Verizon Communications(Redirected from Bell Atlantic)
Verizon Communications Inc. ( listen (help·info)) (// və-RY-zən) is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware.
Verizon's Headquarters in New York City
|Bell Atlantic Corporation (1983–2000)|
|Founded||October 7, 1983|
|Headquarters||1095 Avenue of the Americas|
New York City, New York, United States
|Worldwide, mainly in United States|
|Revenue||US$126.034 billion (2017)|
|US$27.414 billion (2017)|
|US$30.101 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$257.143 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$43.096 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
In 1984, the Justice Department of the United States mandated AT&T Corporation to break up the Bell System and split into seven companies, called "Baby Bells". One of the baby bells, Bell Atlantic, came into existence in 1984 consisting of the separate operating companies New Jersey Bell, Bell of Pennsylvania, Diamond State Telephone, and C&P Telephone, with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia. This company would later become Verizon.
As part of a rebranding of the Baby Bells in the mid-1990s, all of Bell Atlantic's operating companies assumed the holding company's name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX. Although Bell Atlantic was the surviving company name, the merged company moved its headquarters from Philadelphia to NYNEX's old headquarters in New York City. In 2000, Bell Atlantic acquired GTE, which operated telecommunications companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantic's footprint. Bell Atlantic, the surviving entity, changed its name to "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for "truth") and horizon.
As of 2016[update], Verizon is one of three remaining companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells. The other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members. SBC Communications, bought out the Bells' former parent AT&T Corporation, and assumed the AT&T name. CenturyLink was formed initially in 2011 by the acquisition of Qwest (formerly named US West).
Verizon's subsidiary Verizon Wireless is the largest U.S. wireless communications service provider as of September 2014[update], with 147 million mobile customers. And as of 2017, Verizon is the only publicly-traded telecommunications company to have two stock listings in its home country, both the NYSE (principal) and NASDAQ (secondary). As of 2017, it is also the second largest telecommunications company by revenue after AT&T.
Bell Atlantic (1983–2000)Edit
Bell Atlantic Corporation was created as one of the original Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) in 1984, during the breakup of the Bell System. Bell Atlantic's original roster of operating companies included:
- The Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania
- New Jersey Bell
- Diamond State Telephone
- C&P Telephone (itself comprising four subsidiaries)
Bell Atlantic originally operated in the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia, as well as Washington, DC.
In 1996, CEO and Chairman Raymond W. Smith orchestrated Bell Atlantic's merger with NYNEX. When it merged, it moved its corporate headquarters from Philadelphia to New York City. NYNEX was consolidated into this name by 1997.
Acquisition of GTE (2000–2002)Edit
Bell Atlantic changed its name to Verizon Communications in June 2000 when the Federal Communications Commission approved a US$64.7 billion acquisition of telephone company GTE, nearly two years after the deal was proposed in July 1998. The approval came with 25 stipulations to preserve competition between local phone carriers, including investing in new markets and broadband technologies. The new entity was headed by co-CEOs Charles Lee, formerly the CEO of GTE, and Bell Atlantic CEO Ivan Seidenberg.
Upon the acquisition, Verizon became the largest local telephone company in the United States, operating 63 million telephone lines in 40 states. The company also inherited 25 million mobile phone customers. Additionally, Verizon offered internet services and long-distance calling in New York, before expanding long-distance operations to other states.
The name Verizon derives from the combination of the words veritas, Latin for truth, and horizon. The name was chosen from 8,500 candidates and the company spent $300 million on marketing the new brand.
Two months before the FCC gave final approval on the formation of Verizon Communications, Bell Atlantic formed Verizon Wireless in a joint venture with the British telecommunications company Vodafone in April 2000. The companies established Verizon Wireless as its own business operated by Bell Atlantic, which owned 55% of the venture. Vodafone retained 45% of the company. The deal was valued at approximately $70 billion and created a mobile carrier with 23 million customers. Verizon Wireless merged Bell Atlantic's wireless network, Vodafone's AirTouch and PrimeCo holdings, and the wireless division of GTE. Due to its size, Verizon Wireless was able to offer national coverage at competitive rates, giving it an advantage over regional providers typical of the time.
During its first operational year, Verizon Wireless released Mobile Web, an Internet service that allowed customers to access partner sites such as E*Trade, ABC News, ESPN, Amazon.com, Ticketmaster and MSN, as well as the "New Every Two" program, which gave customers a free phone with every two-year service contract. In another partnership with MSN in 2002, Verizon Wireless launched the mobile content service "VZW with MSN" and a phone that utilized the Microsoft Windows operating system.
In August 2000, approximately 85,000 Verizon workers went on an 18-day labor strike after their union contracts expired. The strike affected quarterly revenues, resulting in Verizon Wireless' postponement of the company's IPO (the IPO was ultimately cancelled in 2003, because the company no longer needed to raise revenue for Verizon Wireless due to increased profits ), and created a backlog of repairs. Verizon launched 3G service in 2002, which doubled the Internet speeds of the time to 144kb a second. In August 2002, Verizon began offering local, long-distance, and mobile calling, as well as Internet service, in a bundle. It was initially only available to customers in New York and Massachusetts.
In June 2003, Verizon Wireless backed an FCC-issued portability requirement that permitted consumers to take their phone numbers with them across carriers. The company gained 1.5 million new subscribers the following quarter, partially due to the rule change. The following year, in April 2004, the Dow Jones Industrial Average added Verizon Communications to its stock market index. Verizon replaced telecom competitor AT&T, which had been a part of the index since the Great Depression.
