Mary Elizabeth "Liddy" Alexander Hanford Dole (born July 29, 1936) is an American politician and author who served in the Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush presidential administrations. She also served in the United States Senate from 2003 to 2009.
|United States Senator|
from North Carolina
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2009
|Preceded by||Jesse Helms|
|Succeeded by||Kay Hagan|
|Chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee|
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||George Allen|
|Succeeded by||John Ensign|
|20th United States Secretary of Labor|
January 25, 1989 – November 23, 1990
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Ann McLaughlin Korologos|
|Succeeded by||Lynn Morley Martin|
|8th United States Secretary of Transportation|
February 7, 1983 – September 30, 1987
|Preceded by||Andrew L. Lewis Jr.|
|Succeeded by||James H. Burnley IV|
|Director of the Office of Public Liaison|
January 20, 1981 – February 7, 1983
|Preceded by||Anne Wexler|
|Succeeded by||Faith Whittlesey|
|Commissioner of the Federal Trade Commission|
December 4, 1973 – March 9, 1979
|Appointed by||Richard Nixon|
|Preceded by||Patricia Bailey|
|Succeeded by||Mary Gardiner Jones|
Mary Elizabeth Alexander Hanford
July 29, 1936
Salisbury, North Carolina, U.S.
|Political party||Democratic (before 1975)|
|Education||Duke University (BA)|
Harvard University (MEd, JD)
A graduate of Duke University and Harvard Law School, Dole served as Secretary of Transportation under Ronald Reagan and Secretary of Labor under George H. W. Bush before becoming head of the American Red Cross. She next served as North Carolina's first female U.S. Senator (2003–09). She is a member of the Republican Party and former chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee. She is married to former U.S. Senate Majority Leader, 1976 Republican vice-presidential nominee and 1996 Republican presidential nominee Bob Dole.
Early life and familyEdit
Dole first met her future husband, Bob Dole, in the spring of 1972 at a meeting arranged by her boss and mentor, Virginia Knauer. The couple dated, and she became his second wife on December 6, 1975, in the Washington National Cathedral. They have no children, though she is stepmother to Bob's adult daughter Robin from his first marriage of 24 years, which ended in divorce in 1972.
She attended individually, and later with her husband, the Foundry United Methodist Church in Washington, D.C., before joining the National Presbyterian Church in 1996. Articles at the time reported that the Doles stopped attending Foundry in 1995, finding the pastor at the time, J. Philip Wogaman, too liberal.
Dole attended Duke University and graduated with distinction in Political Science, on June 2, 1958. She was a finalist for an Angier B. Duke scholarship, a full-tuition award given to outstanding applicants who matriculate at Duke. She was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was a recipient of the Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award, a national prize given to those exemplifying the ideal of service to others.
Among her activities at Duke were the chapel choir, Chanticleer (yearbook) business staff, freshman advisory council, The Order of the White Duchy (a local honorary society for outstanding women student leaders, a female counterpart of The Order of The Red Friars), Phi Kappa Delta (a local leadership honorary for senior women), and Pi Sigma Alpha (a national political-science honorary society). Dole is a sister of Delta Delta Delta. She was also elected president of the woman's student government association, 1958 May queen, and "leader of the year" by the student newspaper, The Chronicle. Dole has remained involved with Duke University, serving at various points in time as president of the Duke University alumnae association, and a member of the board of trustees and board of visitors. She has spoken formally at Duke several times.
Following her graduation from Duke, she did her post-graduate work at Oxford in 1959. After Oxford, she took a job as a student teacher at Melrose High School in Melrose, Massachusetts, for the 1959–1960 school year. While teaching, she also pursued her master's degree in education from Harvard University, which she earned in 1960, followed by a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1965. At graduation, she was one of 24 women in a class of 550 students. She is an alumna of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society.
White House yearsEdit
Nixon and Ford AdministrationsEdit
When many Democrats left the White House following Richard Nixon's replacement of Johnson, Dole did not. From 1969 to 1973, she served as deputy assistant to President Nixon for consumer affairs. In 1973, Nixon appointed her to a seven-year term on the Federal Trade Commission. In 1975, she became a Republican. She took a leave from her post as a Federal Trade Commissioner for several months in 1976 to campaign for her husband for vice president of the United States, when he ran on the Republican ticket with Gerald Ford. She later resigned from the FTC in 1979, to campaign for her husband's 1980 presidential run. During the 1970s, Dole was a self-described member of the Women's Liberation Movement and helped reform laws to ensure equal credit for women. She was also a supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Reagan Administration and Secretary of TransportationEdit
She served as director of the White House Office of Public Liaison, from 1981 to 1983 and as United States Secretary of Transportation from 1983 to 1987 under Ronald Reagan. She was also appointed by Reagan to chair task forces that sought to reform federal and state laws to ensure equal rights for women. She was the first woman appointed Secretary of Transportation. In this role, she was the first woman to have served as the head of a branch of the United States Military, as the United States Coast Guard was under the Department of Transportation at the time. Dole's appointment was "particularly irritating" to conservative activists, since "though at least nominally opposed to abortion, [she was] viewed by the right as [an] aggressive feminist."
