Bhoopali

  (Redirected from Bhupali)

Bhoopali, also known as Bhoop, Bhopali, or Bhupali, is a Hindustani classical raga. Bhupālī, is a raag in Kalyan Thaat. It is a pentatonic scale (uses 5 notes in ascending and descending scale).[1] Most of the songs in this raga are based on Bhakti rasa. Since it uses 5 notes, belongs to the "Audav jaati" of ragas.

Bhoopali
ThaatKalyan
TypeAudava
Time of dayEarly night, 7-9 (the real time it is not 9-12)
ArohanaS R G P D S'
AvarohanaS' D P G R S
Pakad
  • S R G R S D1 S R G
  • S R G R S D1 S R G P G D P G R S
  • G R P G G R S R D1 S
  • G R S D1 S R G R P G D P G R S
Chalan
  • S R G R S D1 S R G
  • S R G R S D1 P1
  • P1 D1 S R G R G
  • S R P G
  • G R S R G P
  • G P D P D D S’
  • P G P D P D S’ R’ G’ R’ G’
  • G’ R’ S’ D P G R S
VadiG
SamavadiD
Synonym
  • Bhup
  • Bhup Kalyan
Equivalent

The same raga in Carnatic music is known as Mohanam.

Raga Bhoopali, Raga Yaman, and Raga Bhairav tend to be the three basic ragas of Hindustani music, learned first by its students.[2]

TheoryEdit

Madhuvanti Pal plays raag Bhoopali on rudra veena

Karhade (2011) explains that raga Bhopali consists of just 5 notes - सा रे ग प ध (sa, re, ga, pa and dha).[3]

It does not use Ma (also called Madhyam) and Ni (also called Nishadh).[3] It is said that the absence of Ni (representative of physical pleasure) and Ma (representative of loving) means this raga is about non-attachment.[4]

The Introduction consists of two parts – Aaroh आरोह (where the notes are simply recited on an ascending scale) and Avaroha (where the notes are simply recited on a descending order)[3]

Thereafter, with these same five notes, different combinations are made by the singer, similar to short phrases, also called "chalan".[3]

Aroha and avarohaEdit

The scale of Bhopali uses only Shuddh swaras.

  • Aroha (ascent): Sa Re Ga Pa Dha Sa'
  • Avaroha (descent): Sa'! Dha Pa Ga Re Sa

Vadi and samavadiEdit

Gandhar – ga

Dhaivat – Dha

AlapEdit

  1. S, D1 D1...S, R - - S...D1 S..., D1 - - - P1, S - - - D1 S - - D1 P1, P1 D1, D1 D1 S

[5]

Pakad and chalanEdit

The Pakad (catchphrase that often helps in identifying a raga) is:

S R G R S D1 S R G

or:

S R G R S D1 S R G P G D P G R S

or:

G R P G G R S R D1 S

or:

G R S D1 S R G R P G D P G R S

or:

G R P G S R D1 S

Some chalans (elaborations of the pakad) are:

  1. S R G R S D1 S R G
  2. S R G R S D1 P1
  3. P1 D1 S R G R G
  4. S R P G
  5. G R S R G P
  6. G P D P D D S’
  7. P G P D P D S’ R’ G’ R’ G’
  8. G’ R’ S’ D P G R S

Note: Normally written swaras (individual notes) indicate the middle octave. A swara immediately followed by 1 indicates the mandra saptak (lower octave) and ' indicates the taar saptak (higher octave).

A few movements in Bhopali are important to note. There is typically a slide when descending between Sa and Dha, as well as between Pa and Ga. These slides parallel each other and can be used to create a symmetry about how the Swaras are developed. Also, many performers will bring out the Kalyan flavor of Bhopali by using abhasi of the notes Shuddha Ni and Tivra Ma. That is to say, these notes are only vaguely suggested in passing ornaments, not actually sung for long enough for the Swara to become a clear part of the Raga. Some examples would be:

(N1)D1 S

P(m)P(m) D P

where the notes in parenthesis are connected by slides or sung as meend.

BandishEdit

This bandish is bound with Teentaal (16 beats).

1 2 3 4 | 5 6 7 8 | 9 10 11 12 | 13 14 15 16 |

Asthayi:

D S D2 P | G2 R2 S R2 |

G2 _ G2 P | G2 R2 S _ |

S R2 G2 P | R2 G2 P D2 |

G2 P D2 P | G2 R2 S _ |

Antara:

G2 _ G2 G2 |P _ D2 P |

S' _ S' S' |D3 R3 S' _|

G3 G3 R3 S'|R3 R3 S' D3|

S' _ D2 P |G2 R2 S _|

The Asthayi starts with the 9th beat.

Organisation and relationshipsEdit

Raga Bhoopali belongs to the Kalyan Thaat.

Related ragas: Deshkar (a pentatonic raga belonging to the Bilawal Thaat with the same scale as Bhoopali). Shuddha Kalyan is another similar raga.

