that such "r-less pronunciation, following Received Pronunciation", the standard English of Southern England, "was taught as a model of correct, international English by schools of speech, acting and elocution in the United States up to the end of World War II".
Early recordings of prominent Americans born in the middle of the 19th century provide some insight into their adoption or not of a cultivated non-rhotic speaking style. President William Howard Taft, who attended public school in Ohio, and inventor Thomas Edison, who grew up in Ohio and Michigan, both used natural rhotic accents. Presidents William McKinley of Ohio and Grover Cleveland of Central New York, however, clearly employed a non-rhotic, upper-class, Mid-Atlantic quality in their speeches; both even use the distinctive and archaic oratory affectation of a "trilled" or "flapped r" at times whenever r is pronounced. This trill is less consistently heard in recordings of Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley's successor from an affluent district of New York City, who also used a cultivated non-rhotic accent but with the addition of the New York accent's once-notable coil–curl merger.
According to vocal coach and scholar Dudley Knight, it was Australian phonetician William Tilly (né Tilley), teaching at Columbia University from 1918 to around the time of his death in 1935, who introduced a phonetically consistent American speech standard that would "define the sound of American classical acting for almost a century", though Tilly himself actually had no special interest in acting. Mostly attracting a following of English-language learners and New York City public-school teachers, Tilly was interested in popularizing his version of a "proper" American pronunciation for teaching in public schools and using in public life. Linguistic prescriptivists, Tilly and his adherents emphatically promoted this invented type of English, their own non-rhotic variety, which they called "World English":
World English was a speech pattern that very specifically did not derive from any regional dialect pattern in England or America, although it clearly bears some resemblance to the speech patterns that were spoken in a few areas of New England, and a very considerable resemblance... to the pattern in England which was becoming defined in the 1920s as "RP" or "Received Pronunciation." World English, then, was a creation of speech teachers, and boldly labeled as a class-based accent: the speech of persons variously described as "educated," "cultivated," or "cultured"; the speech of persons who moved in rarified social or intellectual circles and of those who might aspire to do so.
Now popularly identified as a Mid-Atlantic accent, this conscious American pronunciation was advocated most strongly from the 1920s to the mid-1940s, but, by 1950, its influence had largely ended. Upper-class Americans known for having learned to speak with a consistent Mid-Atlantic accent include William F. Buckley, Jr., Gore Vidal, H. P. Lovecraft, Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Averell Harriman, George Plimpton, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (who began affecting it while at Miss Porter's School and maintained it lifelong), Louis Auchincloss, Norman Mailer, Diana Vreeland, Joseph Alsop, Robert Silvers, Julia Child, and Cornelius Vanderbilt IV, all of whom were raised, partly or primarily, in the Northeastern United States. The monologuist Ruth Draper's recorded "The Italian Lesson" gives an example of this East Coast American upper-class diction of the 1940s.
The Mid-Atlantic speaking style among the educated wealthy was associated with white Americans of the urban Northeast. In and around Boston, Massachusetts, for example, the accent was characteristic, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, of the local elite: the Boston Brahmins. Examples of people described as having a "Boston Brahmin accent" include Henry Cabot Lodge, Charles Eliot Norton, Harry Crosby, John Brooks Wheelwright, George C. Homans, McGeorge Bundy, Elliot Richardson, George Plimpton (though he was actually a lifelong member of the New York City elite), and John Kerry, who has noticeably reduced this accent since his early adulthood. In the New York metropolitan area, particularly including its affluent Westchester County suburbs and the North Shore of Long Island, other terms for the local Transatlantic pronunciation and accompanying facial behavior include "Locust Valley lockjaw" or "Larchmont lockjaw", named for the stereotypical clenching of the speaker's jaw muscles to achieve an exaggerated enunciation quality. The related term "boarding-school lockjaw" has also been used to describe the prestigious accent once taught at expensive Northeastern independent schools.
