Open main menu

Dan /ˈdæn/[3] is a Mande language spoken primarily in Ivory Coast (~800,000 speakers) and Liberia (150,000–200,000 speakers). There is also a population of about 800 speakers in Guinea. Dan is a tonal language, with three main tones and two glide/contour tones.

Dan
Yacouba
RegionIvory Coast, Guinea, and Liberia.
Native speakers
1.6 million (2012)[1]
Niger–Congo
  • Mande
    • Eastern Mande
      • Southeastern
        • Mano–Dan
          • Guro–Dan
            • Tura–Dan
              • Dan
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
dnj – Dan
lda – Kla
Glottologdann1241[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Alternative names for the language include Yacouba or Yakubasa, Gio, Gyo, Gio-Dan, and Da. Dialects are Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan), and Kla. Kla is evidently a distinct language.

PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɯ u
Close-mid e ɤ o
Open-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a ɑ

Writing systemEdit

The orthography of Liberia includes this alphabet:

Dan alphabet (Liberia)
A B Ɓ D Ɗ E Ɛ F G GB H I K KP KW L M N NW NY Ŋ O Ɔ Ə Ɵ P R S T U V W X Y Z
a b ɓ d ɗ e ɛ f g gb h i k kp kw l m n nw ny ŋ o ɔ ə ɵ p r s t u ɥ v w x y z
IPA value
a b ɓ d ɗ e ɛ f ɡ ɡ͡b h i k k͡p l m n ŋʷ ɲ ŋ o ɔ ə ɵ p r s t u ɯ v w x j z

[4][5]

Dan West alphabet (Côte d'Ivoire)
A B BH D DH E Ɛ Ë ƐA F G GB GW I K KP KW L M N NG O Ɔ Ö P R S T U Ü V W Y Z
a b bh d dh e ɛ ë ɛa f g gb gw i k kp kw l m n ng o ɔ ö p r s t u ü v w y z
IPA value
a ɒ b ɓ d ɗ e ɛ ʌ æ f ɡ ɡ͡b i k k͡p l m n ŋ o ɔ ɤ p r s t u ɯ v w j z
Dan East alphabet (Côte d'Ivoire)
A B BH D DH E Ë Ɛ ƐA F G GB GW H I Ɩ K KP KW L M N O Ö Ɔ P R S T U Ü Ʋ Ʋ̈ V W Y Z
a b bh d dh e ë ɛ ɛa f g gb gw h i ɩ k kp kw l m n o ö ɔ p r s t u ü ʋ ʋ̈ v w y z

In Côte d'Ivoire, the letter ɤ (The capital form is not in Unicode) is use in at least one dialect.[6]

Tones are marked with grave, acute, and circumflex accents. Nasalization is marked with a tilde.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Kla at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  4. ^ https://scriptsource.org/cms/scripts/page.php?item_id=wrSys_detail_sym&key=dnj-Latn-CI. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Proposal to Encode Additional Latin and Cyrillic Characters" (PDF).
  6. ^ "SIL PUA assignments 11.0".

External linksEdit