On December 22, 2004, mail servers at Verizon.net were configured not to accept connections from Europe, by default, in an attempt to reduce spam email that was originating from the region. Individual domains would only be unblocked upon request.
In 2004, Verizon launched its Fios Internet service, which transmits data over fiber optic cables, in Keller, Texas. The company launched Fios TV in September 2005, also in Keller, Texas. Twenty percent of qualified homes signed up by the end of the year. By January 2006, Fios offered over 350 channels in eight states, including 20 high-definition television channels as well as video on demand.
Verizon began negotiations to purchase long distance carrier MCI in 2005. MCI accepted the company's initial $6.75 billion offer in February 2005, but then received a higher offer from Qwest Communications. Verizon increased its bid to $7.6 billion (or $23.50 a share), which MCI accepted on March 29, 2005. The acquisition gave the company access to MCI's one million corporate clients and international holdings, expanding Verizon's presence into global markets. As a result, Verizon Business was established as a new division to serve the company's business and government customers. The FCC approved the deal on November 5, 2005, valuing it at $8.5 billion. Verizon's 2006 revenues rose by as much as 20% following the purchase.
In May 2006, USA Today reported that Verizon, as well as AT&T and BellSouth, had given the National Security Agency landline phone records following the September 11 attacks. That same month, a $50 billion lawsuit was filed by two lawyers on behalf of all Verizon subscribers for privacy violations and to prevent the company from releasing additional records without consent or warrant. Protesters staged the National Day of Out(R)age due in part to the controversy. Verizon stated in 2007 that the company fulfilled only "lawful demands" for information, though also acknowledged surrendering customer information to government agencies without court orders or warrants 720 times between 2005 and 2007.
Verizon won a lawsuit against Vonage in March 2007 for patent infringement. The three patents named were filed by Bell Atlantic in 1997 and relate to the conversion of IP addresses into phone numbers, a key technology of Vonage's business. The company was awarded US$58 million in damages and future royalties. Vonage later lost an appeal and was ordered to pay Verizon $120 million.
In May 2007, Verizon acquired Cybertrust, a privately held provider of global information security services.
Verizon Wireless reversed a controversial decision in September 2007 to deny NARAL Pro-Choice America a short code through which the organization could text consumers who had signed up for messaging from the group. They had initially refused the group access to a code by reserving the right to block "controversial or unsavory" messages.
In November 2007, Verizon opened its networks for the first time to third party apps and devices, a decision that allowed it to participate in the FCC's 2008 700 MHz auction of "open access" spectrum. During that auction, the company bid $9.4 billion and won the bulk of national and local licenses for airwaves reaching approximately 469 million people. Verizon utilized the increased spectrum for its 4G service.
Verizon Wireless purchased wireless carrier Alltel for $28.1 billion in June 2008. The acquisition included 13 million customers, which allowed Verizon Wireless to surpass AT&T in number of customers and reach new markets in rural areas.
In October 2010, Verizon Wireless paid $77.8 million in refunds and FCC penalties for overcharging 15 million customers for data services. The company stated the overcharges were accidental and only amounted to a few dollars per customer.
On February 4, 2010, 4chan started receiving reports from Verizon Wireless customers that they were having difficulties accessing the site's image boards. 4chan administrators found that only traffic on port 80 to the boards.4chan.org domain was affected, leading them to believe that the block was intentional. On February 7, 2010, Verizon Wireless confirmed that 4chan.org was "explicitly blocked" after Verizon's security and external experts detected sweep attacks coming from an IP address associated with the 4chan network. Traffic was restored several days later.
Verizon introduced its 4G LTE network in 38 markets in December 2010, as well as in airports in seven additional cities. The company planned on a three-year continuous expansion of the 4G service.
Selling wirelines (2005–2010 & 2015)Edit
Between 2005 and 2010, Verizon divested wireline operations in several states in order to focus on its wireless, Fios internet and Fios TV businesses. It sold 700,000 lines in Hawaii in 2005, and spun off lines in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont in January 2007 that were then purchased by FairPoint Communications for $2.72 billion. Verizon also shed its telephone directory business in 2006.
In May 2009, the company spun off wirelines in Arizona, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin into a company that then merged with Frontier Communications in a deal valued at $8.6 billion. In 2016, Verizon sold its wireline operations in Texas, Florida, and California to Frontier.
On January 27, 2011, Verizon acquired Terremark, an information technology services company for $1.4 billion. Ivan Seidenberg retired as Verizon's CEO on August 1, 2011. Lowell McAdam succeeded him.
In December 2011, the non-partisan organization Public Campaign criticized Verizon for its tax avoidance procedures after it spent $52.34 million on lobbying while collecting $951 million in tax rebates between 2008 and 2010 and making a profit of $32.5 billion. The same report also criticized Verizon for increasing executive pay by 167% in 2010 for its top five executives while laying off 21,308 workers between 2008 and 2010. However, in its Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 24, 2012, Verizon reported having paid more than $11.1 billion in taxes (including income, employment and property taxes) from 2009 to 2011. In addition, the company reported in the 10-K that most of the drop in employment since 2008 was due to a voluntary retirement offer.