Recordings of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who came from a privileged New York City family and was educated at Groton, a private Massachusetts preparatory school, had a number of characteristic patterns. His speech is non-rhotic; one of Roosevelt's most frequently heard speeches has a falling diphthong in the word fear, which distinguishes it from other forms of surviving non-rhotic speech in the United States. "Linking r" appears in Roosevelt's delivery of the words "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"; this pronunciation of r is also famously recorded in his Pearl Harbor speech, for example, in the phrase "naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan".
After the accent's decline following the end of World War II, this American version of a "posh" accent has all but disappeared even among the American upper classes. The clipped, non-rhotic English of George Plimpton and William F. Buckley, Jr. were vestigial examples.
Theatrical and cinematic useEdit
When the 20th century began, classical actors in the United States were in the habit of explicitly imitating higher-class British accents onstage. From the 1920s to 1940s, the "World English" of Wiliam Tilly, and his followers' slight variations of it taught in classes of theater and oratory, became popular affectations onstage and in other forms of high culture in North America. The codification of a Mid-Atlantic accent in writing, particularly for theatrical training, is often credited to Edith Warman Skinner in the 1930s, a student of Tilly best known for her 1942 instructional text Speak with Distinction. Skinner, who referred to this accent as "Good American Speech" or "Eastern Standard" (both names now dated), described it as the appropriate American pronunciation for "classics and elevated texts". She vigorously drilled her students in learning the accent at the Carnegie Institute of Technology and, later, the Juilliard School.
It is also possible that the clipped, nasal, "all-treble" quality associated with the Mid-Atlantic accent partly arose out of technological necessity in the earliest days of radio and sound film, which ineffectively reproduced normal human bass tones. As used by actors, the Mid-Atlantic accent is also known by various other names, including American theater standard or American stage speech.
American cinema began in the early 1900s in New York City and Philadelphia before becoming largely transplanted to Los Angeles beginning in the mid-1910s. With the evolution of talkies in the late 1920s, a voice was first heard in motion pictures. It was then that the majority of audiences first heard Hollywood actors speaking predominantly in the elevated stage pronunciation of the Mid-Atlantic accent. Many adopted it starting out in the theatre, and others simply affected it to help their careers on and off in films.
Among exemplary speakers of this accent from Hollywood's Golden Era are American actors like Tyrone Power, Bette Davis, Katharine Hepburn, Laird Cregar and Vincent Price; Canadian actor Christopher Plummer; and arguably Cary Grant, who arrived in the United States from England at age of sixteen, and whose accent was likely a more natural and unconscious mixture of both British and American features. Roscoe Lee Browne, defying roles typically cast for African American actors, also consistently spoke with a Mid-Atlantic accent. Humorist Tom Lehrer lampooned this accent in a 1945 satirical tribute to his alma mater, Harvard University, called "Fight Fiercely, Harvard".
Although it has largely disappeared as a standard of high society and high culture, the Transatlantic accent has still been heard in some recent media for the sake of historical or stylistic effect.
- Elizabeth Banks uses the Mid-Atlantic accent in playing the flamboyant, fussy, upper-class character Effie Trinket in the futuristic Hunger Games film series, and also for her character, Pizzaz Miller, on the Comedy Central show Moonbeam City.
- A comedic example of this accent appears in the television sitcom Frasier used by the snobbish Crane brothers, who are played by Kelsey Grammer and David Hyde Pierce.
- Jim Backus and Natalie Schafer portrayed Thurston and Lovey Howell, a millionaire couple on the 1960s TV series Gilligan's Island; they both employed the Locust Valley lockjaw and cartoonish caricature of this accent to great comedic effect.
- In the Star Wars film franchise, the character Darth Vader (voiced by James Earl Jones) noticeably speaks with a deep bass tone and a Mid-Atlantic accent to suggest his position of high authority; Princess Leia (played by Carrie Fisher) and Queen Amidala (played by Natalie Portman) also use this accent when switching to a formal speaking register in political situations.