During her tenure, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, mandated the installation of a center high-mounted stop lamp on new cars; these are sometimes called "Liddy Lights" in her recognition. She worked with MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) to pass laws withholding federal highway funding from any state that had a drinking age below twenty-one. The state government of South Dakota opposed the drinking age law and sued Dole in the case South Dakota v. Dole, but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Dole. She oversaw the privatization of the national freight railroad, CONRAIL. She initiated random drug testing within the Department of Transportation.
Bush Administration and Secretary of LaborEdit
Dole served as United States Secretary of Labor from 1989 to 1990 under George H. W. Bush; she is the first woman to serve in two different Cabinet positions in the administrations of two presidents. Her tenure as both U.S. Transportation Secretary and U.S. Labor Secretary focused heavily on improving public safety and workplace safety and health. In 1990, Dole tapped former Ronald Reagan Administration official and long-time public safety and health advocate, Roy Clason Jr. as Director of Policy of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration to help her spearhead a number of OSHA reforms to better protect America's 91 million workers from workplace injuries and illnesses.
American Red Cross presidencyEdit
1996 Republican National ConventionEdit
Dole's husband Bob Dole was the Republican nominee in the US presidential election of 1996. Elizabeth Dole, who would have become First Lady had her husband won the election, or the Second Lady of the United States, had Gerald Ford won the 1976 election, received recognition for her speech at the 1996 Republican National Convention, during which she walked out into the audience while talking conversationally about her husband's qualities.
2000 United States Presidential candidacyEdit
Elizabeth Dole ran for the Republican nomination in the US presidential election of 2000, but pulled out of the race in October 1999 before any of the primaries, largely due to inadequate fundraising even though a Gallup poll had her in second place in the presidential race at 11% behind George W. Bush at 60% as late as October 1999. Dole placed third—behind George W. Bush and Steve Forbes—in a large field in the Iowa Straw Poll (the first, non-binding, test of electability for the Republican Party nomination). The Iowa Straw Poll differed from the national polls where she was second only to Bush; Senator John McCain was in third place.
Shortly before the 2000 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, Bush campaign sources said Elizabeth Dole was on the short list to be named the vice-presidential nominee, along with Michigan Governor John Engler, New York Governor George Pataki, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge, and former Missouri Senator John Danforth. Many pundits believed that Dole was the frontrunner for the vice presidential nomination. Bush then surprised most pundits by selecting former U.S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, who was actually in charge of leading Bush's search for a vice presidential nominee.
United States Senate careerEdit
In late December 2001, Dole shifted her official residency from the Doles' condominium in the Watergate complex to her mother's home in Salisbury to seek election to the U.S. Senate. The seat was made available by the retirement of Republican Jesse Helms. Although Dole had not lived regularly in North Carolina since 1959 and had been a resident of the Washington area for most of the time since the mid-1960s, the state and national Republican establishment quickly cleared the field for her. She handily won the Republican primary with 80 percent of the vote over a lesser-known candidate, Dr. Ada Fisher. In the November general election, she defeated her Democratic opponent Erskine Bowles, a former chief of staff to former President Bill Clinton, by an eight-point margin.
Her election to the Senate marked the first time a spouse of a former Senator was elected to the Senate from a different state from that of her spouse. (Although Kansas Senator Nancy Landon Kassebaum married former Tennessee Senator Howard Baker, the marriage occurred after Kassebaum and Baker both had finished their service in the Senate.) Dole was criticized by Democrats during her first Senate campaign over the fact that for over 40 years prior to her nomination, she had not lived in North Carolina.
In November 2004, following Republican gains in the United States Senate, Dole narrowly edged out Senator Norm Coleman of Minnesota for the post of chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee. She is the first woman to become chair of the NRSC. During her election cycle as chairperson, her Democratic Party counterpart, Senator Chuck Schumer raised significantly more money, and experienced more success in recruiting candidates. In the November election, Dole's party lost six U.S. Senate seats to the Democrats, thus losing control of the U.S. Senate. Dole was replaced as NRSC chair by Senator John Ensign of Nevada following the 2006 midterms.
