The Bricklin SV-1 is a two-seat sports car that was built from 1974 to late 1975. The car was noteworthy for its gull-wing doors and composite bodywork of color-impregnated acrylic resin bonded to fiberglass. Assembly took place in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. To promote the SV-1 as a car designed with an emphasis on safety, the company touted such features as its integrated roll-over structure and energy-absorbing bumpers. The car's name is an abbreviation for "safety vehicle one".
|Manufacturer||Bricklin Canada Ltd. General Vehicles Inc.|
|Assembly||Canada: Saint John, New Brunswick|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door hatchback|
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout|
|Wheelbase||96.0 in (2,438 mm)|
|Length||178.6 in (4,536 mm)|
|Width||67.6 in (1,717 mm)|
|Height||48.25 in (1,226 mm)|
|Curb weight||3,520 lb (1,597 kg)|
Among the factors blamed for the car's ultimate demise were ongoing quality control problems, nepotism, supplier shortages, worker absenteeism and a series of price increases that more than doubled the price of the car in two years.
The Bricklin Canada assembly plant was located in the Grandview Industrial Park in Saint John, New Brunswick, at 150 Industrial Drive. A separate facility to produce the bodywork was in Minto, New Brunswick.
With the support of New Brunswick premier, Richard Hatfield, the provincial government provided financing of $4.5 million for Bricklin's car. The government believed that this money was to cover expenses incurred to begin the production of cars, when in fact the money was used for the engineering and development of the car as well as salaries and operations of the Phoenix-headquartered company.
Malcolm Bricklin wanted to build a small, affordable sports car with gullwing doors.:14–15 Power was to come from a four-cylinder engine from Opel. Bricklin entrusted design of a road-going proof-of-concept car to Bruce Meyers, but responsibility for the design soon transferred to Marshall Hobart. Dick Dean built the car, which was complete by December 1972. This car became known as the Grey Ghost. When completed the car had a six-cylinder Chrysler Slant-6 engine instead of a four. Other features included a rear suspension from a Datsun 510, a braking system that drew parts from Opel, Datsun and Toyota, and a tilting steering wheel from a Chevrolet.
In 1972 the Bricklin Vehicle Corporation began working with Herb Grasse Design and AVC Engineering to redesign and re-engineer the car. Three prototypes were built with assistance from AVC. AVC engineer Tom Monroe would later join Bricklin as Chief Engineer.:169
Design of the production SV-1 was done by Herb Grasse, a graduate of the ArtCenter College of Design who had earlier been employed by both Chrysler and Ford. Grasse had also worked with George Barris on the conversion of the 1955 Lincoln Futura show car into the original Batmobile.
It is claimed that Grasse opted to use the same taillamp units fitted to his personal DeTomaso Pantera for the Bricklin. These Carello units were also used on cars from Maserati and Lamborghini, but originally appeared on the Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina.
The first of the original three prototypes became known as the Red Car. While some references say that it, like the Grey Ghost, had a Chrysler slant-6 engine, pictures exist of a Bricklin identified as the Red Car with an Argentine-sourced version of the Kaiser/Jeep Tornado inline six-cylinder engine from an IKA-Renault Torino installed. All subsequent prototypes had V8 engines. As many as 8 prototypes were eventually built.
The E.M.C. Company consulted on the plastic bodywork and built some trial parts. Toolmaker Visioneering Inc. would produce the master patterns for the molds using their new CNC equipment. E.M.C. expected to supply both the large panel press as well as a complete set of water-cooled cast aluminum molds for the 22 body-parts required for the Bricklin. Ultimately Bricklin only bought the press from E.M.C., opting to use epoxy molds for their bodywork.
Bricklin experienced persistent problems with the composite acrylic/fiberglass body panel technology. The acrylic resin first selected would blister at temperatures as low as 150 °F (65.6 °C).:40 A substitute resin able to withstand higher temperatures was thinner than the original product, requiring an extra layer of fiberglass in the panel and increasing weight, so Bricklin reverted to the original resin. It was also discovered that ultraviolet light could pass through the acrylic layer, potentially degrading the polyester resins that were used to bond the acrylic to the fiberglass below.