In June 2012, as part of its strategy to expand into new growth areas in its wireless business, Verizon purchased Hughes Telematics—a company that produces wireless features for automobiles—for $612 million. Also in June 2012, Verizon's E-911 service failed in the aftermath of the June 2012 derecho storm in several northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., with some problems lasting several days. The FCC conducted an investigation and in January 2013 released a report detailing the problems that led to the failure. Verizon reported that it had already addressed or was addressing a number of the issues related to the FCC report, including the causes of generator failures, conducting audits of backup systems and making its monitoring systems less centralized, although the FCC indicated that Verizon still needed to make additional improvements.
In July 2012, the FCC ruled that Verizon must stop charging users an added fee for using 4G smartphones and tablets as Wi-Fi hotspots (known as "tethering"). Verizon had been charging its customers, even those with "unlimited" plans, $20 per month for tethering. As part of the settlement, Verizon made a voluntary payment of $1.25 million to the U.S. Treasury.
In August 2012, the Department of Justice approved Verizon's purchase of Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) spectrum from a consortium of cable companies, including Comcast, Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks, for $3.9 billion. Verizon began expanding its LTE network utilizing these extra airwaves in October 2013.
On June 5, 2013, The Guardian reported it had obtained an order by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and approved by the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court that required Verizon to provide the NSA with telephone metadata for all calls originating in the U.S. Verizon Wireless was not part of the NSA data collection for wireless accounts due to foreign ownership issues. (see also MAINWAY article)
In September 2013, Verizon purchased the 45% stake in Verizon Wireless owned by Vodafone for $130 billion. The deal closed on February 21, 2014, becoming the third largest corporate deal ever signed, giving Verizon Communications sole ownership of Verizon Wireless.
On January 14, 2014, the DC Circuit Court of Appeals struck down the FCC's net neutrality rules after Verizon filed suit against them in January 2010. In June 2016, in a 184-page ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit upheld, by a 2–1 vote, the FCC's net neutrality rules and the FCC's determination that broadband access is a public utility, rather than a luxury. AT&T and the telecom industry said that they would seek to appeal the decision to the Supreme Court.
On January 22, 2014 the Wall Street Journal reported that Verizon received more than 1,000 requests for information about its subscribers on national security grounds via National Security Letters. In total, Verizon received 321,545 requests from federal, state and local law enforcement for U.S. customer information. In May 2015, Verizon agreed to pay $90 million "to settle federal and state investigations into allegations mobile customers were improperly billed for premium text messages."
In late-October 2014, Verizon Wireless launched SugarString, a technology news website. The publication attracted controversy after it was reported that its writers were forbidden from publishing articles related to net neutrality or domestic surveillance. Although Verizon denied that this was the case, the site (described as being a pilot project) was shuttered in December.
In August 2015, Verizon launched Hum, a service and device offering vehicle diagnostic and monitoring tools for vehicles. On August 1, 2016, Verizon announced its acquisition of Fleetmatics, a fleet telematics system company in Dublin, Ireland, for $2.4 billion, to build products that it offers to enterprises for logistics and mobile workforces. On September 12, 2016, Verizon announced its acquisition of Sensity, a startup for LED sensors, in an effort to bolster its IoT portfolio.
In October 2016, Verizon was accused by Communications Workers of America of deliberately refusing to maintain its copper telephone service. The organization released internal memos and other documents stating that Verizon workers in Pennsylvania were being instructed to, in areas with network problems, migrate voice-only customers to VoiceLink—a system that delivers telephone service over the Verizon Wireless network, and not to repair the copper lines. VoiceLink has limitations, including incompatibility with services or devices that require the transmission of data over the telephone line, and a dependency on a battery backup in case of power failure. The memo warned that technicians who do not follow this procedure would be subject to "disciplinary action up to and including dismissal". A Verizon spokesperson responded to the allegations, stating that the company's top priority was to restore service to customers as quickly as possible, and that VoiceLink was a means of doing so in the event that larger repairs have to be done to the infrastructure. The spokesperson stated that it was "hard to argue with disciplining someone who intentionally leaves a customer without service".
On March 13, 2017, Verizon was sued by New York City for violating its cable franchise agreement, which required the provider to pass a fiberoptic network to all households in the city by June 30, 2014. Verizon disputed the claims, citing landlords not granting permission to install the equipment on their properties, and an understanding with the government that the fiber network would follow the same routes as its copper lines, and did not necessarily mean it would have to pass the lines in front of every property.
On April 27, 2017 Verizon invested $10 million in Renovo Auto, a Campbell, California-based autonomous vehicle company.
Acquisition of AOL and YahooEdit
On May 12, 2015, Verizon announced they would acquire AOL at $50 per share, for a deal valued around $4.4 billion. The following year, Verizon announced that it would acquire the core internet business of Yahoo for $4.83 billion. Following the completion of the acquisitions, Verizon created a new division called Oath, which includes the AOL and Yahoo brands. The sale did not include Yahoo's stakes in Alibaba Group and Yahoo! Japan.
On May 23, 2017, Verizon CEO Lowell McAdam confirmed the company's plan to launch a streaming TV service. The integrated AOL-Yahoo operation, housed under the newly created Oath division, will be organized around key content-based pillars.
In a deal which officially closed on June 13, 2017, Yahoo! shareholders approved the sale of some of the company's internet assets to Verizon for $4.48 billion.