- Many Disney films' villains speak either with a British accent (e.g. Shere Khan, Prince John, the Horned King, Scar, and Frollo) or a Transatlantic accent (notably, the Evil Queen from Snow White, Maleficient, Cruella de Vil, Lady Tremaine, Vincent Price's Professor Ratigan, Jafar, and Eartha Kitt's Yzma).
- Mark Hamill's vocal portrayal of Batman villain the Joker adopts a highly theatrical Mid-Atlantic accent throughout the character's many animation and video game appearances.
- Evan Peters employs a Mid-Atlantic accent on American Horror Story: Hotel (as James Patrick March, a ghostly serial killer from the 1920s), as does Mare Winningham (as March's accomplice, Miss Evers).
- Actor John Houseman employs a Mid-Atlantic accent on The Paper Chase (as Professor Charles W. Kingsfield Jr., a Professor of Contract Law at the Harvard Law School),[better source needed]
The Mid-Atlantic accent was carefully taught as a model of "correct" English in American elocution classes, and it was also taught for use in the American theater prior to the 1960s (after which it fell out of vogue). It is still taught to actors for use in playing historical characters.
|Pure vowels (Monophthongs)|
|English diaphoneme||Mid-Atlantic realization||Example|
|/ɒ/||[ɒ]||lot, top, wasp|
|dog, loss, cloth|
|/ɔː/||[ɔː]||all, bought, taught, saw|
|/ɛ/||[ɛ~e]||dress, met, bread|
|/ə/||[ə]||about, syrup, arena|
|/ɪ/||[ɪ~ɪ̈]||hit, skim, tip|
|/iː/||[iː]||beam, chic, fleet|
|/ʊ/||[ʊ]||book, put, should|
|/uː/||[uː]||food, glue, flew|
|/aɪ/||[äɪ]||ride, shine, try
bright, dice, pike
|/aʊ/||[ɑʊ]||now, ouch, scout|
|/eɪ/||[eɪ]||lake, paid, rein|
|/ɔɪ/||[ɔɪ]||boy, choice, moist|
|/oʊ/||[oʊ]||goat, oh, show|
|/ɑːr/||[ɑː]||barn, car, park|
|/ɪər/||[ɪə]||fear, peer, tier|
|/ɛər/||[ɛə]||fare, pair, rare|
|/ʊər/||[ʊə]||poor, sure, tour|
|/oər/ and /ɔːr/||[ɔə]||bore, torn, short|
|/ɜːr/||[ɜː~əː]||burn, first, herd|
|/ər/||[ə]||doctor, martyr, surprise|
- Trap–bath split: The Mid-Atlantic accent exhibits the TRAP-BATH split of RP. However, unlike in RP, the BATH vowel does not merge with PALM. It is only lowered from [æ] to [a̟].
- No æ-tensing: While most dialects of American English have the "trap" vowel tensed in closed syllables before nasals (and often in some other environments as well), known as æ-tensing, the Mid-Atlantic accent has no trace of æ-tensing whatsoever.
- Father–bother distinction: The "a" in father is unrounded and lengthened. On the other hand, the "bother" vowel is rounded and unlengthened. Therefore, the father-bother distinction is preserved. The LOT vowel is also used in words like "watch" and "quad".
- Lot–cloth assonance: Like contemporary RP, but unlike conservative RP and General American, words in the CLOTH lexical set use the LOT vowel rather than the THOUGHT vowel.[nb 1] However, the THOUGHT vowel is used in words such as "all", "salt", and "malt".
- Cot–caught distinction: The vowels in cot and caught are distinguished, with the latter being pronounced higher and longer than the former.
- Lack of happy tensing: The vowel /i/ at the end of words such as "happy" [ˈhæpɪ] ( listen), "Charlie", "sherry", "coffee" is not tensed and is thus pronounced with the SIT vowel [ɪ], rather than the SEAT vowel [iː]. This also extends to "i", "y", and sometimes "e", "ie", and "ee" in other positions in words. For example, the SIT vowel is used in "cities", "remark", "because", "serious", "variable".