Samay (Time)Edit

First part of night. 7-9

RasaEdit

Bhakti Rasa (Devotional)

The essence from the raga evokes the Shanti Rasa – peaceful and calming.[5]

Film songsEdit

Bhoopali is a popular raga used in Indian folk songs, and thus in Hindi and other regional film songs.[3]

Hindi:

Marathi:

Tamil movie songs in MohanamEdit

Song Movie Lyricist Composer Singer
Giridhara Gopala Meera S. V. Venkatraman M. S. Subbulakshmi
Thillai Ambala Nadaraajaa Soubhagyavathi Pattukkottai Kalyanasundaram Pendyala Nageswara Rao T. M. Soundararajan
Nilavum Malarum Then Nilavu Kannadasan A. M. Rajah A. M. Rajah, P. Susheela
Aarumugamana Porul Kandhan Karunai K. V. Mahadevan S. Janaki,Rajalakshmi
Om Namasivaya Thiruvilaiyadal Sirkazhi Govindarajan, P. Susheela
Malargal Nanaindhana Idhaya Kamalam P. Susheela
Velli Mani Oosaiyil Iru Malargal Vaali M. S. Viswanathan
Chittukuruvikenna Saavale Samali Kannadasan
Iraivan Varuvan Shanthi Nilayam
Yaumuna Nadhi Inge Gowaravam S. P. Balasubramaniam, P. Susheela
Sangey Mozhangu Kalangarai Vilakam Bharathidasan P. Susheela,Seerkazhi Govindarajan
Thanga Thoniyile Ulagam Sutrum Vaaliban Vaali K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Bansaye T. M. Soundarajan, L. R. Easwari
Kadaloram Vaangiya Kaatru Rickshawkaaran T. M. Soundarajan
Vanda naal mudhal Paavamannippu Kannadasan
Thiruchendoorin Kadalorathil Senthilnaathan Dheivam Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan T. M. Soundararajan, Seerkazhi Govindarajan
Neelakkadalin Oratthil Annai Velankanni G. Devarajan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Madhuri
Oru Kadhal Samrajyam Nandha En Nila V. Dakshinamoorthy P. Jayachandran, T. K. Kala
Ninu Kori Varnam Isaithida Agni Natchatram Illayaraja Chitra
Kanmaniye Kadhal Enbadhu Aarilirunthu Arubathu Varai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Nilavu thoongum Kungumachimizh
Iru Paravaigal Niram Maratha Pookal Jency
Meenkodi Theril Karumbhu Vil K.J. Yesudas, Jency Anthony
Vaan Pole Vannam Salangai Oli Vairamuthu S. P. Balasubhramaniam, S. P. Sailaja
Oru Thanga Rathathil Dharma Yutham Malaysia Vasudevan
Kannan Oru kaikulanthai Bhadrakali KJ Yesudas,P Susheela
Kaathirunthen Thaniye Rasa Magan Chandrasekar, Srilekha
Sreeramane Unnai Kangalin Vaarthaigal K. S. Chithra, Illayaraja
Oru Raagam Anandha Ragam Gangai Amaran K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Geetham Sangeetham Kokarako S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Poovil Vandu Kaadhal Oviyam Vairamuthu
Ravi varman oviyamo Puthu vayal Aravinth
Sivappu Lolaku Kaadhal Kottai Deva
Vellarika Krishnaraj
Nepala Malaiyoram Thaikulame Thaikulame S. P. Balasubhramaniam,Swarnalatha
Priya Priya Kattabomman (film) S. P. Balasubhramaniam,K.S.Chitra
Thoonganakuruvi Jallikattu kalai
Kadhal Kaditham Cheran Pandiyan Soundaryan S.A. Rajkumar, Swarnalatha
Boom Boom Boys Kabilan A. R. Rahman Adnan Sami,Sadhana Sargam
Ennodu Nee Irundhaal I Sid Sriram,Sunitha Sarathy
Porale Ponnuthayi Karuthamma Vairamuthu Unni Menon, Sujatha Mohan,Swarnalatha(Pathos)(Won National Award)
Madrasai Suthi

(Ragamalika:Mohanam,Punnagavarali)