For the fiscal year 2017, Verizon reported earnings of US$30.101 billion, with an annual revenue of US$126.034 billion, an increase of 0.04% over the previous fiscal cycle. Verizon's shares traded at over $45 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$229.1 billion in October 2018. As of 2018, Verizon is ranked #16 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
in mil. USD$
in mil. USD$
in mil. USD$
|Price per Share
Since its inception, Verizon Communications has run several marketing campaigns, including:
Can you hear me now?Edit
The "Can you hear me now?" campaign, which was created for the newly formed Verizon Wireless, started running in 2001 and featured actor Paul Marcarelli in the role of "Test Man," a character based on a Verizon network tester who travels the country asking "Can you hear me now?". The campaign, originally conceived by the agency Bozell in New York, ran from early 2001 to September 2010. Data from the technology tracking firm The Yankee Group shows that, in the early years of the campaign, net customers grew 10% to 32.5 million in 2002 and 15% more to 37.5 million in 2003. In addition, customer turnover dropped to 1.8% in 2001, down from 2.5% in 2000. In 2011, Marcarelli parted ways with Verizon and is now a spokesperson for Sprint.
There's a map for thatEdit
The "There's a map for that" campaign was launched in late 2009. It was designed as a parody of AT&T's "There's an app for that" adverts. The ads depicted a side-by-side comparison of Verizon and AT&T network coverage maps. AT&T filed a lawsuit in Atlanta federal court early in November 2009, claiming that the coverage maps being used in the ads were misleading. The suit was dropped later that month in conjunction with Verizon dropping a similar suit against AT&T.
That's not coolEdit
In 2009, Verizon joined with the Ad Council, in partnership with the Family Violence Prevention Fund and the Office on Violence Against Women, to create the "That's not cool" campaign. This public service advertising campaign was designed to help teens recognize and prevent digital dating abuse. Verizon ran the ads on its Wireless' Mobile Web service, Verizon FiOS internet and TV.
In January 2013, Verizon launched the "Powerful Answers" campaign designed by agency McGarryBowen. The campaign centered around a contest in which $10 million in prizes was offered to individuals for finding solutions to "the world's biggest challenges" by making use of Verizon's cloud, broadband, and wireless networks. Winners of the inaugural competition were announced at the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show. Israel-based TinyTap won the education category, Smart Vision Labs of Newport, Rhode Island won in the healthcare category, and Mosaic Inc. of Oakland, California won in the sustainability category.
Inspire Her MindEdit
Verizon launched its "Inspire Her Mind" ad in June 2014. The ad, created by the agency AKQA, was designed to encourage girls' interest in science, technology, engineering and math. It aimed to address findings from the National Science Foundation, whose research showed that 66 percent of fourth-grade girls said they like science and math, yet only 18 percent of college students in engineering and math are women.
Flipside Stories (#NeverSettle)Edit
Verizon launched its Flipside Stories ad campaign in February 2015 featuring the #NeverSettle hashtag. The ads show dramatized "testimonials" of people with and without Verizon Wireless or Verizon Fios services.
In 2016, Verizon started using the slogan "Better Matters" in reference to its networks.
Verizon launched its Humanability campaign in 2017. The company aimed for the ads to showcase to consumers and investors its diversification of revenue sources and technology beyond smartphones. These include online advertising, data collection, Internet of Things, smart cities, telematics, and media.
Board of DirectorsEdit
The current Board of Directors is comprised as follows as of August 2018:
Lowell McAdam, Chairman of the Board
Hans Vestberg, CEO of Verizon
Shellye Archambeau, CEO of MetricStream
Mark Bertolini, CEO of Aetna
Richard Carrión, CEO of Popular, Inc.
Melanie Healey, former President of Procter & Gamble
Frances Keeth, former Executive Vice President of Royal Dutch Shell
Karl-Ludwig Kley, former CEO and Chairman of Merck Group
Clarence Otis, Jr., former CEO and Chairman of Darden Restaurants
Rodney E. Slater, former United States Secretary of Transportation and current partner at Squire Patton Boggs
Kathryn Tesija, former Executive Vice President of Target Corporation
Gregory Wasson, former CEO and Chairman of Walgreens Boots Alliance
Gregory Weaver, former CEO of Deloitte's audit and enterprise risk division
As of August 1, 2018:
Hans Vestberg, CEO
Ronan Dunne, Group President of Verizon Wireless
In June 2018, Verizon announced Hans Vestberg, who in 2016 was fired as CEO of Ericsson, would become the next Verizon CEO on August 1. McAdam will continue as chairman of the board of directors, though only in a non-executive capacity after the end of 2018.
The Verizon Foundation is the philanthropic arm of Verizon Communications, donating about $70 million per year to nonprofit organizations, with a focus on education, domestic violence prevention, and energy management. Verizon's educational initiatives have focused on STEM fields, including: a national competition for students to develop mobile application concepts; the Verizon Innovative Learning Schools program, providing professional development for teachers in underserved areas; and providing students with wireless hardware and services as part of President Obama's ConnectED program. The company also runs HopeLine, which has provided mobile phones to approximately 180,000 victims of domestic violence, and a program that offers grants for victims of domestic violence to start or grow home-based businesses. As part of an initiative to reduce the company's carbon intensity metrics by 50 percent by 2020, Verizon announced planned investment in solar panels and natural gas fuel cells at its facilities. The increased capacity would make Verizon the leading solar power producer among U.S. communications companies.
According to Google Project Zero researcher Tavis Ormandy Verizon applies a simplistic certification methodology to give its "Excellence in Information Security Testing" award, e.g. to Comodo Group. It focuses on GUI functions instead of testing security relevant features. Not detected were Chromodo browser disabling of the same-origin policy, a VNC delivered with a default of weak authentication, not enabling address space layout randomization (ASLR) when scanning, and using access control lists (ACLs) throughout its product.