- No Canadian raising: The diphthongs /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ do not undergo Canadian raising and are pronounced as [aɪ] and [ɑʊ], respectively, in all environments.
- Conservative //, //, //: Like in Northern American English, the vowels //, //, // do not undergo advancing, being pronounced as [oʊ], [uː] and [ɑʊ], respectively.
- No weak vowel merger: The vowels in "Rosas" and "roses" are distinguished, with the former being pronounced as [ə] and the latter as either [ɪ] or [ɨ]. This is done in General American, as well, but in the Mid-Atlantic accent, the same distinction means the retention of historic [ɪ] in weak preconsonantal positions (as in RP), so "rabbit" does not rhyme with "abbot".
- Lack of mergers before /l/: Mergers before /l/, which are typical of several accents, both British and North American, do not occur. For example, the vowels in "hull" and "bull" are kept distinct, the former as [ʌ] and the latter as [ʊ].
Vowels before /r/Edit
In the Mid-Atlantic accent, the postvocalic /r/ is typically either dropped or vocalized. The vowels /ə/ or /ɜː/ do not undergo R-coloring. Linking R is used, but intrusive R is not permitted. In Mid-Atlantic, intervocalic /r/'s and linking r's undergo liaison. In other words, they are put in the onset in the following syllable rather than a part of the coda of the previous syllable.
When preceded by a long vowel, the /r/ is vocalized to [ə], commonly known as schwa, while the long vowel itself is laxed. However, when preceded by a short vowel, the /ə/ is elided. Therefore, tense and lax vowels before /r/ are typically only distinguished by the presence/absence of /ə/. The following distinctions are examples of this concept:
- Mirror–nearer distinction: Hence mirror is [mɪɹə], but nearer is [nɪəɹə].
- Mary–merry distinction: Hence merry is [mɛrɪ], but Mary is [mɛərɪ]. Mary also has an opener variant of [ɛ] than merry.
- "marry" is pronounced with a different vowel altogether. See further in the bullet list below.
Other distinctions before /r/ include the following:
- Mary–marry–merry distinction: Like in RP, New York City, and Philadelphia, "marry" is pronounced as //, which is distinct from the vowels of both Mary and merry.
- Cure–force–north distinction: The vowels in "cure" and "force"/"north" are distinguished, the former being realized as [ʊə] and the latter as [ɔə].
- Hurry–furry distinction: The vowels in "hurry" and "furry" are distinguished, with the former pronounced as // and the latter pronounced as //.( listen)
- Distinction of // and //.
- Wine-whine distinction: The Mid-Atlantic accent lacks the Wine–whine merger: The consonants spelled w and wh are pronounced differently; words spelled with wh are pronounced as "hw" (/ʍ/). The distinction is a feature found in conservative RP and New England English, as well as in some Canadian and Southern US accents, and sporadically across the Mid-West and the West. However, it is rarely heard in contemporary RP.
- Pronunciation of /t/: /t/ can be pronounced as a glottal stop (transcribed as: [ʔ]) only if it is followed by a consonant in either the same word or the following word. Thus grateful can be pronounced [ˈɡɹeɪʔfɫ̩] ( listen). Otherwise, it is pronounced as [t]. Unlike General American, /t/ and /d/ do not undergo flapping. Likewise, winter [ˈwɪɾ̃ɚ] is not pronounced similarly or identically to winner [ˈwɪnɚ].[nb 2]
- Preservation of yod: Yod-dropping only occurs after two consonants, /r/, and optionally after /s/ and /l/. Mid-Atlantic also lacks palatalization, so duke is pronounced ([djuːk] ( listen)) rather than ([dʒuːk] ( listen)).
- A dark l [ɫ] may be heard for /l/ in all contexts, more like General American than RP.
- The -day suffix (e.g. Monday; yesterday) can either be pronounced as [deɪ] or as [dɪ] ("i" as in "did").
