Baramulla (Urdu: بارہمولہ; bærəˈmʊlə) is a city and a municipality in the Baramulla district in the Indian-administered disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is on the bank of the Jhelum River downstream from Srinagar, the state capital.
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|• Total||1,015,503(as per 2,011 census)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
193101 (New City), 193102 (Old City), 193103 (Khawajabagh area)
|Sex ratio||873 ♂/♀|
The name Baramulla is derived from the Sanskrit Varahamula (वराहमूल), a combination of varaha (boar) and mul (root or deep) meaning "boar's molar."
The modern Baramulla was called Varahamulaksetra or Varahaksetra in the ancient days. Originally, it was a suburb of Huviskapura (modern Ushkur).
Ancient and medievalEdit
The city of Baramulla was founded by Raja Bhimsina in 2306 B.C. A number of visitors have traveled to Baramulla, including Xuanzang from China and a British historian named Moorcraft. Additionally, Mughal emperors were fascinated by Baramulla. Gateway of the Kashmir Valley, Baramulla was a way station during their visits to the valley. In 1508 A.D., Emperor Akbar, who entered the valley via Pakhil, spent several days at Baramulla. According to Tarikh-e-Hassan, the city was decorated during Akbar's stay. Emperor Jahangir stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620.
From the beginning, Baramulla has had religious importance. Hindu Teertha and Buddhist Vihars (monasteries) made the city sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. During the 15th century, it became important to Muslims as well. Syed Janbaz Wali, who visited the valley with his companions in 1421, chose Baramulla as the center of his mission and was later buried there. His shrine attracts pilgrims from throughout the valley.
In 1620, the sixth Sikh Guru, Shri Hargobind, visited the city.
Baramulla was the oldest and most-important town in northern Kashmir and Jammu and "Gateway to the Kashmir Valley" (by the Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road) until 27 October 1947. It was ceded to India when the Maharajah signed the instrument of accession on 26 October 1947. The city is the headquarters of the Baramulla district.
Pashtun tribesmen from the South Waziristan region of Pakistan attacked Kashmir to take control over the state. They moved along the Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road on 22 October 1947. They were assisted by Pakistani soldiers in. Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947, and the soldiers captured Baramulla the following day.
Bridges on the Jhelum River have been built (or are planned) to connect the old town on the north bank of the river with the new town on the south bank. Urban renewal in the old town has been attempted by moving residents to the new town. Baramulla is connected by rail with Srinagar, Anantnag, Qazigund and Banihal.
Baramulla is on the Jhelum River, at its highest point. The old town is on the north bank of the river, and the new town is on the south bank. They are connected by five bridges, including a suspension bridge connecting Gulnar Park and Dewan Bagh. Five more bridges are being built or are planned. A bridge will connect the Khanpora and Drangbal areas of the city.
The old town is densely populated and smaller than the new town. Government offices, hospitals, the bus station and most other facilities are in the new town. The railway station is on the eastern end of the new town, on the river. Beyond the old town, the river divides into two channels at Khadanyar (near police headquarters), forming an island known as Eco Park.
Baramulla has cold, snowy winters and mild summers.
|Climate data for Baramulla (1971–1986)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||48
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.6||7.3||10.2||8.8||8.1||5.7||7.9||6.8||3.5||2.8||2.8||5.1||75.6|
The city's population was slightly less than 200,000 in the 2011 census. Baramulla's old town is known as Sher-e-Khas, and its new town as Greater Baramulla. According to the 2011 census, the city's population was 167,986, behind Srinagar, Jammu and Anantnag. Baramulla has an average 66.9% literacy rate (61% for males and 49% for females) higher than the national average. 11% of the population was under age six. Both Baramulla district and city have a majority Muslim with minority Sikh and Hindu population.
Baramulla is the largest grower in the state, with apples being one of the major crops.
St. Joseph's School is the oldest missionary school in the Kashmir valley. It is seen as a pioneer of education for the whole of north Kashmir. Other notable schools include Delhi Public School, Baramulla Public School, Beacon House School, Hanfia School, Noor-ul-Islam School, Guru Nanak Dev School, among others.
Baramulla has a number of government-run schools. Higher secondary schools are known as intermediate colleges. Baramulla has a Kendriya Vidyalaya, Navodaya Vidayala in Shahkot and Sainik (military) school, both affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education.
Baramulla has separate government degree colleges for men and women, and a nursing college associated with the district hospital. The north campus of the University of Kashmir is in Baramulla Degree College (co-education) , and an engineering college has been established.