Verizon and Comcast have been actively lobbying for current changes in the FCC's regulations that require internet service providers to offer all content at one internet speed regardless of the type of content since the early 2000s. In 2014, Verizon unsuccessfully sued the FCC for these powers. Verizon has admitted to throttling content of its competitors.
Sponsorships and venuesEdit
Verizon is the title sponsor of several large performance and sports venues as well as a sponsor of several major sporting organizations.
National Hockey LeagueEdit
In January 2007, Verizon secured exclusive marketing and promotional rights with the National Hockey League. The deal was extended for another three years in 2012 and included new provisions for the league to provide exclusive content through Verizon's GameCenter app.
In 2009 and 2010 Verizon sponsored Justin Allgaier in the NASCAR Nationwide Series, before they chose to opt out of a two-year-old NASCAR team sponsorship with Penske Racing in order to pursue an expanded presence with the IndyCar Series. In March 2014 Verizon signed a multiyear deal making them the title sponsor of the IndyCar Series, now called the Verizon IndyCar Series.
National Football LeagueEdit
In late 2010, Verizon Communications joined with Vodafone Group in a joint partnership to replace Sprint as the official wireless telecommunications partner of the National Football League. The four-year deal was estimated at $720 million. In June 2013, Verizon announced a four-year extension with the NFL in a deal reportedly valued at $1 billion. The new agreement gave Verizon the right to stream every NFL regular-season and playoff game.
Verizon is the title sponsor for a number of sporting and entertainment arena the Verizon Arena in North Little Rock, Arkansas; and the Verizon Center in Mankato, Minnesota. SNHU Arena in Manchester, New Hampshire was originally known as the Verizon Wireless Arena until September 2016, when Southern New Hampshire University acquired the naming rights for a period of at least 10 years.
Verizon has been the title sponsor of entertainment amphitheaters in locations throughout the United States, including four individually referred to as the "Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre": in Irvine, California; Maryland Heights, Missouri; Selma, Texas; and Alpharetta, Georgia.
- "CBS MarketWatch profile, Verizon Communications, Inc". Marketwatch.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- Patrick Meehan (June 29, 2014). "Verizon to Return to Its Former Midtown Tower, but on a Smaller Scale". Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "Verizon Communications Inc. (VZ) Income Statement". NASDAQ.com. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Verizon Communications Inc. (VZ) Balance Sheet". NASDAQ.com. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Who We Are". www.verizon.com. Verizon. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average". CNNMoney. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Verizon | Company History".
- "Verizon p;— Investor Relations — Company Profile — Corporate History". Retrieved September 14, 2011.
- Ingrid Lunden, TechCrunch. "In Big Media Push, Verizon Buys AOL For $4.4B [Memo From AOL CEO Tim Armstrong]." May 12, 2015. Retrieved Jan 8, 2016.
- Kevin Fitchard, Fortune. "The real reason Verizon bought AOL." Jun 24, 2015. Retrieved Jan 8, 2016.
- "Grading the top 8 U.S. wireless carriers in the third quarter of 2014". FierceWireless. November 10, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Peterson, Kristina. "Verizon Begins Dual-Listing, Adds Presence At Nasdaq".
- Gara, Antoine. "The World's Largest Telecom Companies: AT&T And Verizon Top China Mobile".
- Schofield, Jack (2 March 2005). "From 'Baby Bells' to the big cheese". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Mayer, Caroline (24 October 1983). "Bell Atlantic plans rapid growth after Jan. spinoff". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Pennsylvania Bell to buy back debt". The New York Times. 1 June 1984. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Goodnough, Abby (14 January 1996). "A crack in the bedrock". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Vise, David (7 August 1989). "CP Telephone workers strike after talks fail". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Bell Atlantic, CWA reach agreement in Washington". The Associated Press. 25 August 1989. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Landler, Mark (23 April 1996). "A Sticking-to-Their-Knitting Deal; Nynex and Bell Atlantic Decide They Are Truly Made for Each Other". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Landler, Mark (8 September 1997). "Nynex Is Gone, But Its Name Has Yet to Go". 8 September 1997. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Bell, GTE merger approved". CNN Money. June 16, 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Labaton, Stephen (June 17, 2000). "F.C.C. Approves Bell Atlantic-GTE Merger, Creating No. 1 Phone Company". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Meyerson, Bruce (August 7, 2002). "Verizon, BellSouth bundling phone services". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Culp, Bryan (January 1, 2001). "Playing the Name Game Again". marketingprofs.com. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Borland, John (April 3, 2000). "Wireless deals put pressure on competitors to grow". CNET. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Bell Atlantic-Vodafone pact". CNN Money. September 21, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Luening, Erich (July 17, 2000). "Verizon Wireless kicks off mobile Net access". CNET. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Weiss, Todd R. (June 19, 2000). "AT&T buys Verizon wireless licenses for $3.3 billion". Computerworld. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Tahmincioglu, Eve (September 22, 1999). "Bell Atlantic, Vodafone seal deal". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Verizon Wireless Offers Free Phones". The New York Times. September 26, 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Microsoft, Verizon tackling wireless together". USA Today. May 23, 2002. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Phone Workers Threaten A Strike Against Verizon". The New York Times. July 31, 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Verizon, union reach deal". CNN Money. August 24, 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Barnes, Cecily (October 30, 2000). "Verizon profits flat, revenues up 7 percent". CNET. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- TeleGeography. “Verizon posts USD2.3 billion profit surge; cancels wireless IPO.” January 30, 2003. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- Romero, Simon (January 28, 2002). "Fast Hookup With Cellphone Is Expected From Verizon". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Richtel, Matt (June 25, 2003). "In a Reversal, Verizon Backs Rule to Keep Cell Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Richtel, Matt (January 29, 2004). "Verizon Wireless Outpaces Rivals in New Subscribers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Isidore, Chris (April 1, 2004). "AT&T, Kodak, IP out of Dow AIG, Verizon, Pfizer are the newest additions to the world's most widely watched stock index". CNN Money. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Leyden, John (January 14, 2005). "Verizon persists with European email blockade". The Register. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Svensson, Peter (June 20, 2007). "Verizon signs up millionth FiOS customer". USA Today. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- Charny, Ben (19 July 2004). "Verizon's fiber race is on". CNET. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- Eckert, Barton (January 24, 2006). "Verizon FiOS TV service picks up Falls Church franchise". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- La Monica, Paul (March 29, 2005). "MCI accepts new $7.6B Verizon bid franchise". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Ewalt, David (February 14, 2005). "Verizon To Acquire MCI For $6.8B". Forbes. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- Reardon, Marguerite (January 6, 2006). "Verizon closes book on MCI merger franchise". CNET. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Verizon and SBC deals clear final U.S. hurdle". The New York Times. November 1, 2005. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Harrison, Crayton (January 16, 2007). "Verizon Will Shed Phone Lines in Deal With FairPoint". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- McNamara, Melissa (May 12, 2006). "Verizon Sued For Giving Records To NSA". CBS. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Verizon stock takes hit on $50 billion lawsuit". CNNMoney.com. May 15, 2006. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- McCullagh, Declan (May 24, 2006). "Protesters face off with Verizon, AT&T". CNET. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Lichtblau, Eric (October 16, 2007). "Phone Utilities Won't Give Details About Eavesdropping". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (October 16, 2007). "Verizon Says It Turned Over Data Without Court Orders". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Barrett, Larry (October 25, 2007). "Vonage Settles With Verizon, Stock Soars". Internetnews.com. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- St.Onge, Jeff (November 15, 2007). "Vonage's Appeal Refused; Verizon Owed $120 Million". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Duffy, Jim. "Verizon Business acquires Cybertrust". Retrieved 2015-10-05.
- Liptak, Adam (September 27, 2007). "Verizon Reverses Itself on Abortion Messages". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Gardiner, Bryan (November 27, 2007). "Pigs Fly, Hell Freezes Over and Verizon Opens Up Its Network — No, Really". Gizmodo. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Kaplan, Peter (April 4, 2008). "Verizon to use new spectrum for advanced wireless". Reuters. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Gardiner, Bryan (March 20, 2008). "In Spectrum Auction, Winners Are AT&T, Verizon and Openness". Gizmodo. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Carew, Sinead (June 6, 2008). "Verizon Wireless to buy Alltel". Reuters. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Woolley, Scott (October 4, 2010). "Verizon's refund is just the start of a shakeup in wireless". Fortune. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Kang, Cecilia (October 28, 2010). "Verizon Wireless pays FCC $25M for years of false data charges". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Moot (February 7, 2010). "Verizon Wireless confirms block". 4chan.org.
- Verizon Wireless restores 4Chan traffic, Wireless Federation, United Kingdom, 2010-02-10, accessed 2010-02-12, "After the concerns were raised over network attacks, Verizon Wireless restored traffic affiliated with the 4chan online forum."
- Shields, Todd (2010-08-12). "Bloomberg.com". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- Matt Schafer (August 9, 2010). "Five Sentences from Google/Verizon that Could Change the Net Forever". Lippmannwouldroll.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
Despite Google and Verizon’s claims to support an open Internet, the two-page policy proposal removes any hope of moving forward with the open Internet as we know it.
- Reardon, Marguerite (December 1, 2010). "Verizon: 4G Wireless Service Debuts this Sunday". CBS. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Sayer, Peter (July 27, 2005). "Verizon reports record revenue in second quarter". ARNnet. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Fuhrmann, Ryan (July 11, 2006). "Verizon Hangs Up on Directory Assistance". The Motley Fool. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Hansell, Saul (May 13, 2009). "Frontier to Buy Verizon Lines". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Verizon sells landlines in 14 states to Frontier in $8.6B deal". ABC News. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "Frontier Weighs Sale of Ex-Verizon Landline Assets". Bloomberg. 2018-02-02. Retrieved 2018-05-19.
- Rusli, Evelyn (January 27, 2011). "Verizon to Buy Terremark for $1.4 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Svensson, Peter (July 22, 2011). "Verizon CEO Ivan Seidenberg Steps Down; Lowell McAdam Takes Helm". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Portero, Ashley. "30 Major U.S. Corporations Paid More to Lobby Congress Than Income Taxes, 2008–2010". International Business Times. Archived from the original on December 26, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- "Verizon Form 10-K". Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
- Merced, Michael (June 1, 2012). "Verizon to Buy Hughes Telematics for $612 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Juvenal, Justin (July 4, 2012). "911 System Restored". Washington Post.