- Instead of the STRUT vowel, the rounded LOT vowel ( listen) vowel is used in everybody, nobody, somebody, and anybody; and when stressed, was, of, from, what. At times, the vowels in the latter words can be reduced to a schwa. However, "because" uses the THOUGHT vowel.
- Polysyllabic words ending in -ary,-ery,-ory,-mony,-ative,-bury,-berry: The first vowel in the endings -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony, -ative, -bury, and -berry are all pronounced as [ə], commonly known as a schwa. Thus inventory is pronounced [ˈɪnvɪntərɪ], rather than [ˈɪnvɪntɔrɪ].
- A similar but unrelated feature occurred in RP. As one attempt of middle-class RP speakers to make themselves sound polished, words in the CLOTH set were shifted from the THOUGHT vowel back to the lot vowel. Also see U and non-U English for details.
- "The t after n is often silent in [regional] American pronunciation. Instead of saying internet [some] Americans will frequently say 'innernet.' This is fairly standard speech and is not considered overly casual or sloppy speech."
- Drum, Kevin. "Oh, That Old-Timey Movie Accent!" Mother Jones. 2011.
- Queen, Robin (2015). Vox Popular: The Surprising Life of Language in the Media. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 241-2.
- LaBouff, Kathryn (2007). Singing and communicating in English: a singer's guide to English diction. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 241–242. ISBN 0-19-531138-8.
- Knight, Dudley. "Standard Speech". In: Hampton, Marian E. & Barbara Acker (eds.) (1997). The Vocal Vision: Views on Voice. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 174-77.
- Tsai, Michelle (February 28, 2008). "Why Did William F. Buckley Jr. talk like that?". Slate. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- Fallows, James (June 7, 2015). "That Weirdo Announcer-Voice Accent: Where It Came From and Why It Went Away. Is your language rhotic? How to find out, and whether you should care". The Atlantic. Washington DC.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), chpt. 7
- "Some Canadians used to speak with a quasi-British accent called Canadian Dainty". CBC News, July 1, 2017.
- Knight, 1997, p. 159.
- Metcalf, A. (2004). Presidential Voices. Speaking Styles from George Washington to George W. Bush. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 144-148.
- Knight, 1997, pp. 157-158.
- Knight, 1997, p. 163.
- Knight, 1997, p. 160.
- Knight, 1997, p. 171.
- Konigsberg, Eric (February 29, 2008). "On TV, Buckley Led Urbane Debating Club". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
- The Cosmic Yankee, Jason C. Eckhardt. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
- New York City Accents Changing with the Times Archived April 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.[verification needed]. Gothamist (February 25, 2008). Retrieved 2011-06-18.
-  Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier, Barbara A. Perry
-  Louis Auchincloss, the Last of the Gentlemen Novelists, New York Magazine (January 5th, 2005)
- With Mailer's death, U.S. loses a colorful writer and character – SFGate. Articles.sfgate.com (November 11, 2007). Retrieved 2011-06-18.
- Empress of fashion : a life of Diana Vreeland Los Angeles Public Library Online (December 28, 2012). Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- How to Talk Fancy, SPY magazine. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- Joseph Alsop on C-SPAN's Washington Politics program, episode airing on November 19, 1984. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
-  'Robert B. Silvers (1929–2017)'
-  'Her voice sounded like money...'. (JUL 17, 2008) The Atlantic.