May Maadham Shahul Hameed, Swarnalatha, G. V. Prakash & Manorama
Pakkada Pakkade Gentleman Minmini
Varayo Thozhi Jeans Sonu Nigam, Harini
Samba Samba Love Birds Aslam Mustafa
Kannai Katti Kollathey Iruvar Hariharan
Poi Solla Poren Thiruttu Payale Bharadwaj KK, Kanmani
Oru Kathal Enpathu Chinna Thambi Periya Thambi Gangai Amaran S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Chinnapattam Poochi Sugamana Sumaigal Chandrabose K. S. Chithra,Mano
Kaalai Neeye Kaalaiyum Neeye Maalaiyum Neeye Vaali Devendran S. Janaki
Malaiya Kodainju Pathaya Amaichen Pudhu Padagan S. Thanu S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Unnai Ninachi Avathara Purushan Sirpy
Mudhal Mudhalai Varushamellam Vasantham P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha
Pottu Mela Pottu Janakiraman S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Anuradha Sriram
Mainaave Mainaave Thithikudhe Vidyasagar P. Unnikrishnan, Sadhana Sargam
Rosave Rosave Ellaichami Pulamaipithan S. A. Rajkumar Malaysia Vasudevan, K. S. Chithra
Maname Thottal Thottachinungi Phillip Jerry Hariharan, K. S. Chithra
Kadhalithal Anandham Style Bharani
Uchi Mudhal Sukran Vijay Antony Timmy, Gayathri
Engeyum Kadhal Engeyum Kadhal Thamarai Harris Jayaraj Aalap Raju, Devan Ekambaram, Ranina Reddy
Malayalam movie songs in Mohanam (Selected)
Song Movie Lyricist Composer singer(s)
Malini nadiyil Sakunthala Vayalar Ramavarma G Devarajan KJ Yesudas, P Suseela
Manjalayil mungi thorthi Kalithozhan P Bhaskaran G Devarajan P Jayachandran
Manjani Poonilaav Nagarame Nandi P Bhaskaran K Raghavan S Janaki
Suprabhatham (neelagiriyude) Panitheeratha Veedu Vayalar Ramavarma MS Viswanathan P Jayachandran
Chandrikayilaliyunnu Bharyamar Sookshikkuka Sreekumaran Thampi V Dakshinamoorthy KJ Yesudas, P Leela, AM Raja
Pournami Chandrika Rest House Sreekumaran Thampi MK Arjunan KJ Yesudas
Madhuchandrikayude Anachadanam Vayalar Ramavarma G Devarajan P Jayachandran
Swargaputhri Navarathri Nizhalattam Vayalar Ramavarma G Devarajan KJ Yesudas
Guruvayurambala Nadayil Othenante makan Vayalar Ramavarma G Devarajan KJ Yesudas
Ezharapponnana purath Akkarappacha Vayalar Ramavarma G Devarajan P Madhuri
Nin maniyarayile CID Nazir Sreekumaran Thampi MK Arjunan P Jayachandran
Arivin Nilave Rajashilpi ONV Kurup Raveendran KS Chithra
Etho nidrathan Ayal Katha Ezhuthukayanu Kaithapram Raveendran KJ Yesudas
Maarikkuliril neela thulasi Kouravar Kaithapram SP Venkitesh KJ Yesudas, KS Chithra
Chandanalepa Sugandham Oru vadakkan veeragatha K Jayakumar Ravi Bombay KJ Yesudas
Aareyum Bhava gayakan aakkum Nakhakshathangal ONV Kurup Ravi Bombay KJ Yesudas
Maayaponmane Thalayanamanthram Kaithapram Johnson KS Chithra
Manje vaa madhuvidhu vela Thusharam Yousuf Ali Kechery Shyam KJ Yesudas, SP Balasubrahmaniam
Thaara noopuram chaarthi Sopanam Kaithapram SP Venkitesh KJ Yesudas, Manju Menon
Mouliyil mayilpeeli Nandanam Gireesh Puthenchery Raveendran KS Chithra
Ponkasavu njoriyum joker Yousuf Ali Kechery Mohan Sithara P Jayachandran, KS Chithra
Parvanendu mukhi Parinayam Yousuf Ali Kechery Ravi Bombay KS Chithra
Kaliveedurangiyallo Deshadanam Kaithapram Kaithapram KJ Yesudas
Aakasha neelima Kayyum thalayum purathidaruth Mullanezhi Raveendran KJ Yesudas
Nee en sarga soundaryame Kathodu kathoram ONV kurupp Ouseppachan KJ Yesudas, Lathika

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Menon, R.R. (1973). Discovering Indian Music. Somaiya Publications. p. 50. Retrieved 26 May 2021. Some prefer the first Raga to be pentatonic in scale. Let us take for an example, the pentatonic Bhoopali. Its notes are: SA RI GA PA DHA SA up and down the scale.
  2. ^ Pathak Yajurvedi, Dr. Sarita. "Lecture – Raag Bhopali (Edusat)". www.youtube.com. Bharti College, University of Delhi. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e Karhade, Aradhana. "Raag Bhopali (Uploaded 20 January 2011)". www.youtube.com. Karhade, A. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  4. ^ Alain, Daniélou (2014). The Rāgas of Northern Indian music. Daniélou, Alain. (2014 ed.). New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-81-215-0225-2. OCLC 39028809.
  5. ^ a b Yagnik, Hasu (2013). Shastriya Raag Darshan. Gurjar Granthratna Karyalay. ISBN 978-81-8480-826-1.
  6. ^ "Songs based on Raaga Bhopali". www.soundofindia.com. Sound of India. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.

External linksEdit