- Edward Wyatt (January 11, 2013). "F.C.C. Says Failure of 911 In Storm Was Preventable". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Mary Pat Flaherty (January 11, 2013). "Verizon 911 fixes are found lacking". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (July 31, 2012). "FCC rules Verizon can't charge for Wi-Fi tethering". ZDNet. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Fitchard, Kevin (August 23, 2012). "FCC approves the sale of cableco spectrum to Verizon". GigaOM. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Phil Goldstein, FierceWireless. “Verizon starts deploying LTE in its AWS spectrum.” October 15, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- MacAskill, Ewen; Spencer Ackerman (June 5, 2013). "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "NSA collecting phone records for millions of Verizon customers, report says". FoxNews. June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- Yadron, Danny; Perez, Evan (June 14, 2013). "T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless Shielded from NSA Sweep". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "Vodafone confirms Verizon stake sale". BBC News. 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
- Devindra Hardawar (February 21, 2014). "Verizon, Vodafone agree $130 billion Wireless deal". VentureBeat. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Miranda, Leticia (December 6, 2013). "Verizon, the FCC and What You Need to Know About Net Neutrality". The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Singel, Ryan (January 20, 2011). "Verizon Files Suit Against FCC Net Neutrality Rules". Wired. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Court Backs Rules Treating Internet as Utility, Not Luxury". nytimes.com. 2016-06-14. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
- Knutson, Ryan (January 22, 2014). "Verizon Says It Received More Than 1,000 National Security Letters In 2013". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- Puzzanghera, Jim (May 12, 2015). "Verizon and Sprint to pay $158 million to settle mobile cramming case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "Verizon is scared of the truth". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Verizon has shuttered Sugarstring, its bizarre tech news experiment". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- Golson, Jordan. "Verizon's 'Hum' Turns Any Clunker Into a Connected Car". Wired. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Lunden, Ingrid (August 1, 2016). "Verizon buys Fleetmatics for $2.4B in cash to step up in telematics". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- By Aaron Pressman, Fortune. “How Verizon Is Moving From Telephone Poles to Light Poles for Smart Devices.” September 12, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Verizon workers can now be fired if they fix copper phone lines". Ars Technica. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- Lardinois, Frederic. "Verizon acquires SocialRadar to buff up MapQuest's location data". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- "Verizon is reportedly in talks to merge with Charter, America's second-biggest cable company". Washington Post. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- "1 million NYC homes can't get Verizon FiOS, so the city just sued Verizon". Ars Technica. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Higgins, Tim (2017-04-27). "Verizon Invests in Self-Driving Car Startup Renovo". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- FitzGerald, Drew; Hufford, Austen (24 April 2018). "Verizon Holds Its Ground in Wireless Market". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Moritz, Scott; Coppola, Gabrielle (10 April 2018). "Telecom Giants Fear Missing the Money as Cars Go Online". Bloomberg LP. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Andy Szal (7 March 2018). "Verizon Establishes New Connected Vehicle, Mobile Workforce Division". Wireless Week. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Verizon Said to Approach AOL About Possible Takeover or Venture Archived January 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. MSN News. Retrieved: 8 January 2015.
- Imbert, Fred. "Verizon to buy AOL for $4.4B; AOL shares soar". Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- Goel, Vindu; Merced, Michael J. De La (2016-07-24). "Yahoo's Sale to Verizon Ends an Era for a Web Pioneer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- Lien, Tracey (2016-07-25). "Verizon buys Yahoo for $4.8 billion, and it's giving Yahoo's brand another chance".
- Griswold, Alison. "The stunning collapse of Yahoo's valuation".
- "Verizon Announces New Name Brand for AOL and Yahoo: Oath". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Weinberger, Matt (January 9, 2017). "After the $4.8 billion Verizon deal, the husk of Yahoo will rename itself 'Altaba'". Business Insider. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- Dwoskin, Elizabeth (January 9, 2017). "How Yahoo came up with its new name: Altaba". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- "Verizon Dropping Its Email Business". Multichannel News. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- Sarah Perez (23 May 2017). "Verizon CEO confirms company's plan to launch a streaming TV service". TechCrunch. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (May 22, 2017). "Verizon CEO: Combined Yahoo-AOL Will Be Platform to Test Over-the-Top Video Service". Variety. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Fiegerman, Seth (June 13, 2017). "End of an era: Yahoo is no longer an independent company". CNN Money. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Verizon Revenue 2006-2018 | VZ". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
- "Verizon Launches Nationwide Advertising Campaign to Introduce New Company Name". Sentinel. August 9, 2000. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Martha Fulford (September 1, 2003). "Can you hear me now? Verizon tester logs 25,000 miles a year". ColoradoBiz. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Theresa Howard (February 23, 2004). "'Can you hear me now?' a hit". USA Today. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Kunur Patel (April 14, 2011). "Reports of Verizon Guy's Demise (Slightly) Exaggerated". Advertising Age. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Spencer Morgranapr (April 2, 2011). "Hear Me Now?". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Maureen Morrison, Advertising Age. "Sprint's New Pitchman Is Verizon's 'Can You Hear Me Now' Guy." June 05, 2016. Retrieved Mar 27, 2017.