- Greenhouse, Emily (May 2013). "The First American Anti-Nazi Film, Rediscovered". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Henry Cabot Lodge on the Treaty of Versailles. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- Barbara W. Tuchman (August 31, 2011). Proud Tower. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-307-79811-4. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- "Harry Grew Crosby". The AFS Story. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Alan M. Wald (1983). The revolutionary imagination: the poetry and politics of John Wheelwright and Sherry Mangan. UNC Press Books. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8078-1535-9. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- A. Javier Treviño (April 2006). George C. Homans: history, theory, and method. Paradigm Publishers. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-59451-191-2. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Jacob Heilbrunn (January 6, 2009). They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-4000-7620-8. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- William Thaddeus Coleman; Donald T. Bliss (October 26, 2010). Counsel for the situation: shaping the law to realize America's promise. Brookings Institution Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8157-0488-1. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Larry Gelbart; Museum of Television and Radio (New York, N.Y.) (1996). Stand-up comedians on television. Harry N. Abrams Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8109-4467-1. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Bill Sammon (February 1, 2006). Strategery: How George W. Bush Is Defeating Terrorists, Outwitting Democrats, and Confounding the Mainstream Media. Regnery Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-59698-002-0. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "On Language", by William Safire, The New York Times, January 18, 1987
- Robert MacNeil; William Cran; Robert McCrum (2005). Do you speak American?: a companion to the PBS television series. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-385-51198-8. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
- Pearl Harbor speech by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (sound file)
- Knight, 1997, p. 171.
- Mufson, Daniel (1994). "The Falling Standard". Theater. 25 (1): 78. doi:10.1215/01610775-25-1-78.
- Skinner, Edith (January 1, 1990). Speak with Distinction. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9781557830470.
- Skinner, Monich & Mansell (1990:334)
- McDonald, Glenn (2013). "Why Did Old-Timey Baseball Announcers Talk the Way They Did?" Body Odd. NBC News.
- Kozloff, Sarah (2000). Overhearing Film Dialogue. University of California Press. p. 25.
- Robert Blumenfeld (December 1, 2002). Accents: A Manual for Actors. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-87910-967-7. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- "Philip French's screen legends: Cary Grant". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
- Rawson, Christopher (January 28, 2009). "Lane, Hamlisch among Theater Hall of Fame inductees". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
- Lane, James. "Aristocratic Villains And English-Speaking Nazis: Why Hollywood Loves Clichéd Accents". Babbel.com. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- "What Happened to the Mid-Atlantic Accent?". CMD. May 3, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Robinson, Joanna (2015). "American Horror Story Just Gave Us a Glimpse of Leonardo DiCaprio’s Next Big Role". Vanity Fair. Condé Nast.
- John Houseman
- Fallows, James (August 8, 2011). "Language Mystery: When Did Americans Stop Sounding This Way?". The Atlantic. Washington DC. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Fletcher (2013), p. 4
- Fletcher (2005), p. 338
- Fletcher (2005), p. 339
- Skinner (1990), loc 1701 of 5800 (Kindle)
- pg. 133
- Skinner, Monich & Mansell (1990)
- E. Flemming & S. Johnson. Rosa’s Roses: Reduced Vowels in American English, http://web.mit.edu/flemming/www/paper/rosasroses.pdf
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006)
- Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary: Pronunciation Guide https://assets2.merriam-webster.com/mw/static/pdf/help/guide-to-pronunciation.pdf
- Gimson (1962)
- Skinner, Monich & Mansell (1990:102)
- Skinner, Monich & Mansell (1990:102)
- Skinner (1990), loc 1384 of 5800 (Kindle)
- Mojsin, Lisa (2009), Mastering the American Accent, Barron's Education Series, Inc., p. 36.
- Skinner, Monich & Mansell (1990:336)
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 247. ISBN 0-521-22919-7.
- Skinner (1990), loc 1429 of 5800 (Kindle)
- Skinner (1990), loc 1066 of 5800 (Kindle)
- Fletcher (2013), p. 339
- Fletcher, Patricia (2005). Classically Speaking: Dialects for Actors : Neutral American, Classical American, Standard British (RP). Trafford. ISBN 9781412041218.
- — (2013). Classically Speaking. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781300594239.
- Gimson, Alfred C. (1962). An introduction to the pronunciation of English. Foreign Language Study.
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
- Skinner, Edith; Monich, Timothy; Mansell (ed.), Lilene (1990). Speak with Distinction (Second ed.). New York: Applause Theatre Book Publishers. ISBN 1-55783-047-9.
- Skinner, Edith (1990-01-01). Speak with Distinction (Kindle ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9781557830470.