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Rudra veena (also spelled Rudra vina, and also called Bīn in North India), is a stick zither, a large plucked string instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent and used in Hindustani classical music. It is one of the major types of veena played in Indian classical music.
|Other names||Rudra vina, Been, Bin|
(True stick zither: instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings, which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument, with a string bearer shaped like a bar (bar zither), has a rigid and inflexible string carrier (stick zither), has no curved or flexible end (true stick zither), has more than one resonator gourds.)
|Ustad Shamshuddin Faridi Desai (1936 - 2011), Bande Ali Khan (1826 - 1890), Ustad Abid Hussain Khan, Rajab Ali Khan Rudra Veena, Mohammed Khan Faridi, Jamaluddin Khan, Murad Khan Rudra Veena, Krishnarao Kholapure, Anant Bedekar, Asad Ali Khan (1937 - 2011), Asit Kumar Banerjee, Jyoti Hegde, R.V. Hegde (b. 1953), Madhuvanti Pal (b. 1992), Bindu Madhav Pathak (1935 - 2004), Shrikant Pathak, Bahauddin Dagar (b.1970), Carsten Wicke (b. 1970), Peter Row, Rudra Veena (1944-2018), Dattatreya Rama Rao Parvatikar (1916 - 1990), Hindraj Divekar, Naubat Khan, Omrao Khan, Wazir Khan (Rampur), Zia Mohiuddin Dagar (1929 - 1990), Zahid Khan, P.D. Shah (1911 - 1975)|
|More articles or information|
|Veena, Saraswati veena, Vichitra veena, Chitra veena, Pinaka vina, Ālāpiṇī vīṇā|
It has a long tubular body made of wood or bamboo with a length between 54 and 62 inches. Two large, round resonators, made of dried and hollowed gourds, are attached under the tube. Twenty-four brass-fitted raised wooden frets are fixed on the tube with the help of wax. There are 4 main strings and 3 chikari strings.
As Rudra is a name for the Hindu god Shiva, rudra vina literally means "the veena dear to Shiva". Shiva is also said to have created the Rudra Veena, inspired by his wife, Parvati. Also, Ravana is said to have invented RudraVeena inspired as he was with his devotion to Lord Shiva, he named the instrument Rudra Veena - Rudra is the vedic deity Siva.
It is an ancient instrument rarely played today. The rudra veena declined in popularity in part due to the introduction in the early 19th century of the surbahar, which allowed sitarists to more easily present the alap sections of slow dhrupad-style ragas. In the 20th century, Zia Mohiuddin Dagar modified and redesigned the rudra veena to use bigger gourds, a thicker tube (dandi), thicker steel playing strings (0.45-0.47 mm) and closed javari that. This produced a soft and deep sound when plucked without the use of any plectrum (mizrab). The instrument was further modified as the shruti veena by Lalmani Misra to establish Bharat's Shadja Gram and obtain the 22 shrutis.
Ca. 1700. Saraswati riding a white bird and holding a northern style bīn (rudra vīnā). The instrument is depicted with four strings.
1808-1812. Illustration of a bīn, labeled "qaplious". At the time, the instrument illustrated was fretless; similar to the pinaka vina, it used a stick to slide on the string and chose notes.
1891. A Bin Player, by William Gibb. The instrument depicted had four main strings that could be fretted and three side strings.
Veena Maharaj Dattatreya Rama Rao Parvatikar (1916-1990) playing the Rudra veena
Bahauddin Dagar playing the Rudra veena in the South Indian posture
Asad Ali Khan playing the Rudra veena
- "Shruti Veena - Articles OMENAD". Omenad.net. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- Bonnie C. Wade (January 1998). Imaging Sound: An Ethnomusicological Study of Music, Art, and Culture in Mughal India. University of Chicago Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-226-86841-7.
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