Baramulla has the government Baramulla Polytechnic College, which was established in 2012. It is in the Kanispora area of Baramulla city. The polytechnic teaches three-year diploma courses in electrical engineering and architecture. Government Medical college Baramulla is under construction and will start functioning the normal classes in August 2018.
Baramulla has District Medical Hospital and District Veterinary Hospital hospital, with radiology (x-ray) and ultrasonography facilities. A new building for the veterinary hospital, is under construction which is near to completion and has got the indoor facilities for the pet animal patients.The District Medical Hospital is 300 bedded hospital and has all the specialization facilities available.
Baramulla has a privately run facility for mothers and child hospital called St Joseph's Hospital. It was started in 1921 and is running smoothly to the entire satisfaction of the populace.
Eco Park is on the island in the middle of Jhelum river on the road from Baramulla town to Uri. It is approached by a wooden bridge. In was developed by J&K Tourism Development Corporation with a blend of modern substructure and natural exquisiteness. This ecological tourism park offers a view with mountains in the background, Jhelum river flowing along the island, and lush, green, well-maintained gardens with some beautifully designed wooden huts. It is one of the best places to visit in the Baramulla and is a popular destination for locals particularly on summer evenings; it is developing into a major tourist attraction as well.
A cable car project and expansion of Eco Park are planned.
Baramulla is about 55 km (34 mi) from Srinagar, capital of Jammu and Kashmir state. National Highway NH-1 starting from the Line of Control and passing through Uri connects the city with Srinagar and continues to Leh. NH-1 was formerly called NH-1A before renumbering of all national highways by National Highway Authority of India in 2010 year. NH-1 joins NH-44 at Srinagar. Taxi and bus service is available from Srinagar and Jammu. The road from Srinagar to Baramulla is regarded as the best motorable and best maintained road in the valley. It is a boulevard surrounded by breathtaking rice fields and meadows.
From Uri and MuzaffarabadEdit
The 123-kilometre (76 mi) road from Muzaffarabad to Baramulla runs along the Jhelum River. On the Pakistani side, it is known as "Srinagar Road." Starting from Domel Bridge, Muzaffarabad and ending at the Chaktothi-Uri Border Crossing at LOC It crosses the Line of Control and passes through Uri, 45 km (28 mi) west of Baramulla as National Highway NH-1. The first 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) of the road from Uri to Baramulla does not run along the river, but the remaining 40 km (25 mi) is scenic, passing wooded mountainsides and cliffs.
From Kupwara via WatergamEdit
Baramulla is connected to Kupwara by National Highway NH-701 a 130-km road from Baramulla to Tangdhar passing through towns of Watergam and Handwara. The distance from Baramulla to Watergam is 15 km whereas from Baramulla to Handwara is 29 km. The distance from Kupwara to Baramulla is 47 km.
Baramulla is connected to Srinagar by National Highway NH-1 and the rest of India by NH-44 from Srinagar. National Highway NH-1 also connects the city with Uri on the west and continues to Leh. NH-1 was formerly called NH-1A before renumbering of all national highways by National Highway Authority of India in 2010 year.
Baramulla is connected to Sangrama, Wagoora, Hygam, Pattan, Zainakot to Srinagar and other towns in Kashmir by road. It is connected to Muzaffarabad across the Line of Control by a 123-kilometre (76 mi) road which was closed in October 1947. The road was reopened in 2005, but travel across the line is controlled.
Baramulla is the last station on the 119-kilometre (74 mi)-long Jammu–Baramulla line, opened in October 2009, connecting with Srinagar, Qazigund and Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through the 11.2-kilometre (7.0 mi)-long Banihal railway tunnel. The Jammu–Baramulla line is planned to connect with the Indian Railways Network.
The nearest railway terminus for long-distance trains is Udhampur, about 320 km (200 mi) south.
- "Climatological Information for Srinigar, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Top cities of India by Population census 2011". Census2011.co.in.
- "Eco Park Baramulla". Discover Kashmir. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (3 July 2011). "Where is Greater Baramulla Lastupdate:- Sun, 3 Jul 2011 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012.
- S.C. Bhatt; Gopal Bhargava. Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
As most of these Hindi albeit Gujari speakers have been shown as concentrated in Baramulla, Kupwara, Punch, Rajouri and Doda districts, their Gujar identity becomes obvious. The number of Punjabi speakers in 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census Reports, actually reflects the number of Sikhs who have maintained their language and culture, and who are concentrated mainly in Srinagar, Badgam, Tral, Baramulla (all in Kashmir region), Udhampur and Jammu.
- Directory of Statistics, Jammu and Kashmir (2009)