- "There's an end to that: AT&T drops Verizon Suite". NBCnews.com. Associated Press. December 2, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Tom Bradley (November 3, 2009). "AT&T Sues Verizon Over 'There's a Map for That' Ads". PC World. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Verizon Brings Ad Council PSAs on Teen Dating Abuse to Mobile, Internet and TV". Marketing Weekly News. October 3, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Mike Shields (September 18, 2009). "Verizon, Ad Council Link Up for Teen PSA Campaign". Adweek. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Gary Stibel (January 21, 2013). "Flipsides: Is Verizon's 'Powerful Answers' Campaign Genius or a GE Knockoff?". Advertising Age. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Prize-Winning Amounts Reported in $10M Powerful Answers Award". Wireless News. January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Angela Mosaritolo (April 3, 2013). "Verizon Launches $10M Powerful Answers Contest". PC Magazine. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Ad of the Day: Verizon Reminds Parents That Girls Aren't Just Pretty but 'Pretty Brilliant'". Retrieved 2015-05-07.
- "Powerful Ad Shows What A Little Girl Hears When You Tell Her She's Pretty". The Huffington Post. June 24, 2014. Retrieved 2015-05-07.[permanent dead link]
- "#InspireHerMind: Viral Ad Hopes to Draw Girls to STEM Jobs". Retrieved 2015-05-07.
- "Meet Poor Decision-Making Rob Lowe (He Has a Face Tattoo)". Retrieved 2015-05-07.
- "NBA's Recovering Jabari Parker Makes Gatorade Debut". Retrieved 2015-05-07.
- "These Verizon Ads Are All About Real Estate: We're Obsessed". Retrieved 2015-05-07.
- Morrison, Maureen (9 September 2015). "See the spot: Verizon delivers 'connections that matter' in new brand campaign". Ad Age. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Bruell, Alexandra (1 December 2017). "Verizon's new ad campaign: We're more than just a wireless network". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- Slefo, George. "Verizon rolls out new ad campaign as net neutrality protests loom". Advertising Age. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- http://www.verizon.com/about/investors/board-directors Verizon Board
- Mike Dano (9 August 2018). "Verizon wireless chief: Bundling has little value, but Verizon will target 'underserved markets'". FierceWireless. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Ericsson ousts CEO Vestberg, shares soar". Reuters. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
Ericsson's board were unanimous in its decision, which comes after months of criticism against Vestberg's leadership and pay.
- Abby Jackson (9 June 2018). "Verizon went with a relative newcomer over a company veteran to replace its CEO — and that may signal a shift in the company's long-term strategy". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
Vestberg, 52, is a relative newcomer to Verizon, starting his role in April 2017 after an ouster at Swedish multinational telecommunications company Ericsson AB.
- Erin Killian (February 25, 2008). "Verizon Foundation to give $1M to literacy program". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- "Verizon Foundation Launches Education Initiative to Strengthen Student Learning in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math through Mobile Technology". Journal of Technology. October 30, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- "After Achieving Early Success, Innovative Program That Helps Teachers Use Mobile Technology to Improve Student Learning Expands to 12 More Schools". Journal of Engineering. July 10, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- Kristal Lauren High (May 3, 2014). "Verizon Foundation: Incubating New Social Solutions & Getting Kids ConnectEd". Politic365. Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Alisa Reznick (April 19, 2013). "Donate your old phone, support domestic violence aid with Verizon's HopeLine". GeekWire. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Katie Delong (October 7, 2014). "Verizon presents grant to "End Domestic Abuse WI," Packers collecting no-longer-used wireless phones". FOX 6Now. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Verizon Launches Entrepreneurship Training Program to Help Domestic Violence Survivors Become Small Business Owners". Education Letter. March 14, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Katie Fehrenbacher (April 30, 2013). "Verizon to spend $100M on solar panels, fuel cells for facilities". GigaOm. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Lucas Mearian (August 26, 2014). "Verizon to become solar-power leader in the U.S. telecom industry". Computer World. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Why Antivirus Standards of Certification Need to Chang, tripwire, 2016-03-23.
- Wyatt, Edward (2011). "Verizon Sues F.C.C. over Order on Blocking Web Sites". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
- "Verizon admits to throttling data speeds from Netflix and other video content providers | FierceWireless". www.fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
- "Who Has Your Back? Government Data Requests 2017".
- Kevin G. DeMarrais (January 4, 2007). "Verizon Wireless reaches marketing deal with NHL". The Record. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Michael Long (February 14, 2012). "Verizon extends as NHL wireless provider". SportsMedia. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Jim Peltz (March 14, 2014). "Verizon becomes title sponsor of IndyCar racing series". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Verizon becomes title sponsor of IndyCar Series". AP Online. March 14, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "How Verizon Wireless Views Sponsorship, Activation and ROI". IEG Sponsorship Report. December 20, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Wireless Service Providers Dial Up New Sponsorships". Sponsorship.com. August 5, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "About The Arena". Verizon Arena. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- "Alltel Center to get name change". Market of Free Press. July 24, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- Keane, Lauren (February 2, 2016). "SNHU Partners with SMG to Provide Opportunities for Students and Connect with the Community". SNHU. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
- Morrison, Matt (24 March 2016). "Curtain to close on Irvine Meadows Amphitheater". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Feldt, Brian (17 December 2014). "Verizon Wireless Amphitheater gets new name". American City Business Journals. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Levy, Abe; Tedesco, John (20 May 2011). "Church purchases Verizon amphitheater". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Hensley, Ellie (22 March 2018). "Live Nation to hire 175 seasonal employees in metro Atlanta". Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- David Nakamura (December 2, 2007). "Verizon Center Marks 10th Anniversary". Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- Oestreich, James (9 December 2001). "Philadelphia gets a new concert hall a century aborning". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2018.