2008 Senate re-election campaignEdit
Dole was initially a heavy favorite for re-election, especially after several potential top-tier challengers such as Congressman Brad Miller, Governor Mike Easley and former Governor Jim Hunt all declined to compete against Dole. Ultimately, Kay Hagan, a state senator from Greensboro, won the Democratic primary election against Jim Neal and became Dole's general election opponent. Reports late in the campaign suggested that Dole suffered from Barack Obama's decision to aggressively contest North Carolina in the presidential election, while Hagan received substantial support from independent 527 groups lobbying/advertising against Dole, as well as the Democratic Senate Campaign Committee, which spent more money in North Carolina than in any other state during the 2008 election season. Dole undertook an eight-day "ElizaBus" tour of the state in the days leading up to election day.
In late October, Dole released a controversial television ad attacking Hagan for reportedly taking donations from individuals involved in the Godless Americans PAC, a group that advocates for the rights of people who do not believe in God. The ad also included a female voice saying, "There is no god." Hagan's campaign said the ad sought to put inflammatory words in their candidate's mouth. Hagan, who was a member of the Presbyterian Church and a former Sunday school teacher, condemned the ad as "fabricated and pathetic," and, according to Hagan's campaign website, a cease-and-desist letter was "hand-delivered to Dole's Raleigh office and to her home at the Watergate in Washington, DC." Hagan also filed a lawsuit in Wake County Superior Court accusing Dole of defamation and libel. The ad met significant criticism from some members of the public as well as national media outlets. After the first ad Hagan received over 3,600 contributions, including major donors as well as individual support from a range of persons who believed in the right to participate in civil government free of religious orthodoxy requirements. Following the second ad Hagan's lead doubled according to some polls.
In the 2008 election, Dole lost by a wider-than-expected margin, taking 44 percent of the vote to Hagan's 53 percent – the largest margin of defeat for an incumbent Senator in the 2008 cycle. It has been speculated that the outcry over the "Godless" ad contributed to Dole's loss. Hagan trounced Dole in the state's five largest counties – Mecklenburg, Wake, Guilford, Forsyth and Durham. Hagan also dominated most of the eastern portion of the state, which had been the backbone of Helms' past Senate victories. While Dole dominated the Charlotte suburbs and most of the heavily Republican Foothills region, it was not enough to save her seat.
Dole's voting record was somewhat more conservative than that of her husband, though slightly less conservative than that of Helms. She has a lifetime rating of 92 from the American Conservative Union.
In September 2008, Dole joined the Gang of 20, a bipartisan group working towards comprehensive energy reform. The group is pushing for a bill that would encourage state-by-state decisions on offshore drilling and authorize billions of dollars for conservation and alternative energy.
As a member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, Dole is credited with helping to prevent any closures of North Carolina military bases despite threats from the Department of Defense. In 2007, she sponsored legislation which would have granted federal recognition of a North Carolina Native American tribe, the Lumbee based in Robeson County.
Dole was a member of the following U.S. Senate committees:
- U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services
- Emerging Threats and Capabilities
- Readiness and Management Support
- U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
- Financial Institutions
- Housing, Transportation, and Community Development
- Security and International Trade and Finance
- U.S. Senate Select Committee on Aging
- U.S. Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship
After politics: Elizabeth Dole FoundationEdit
Dole commissioned the RAND Corporation to develop the first nationwide comprehensive, evidence-based report on the needs of military and veteran caregivers. The two-year study includes an environmental scan of available services, a gap analysis, and recommendations for meeting the enormous challenges of America's hidden heroes – the young spouses, mothers, fathers and other loved ones caring for those who cared for us. The study was generously supported by the Wounded Warrior Project, the Lilly Endowment, and the Cannon Foundation.
The Foundation selects military and veteran caregivers from each state to serve a two-year Fellowship with the Foundation. The Dole Fellows represent a vast array of military caregivers: spouses, parents, siblings and friends, and use their voice to help bring awareness on a national scale. The Foundation also has a National Coalition Program to bring together private and public entities to create substantial change.
Actor Tom Hanks joined the Foundation's Hidden Heroes Campaign to bring awareness to the over 5.5 million military caregivers across America who are facing enormous challenges every day caring for members of the military and gravely injured veterans.
- Dole, Bob & Elizabeth with Richard Norton Smith (1988). The Doles: Unlimited Partners. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-60202-0. The book was first released during Bob Dole's presidential candidacy. (re-release) Unlimited Partners: Our American Story. Simon & Schuster, 1996. ISBN 0-684-83401-4
- Dole, Elizabeth (2004) Hearts Touched by Fire: My 500 Most Inspirational Quotations. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1428-X
Dole accepted no salary from the Red Cross during her first year as president of the organization.
|Democratic gain from Republican||Swing|
- Mary Ella Cathey Hanford, "Asbury and Hanford Families: Newly Discovered Genealogical Information" The Historical Trail 33 (1996), pp. 44–45, 49.
