Automotive industry in Canada
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The automotive industry in Canada consists primarily of assembly plants of foreign automakers, most with headquarters in the United States or Japan, along with hundreds of manufacturers of automotive parts and systems.
Canada is currently the ninth-largest auto producer in the world, and fourth largest auto exporter by value, producing 2.4 million vehicles and exporting $48.8 billion worth of vehicles in 2016. Canada's highest rankings ever were the second largest producer in the world between 1918 and 1923 and third after World War II.
Automotive manufacturing is one of Canada’s largest industrial sectors, accounting for 10% of manufacturing GDP and 23% of manufacturing trade. Canada produces passenger vehicles, trucks and buses, auto parts and systems, truck bodies and trailers, as well as tires and machines-tools-diesmoulds (MTDM). The auto industry directly employs more than 125,000 people in vehicle assembly and auto parts manufacturing, and another 380,000 in distribution and aftermarket sales and service.
The first large-scale production of automobiles in Canada took place in Walkerville, Ontario, near Windsor, in 1904. In the first year of operations, Gordon McGregor and Wallace Campbell, along with a handful of workmen produced 117 Ford Model Cs at the Walkerville Wagon Works factory.
Through marques such as Brooks, Redpath, Tudhope, McKay, Galt Gas-Electric, Gray-Dort, Brockville Atlas, Chatham, Anhunt, Russell (CCM), Hyslop and Ronald, and McLaughlin, Canada had many domestic auto brands. In 1918, McLaughlin was bought by an American firm, General Motors, and was re-branded General Motors of Canada. In the 1930s, Studebaker built its Rockne in Canada.
Driven by the demands of World War I, Canada's automotive industry had grown, by 1923, into the second-largest in the world, although it was still made up of relatively inefficient plants producing many models behind a high tariff wall. High consumer prices and production inefficiencies characterized the Canadian auto industry prior to the signing of the Canada–United States Automotive Products Agreement.
The 1964 Automotive Products Trade Agreement or "Auto Pact" represents the single most important factor in making the Canadian automotive industry what it is today. Key features of the Auto Pact were the 1:1 production-to-sales ratio and Canadian Value Added requirements. As of 2015 major car companies that operate are Fiat-Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Toyota.
- Allard Motor Works
- Bombardier Inc.
- Bombardier Recreational Products
- Canadian Electric Vehicles
- Conquest Canada
- Dupont Industries
- Dynasty EV is a Canadian electric car produced by Dynasty Electric Car Corporation
- Felino Cooperation (Created the Felino CB7)
- Foremost Vehicles
- Grande West Transportation Group
- HTT Automobile (Developed the first Canadian supercar, the HTT Pléthore)
- Magna International is Canada's largest domestic firm in the sector, and is the world's third-largest auto parts firm, producing entire vehicles at its Magna Steyr plant in Austria
- Magnum Cars
- New Flyer
- Nova Bus
- Prevost Car
- Terradyne Armored Vehicles Inc
- ZENN is a 2-seat battery electric vehicle built by ZENN Motor Company
Foreign automakers that have plants in Canada:
Foreign automakers that had plants in Canada:
- CAMI Automotive Joint venture between General Motors and Suzuki
- Volvo Cars
- Volvo Halifax Assembly, closed in 1998
Defunct Canadian Automakers & Brands:
- Acadian (General Motors)
- American Motors Canada
- Brockville Atlas
- Brooks Steam Motors
- Derby (Canadian automobile)
- Galt Gas-Electric
- Gray-Dort Motors
- Kennedy Motors
- Laurentian (Pontiac)
- Manic GT
- McKay Motor Car Company
- McLaughlin Automobile
- Meteor (Ford)
- Orion International
- Redpath Motor Vehicle Company
- Russell Motor Car Company
- Studebaker Canada
- Suzuki Canada Inc.
- Red-Golski Motors (Windsor)
- The Jamie Stahley Car
- Tudhope Carriage Company
- Sector, Government of Canada, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, Office of the Deputy Minister, Industry. "Vehicles made in Canada 2017". www.ic.gc.ca. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Vehicles made in Canada 2017 - Canadian automotive industry". Ic.gc.ca. 2018-08-13. Retrieved 2018-12-02.