- [dead link]
- "Ancestry of Elizabeth Dole (b. 1936)". Wargs.com. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "Elizabeth Dole". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- Elizabeth Hanford Dole, "For Such a Time As This: A Personal Statement of Faith" The Historical Trail 33 (1996) p. 26
- "Moscow-Pullman Daily News - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
- Duke University Archives. The Registrar's statistics for Fall 1957 show that 25 men and 12 women seniors were majoring in political science. In the 1958 Commencement Program, hers is the only name listed for departmental honors.
- "Distinguished Deltas". Delta Delta Delta. Retrieved March 25, 2010
- Duke University Archives (http://library.duke.edu/uarchives). Elizabeth Dole at Duke University: http://library.duke.edu/uarchives/history/eh_dole.html. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- Leonard, Mary (September 21, 1999). "Dole Returns to Melrose Classroom". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 8, 2009.
- Greenhouse, Linda (December 25, 1988). "A Career in the Capital; Woman in the News: Elizabeth Hanford Dole". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- "DOLE, Elizabeth Hanford - US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov.
- "Dole to Give HBS Class Day Speech | News | The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Newsweek: The 'L' Word
- "Cain Surges, Nearly Ties Romney for Lead in GOP Preferences". Gallup.com. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Starr, Alexandra (July 1999). "Running Mates: Who will be on the ticket in 2000?". The Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on March 5, 2000.
- "Elizabeth Dole FEC Filing and Deed" (PDF). Pam's House Blend. December 26, 2001. Retrieved August 1, 2008.[permanent dead link]
- "Elizabeth Dole Gives Hint of Senate Race". The New York Times. August 24, 2001. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Winston-Salem Journal - Democrats are scouting candidates to beat Dole". September 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- "Is the Southern Strategy Dead?". American Prospect. October 24, 2008. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- "Scrambling the red states". The Economist. October 23, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
- "Dole, Hagan finishing pitch to voters". Raleigh News & Observer. November 2, 2008. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
- Brown, Campbell. Commentary: Mudslinging to get elected. CNN. October 29, 2008.
- KayHagan.com. Kay on Dole Ad Attacking Her Christian Faith: A Fabricated, Pathetic Ad Archived May 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. October 30, 2008.
- Dole Sued for 'Godless' Attack Ad Archived January 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News. October 30, 2008.
- Dole challenger irate over suggestion she is 'godless'. CNN. October 30, 2008.
- "Dole's mistake: 'Godless' ad drove donors, voters to Hagan". The Miami Herald. November 11, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.[dead link]
- Barbara Barrett (November 5, 2008). "N.C. voters deny Dole, elect Hagan to U.S. Senate". The Miami Herald. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Watt and Cobb battle for 12th District seat". Davidson County Dispatch. October 16, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
- "Klobuchar joins bipartisan energy group". Star Tribune. September 12, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "Looking for real reform in the governor's race". Independent Weekly. October 15, 2008. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2008.
- "A steadfast few". Daily Tarheel. November 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
- "The Elizabeth Dole Foundation". The Elizabeth Dole Foundation.
- "Newly established Elizabeth Dole Foundation to help 'hidden heroes'". Salisbury Post. March 9, 2013. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014.
- "Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers". December 26, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2018. Cite journal requires
- "Landmark Research - The Elizabeth Dole Foundation". Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Dole Caregiver Fellows - The Elizabeth Dole Foundation". Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Hidden Heroes - The Elizabeth Dole Foundation". Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Hidden Heroes - The Elizabeth Dole Foundation". Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Kolbert, Elizabeth (November 3, 1996). "Memoirs without Revelations". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ".: The Official Wings Of Hope Homepage". Wings-of-hope.org. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "Dole, Elizabeth Hanford". National Women’s Hall of Fame.
- "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation". Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Dole - World Changers - About - Indiana Wesleyan University". www.indwes.edu.
- "Elizabeth Dole to receive award named for Medal of Honor recipient Leo K. Thorsness". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- "America's Warrior Partnership Honors Former U.S. Senator Elizabeth Dole With Fourth Annual Leo Thorsness Leadership Award – Veterans News Report". Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- "Breaking News". CNN.
- "NC State Board of Elections website". Results.enr.clarityelections.com. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "NC State Board of Elections website". Results.enr.clarityelections.com. November 14, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Senate Campaign website
- Collected news and commentary from The New York Times
- Elizabeth Dole at Curlie
- A Few Good Women... Elizabeth Dole
- Works by or about Elizabeth Dole at Internet Archive
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| Director of the Office of Public Liaison
| United States Secretary of Transportation
| United States Secretary of Labor
|Non-profit organization positions|
| President of the American Red Cross
|Party political offices|
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from North Carolina
| Chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee
| U.S. Senator (Class 2) from North Carolina
Served alongside: John Edwards, Richard Burr