To address these issues the company brought in polymer expert Archie Hamielec from McMaster University in Hamilton.:49 A significant problem was lack of adhesion between the acrylic layer and the fiberglass. According to sources inside the company, as much as 60% of the acrylic used in the first few months of production was lost due to failures during the pressing and bonding stage, and another 10% was lost to damage during shipment of the parts from the Minto plant to Saint John. The only test for the integrity of the parts was a test suggested by Albert Bricklin, Malcolm's father, who proposed striking each part that came out of the presses with a seven pound hammer; if the part did not delaminate it passed. Even after an acceptable bonding method was found, in 1975 losses due to poor bonding continued to be 15% to 25% of the parts produced.:41, 52
The SV-1 was presented to a gathering of celebrities and potential dealers at the Riviera Hotel Las Vegas in February 1974.:33, 34 The official unveiling of the car took place at the Four Seasons restaurant in New York in June 1974.
Among the inventory acquired by Consolidated Motors were several partially assembled cars which were completed by Consolidated and sold as 1976 models. Consolidated also built a small number SV-1s up from a bare chassis, and these were also sold as 1976 models. Bricklin had incorporated some minor body changes in the car for 1976.
Reviews and driving impressionsEdit
In a test done by Car and Driver magazine in May 1975 the performance of the Bricklin was found to be comparable to the contemporary Corvette, the only other V8-powered 2-seat plastic-bodied American sports car at the time.
The SV-1 was a two-door, two-seat hatchback with gull-wing doors, hidden headlamps and a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Its bodywork was a composite material made up of acrylic resin bonded to a fibreglass substrate. The acrylic was impregnated with the body's colour, which had the potential to reduce costs, as it eliminated the need for the factory to paint the cars in a separate step. The five "Safety" colours offered were one of the few options buyers had.
The doors, which weighed 90 lb (40.8 kg) each, were raised by hydraulic cylinders controlled by switches in the interior, and took up to 12 seconds to open or close. The system was sensitive to the condition of the car's battery, as well as being prone to breakdown. The system used a single pump and had no door interlock, so opening one door at the same time as closing the other had the potential to burn out the pump motor.
Braking was by power-assisted 11 in (279 mm) disks in front and 10 in (254 mm) drums in back. Kelsey-Hayes provided the brake components for Bricklins built from 1974 to early 1975, after which the car used parts from Bendix.
Production Bricklins were powered by one of two OHV V8 engines, depending on the year of manufacture. Cars built in 1974 received a 360 cu in (5,899 cc) AMC V8 from American Motors. With a single four-barrel carburetor this engine produced 220 hp (164.1 kW) and 315 ft⋅lb (427.1 N⋅m) of torque. Transmission options for the year were a 3-speed Torque Command automatic (AMC's rebranded TorqueFlite 727) or a BorgWarner T-10 4-speed manual. Of the 772 cars built in 1974, 137 received the manual. Cars built in 1975 mounted a 351 cu in (5,752 cc) Windsor V8 from Ford, a change which required an extensive redesign of the car's subframe.:89 With a single two-barrel carburetor this later engine produced 175 hp (130.5 kW) and 286 ft⋅lb (387.8 N⋅m) of torque. As Ford had no manual transmission EPA certified for the 351W engine, transmission options were limited to the Ford FMX 3-speed automatic.
In November 1974 Bricklin announced that they would supply five SV-1s to the police department in Scottsdale, Arizona. The cars were leased to the city for $1 each.:82 The Bricklins had the same paint scheme as the department's regular cruisers and a single beacon on the roof. The cars were used primarily for public relations events. Officers found them too difficult to get in and out of, and the Arizona heat caused battery issues that would prevent the electrically operated doors from opening.
In 1975 development began on a more exclusive model to be called the "Chairman". While mechanically similar to the existing car, Chairman cars were to have a larger engine than the stock SV-1. Visually they would be distinguished by black interior and a black body with gold stripes, gold coloured wheels and trim, and a gold-plated toolkit. The buyer was to be flown to the assembly plant to watch their car being built and receive a gold jumpsuit along with the car on delivery.
Two existing SV-1s were used to prototype the Chairman. Prototype #3 was used for the car's exterior appearance, and SV-1 VIN #1339 was used for interior development. Work on the car began in Arizona in June 1975 and moved to Livonia by July. The Chairman did not reach production.
The unfinished interior model VIN #1339 was bought by former Bricklin Manufacturing Engineering manager Terry Tanner and completed in the style of a Chairman.
In 1978 mini-car builder F.W. & Associates offered a miniature version of the SV-1 to existing Bricklin owners through the pages of the Bricklin International quarterly magazine. The cars were powered by a 3 hp (2.2 kW) Briggs & Stratton gasoline engine and could be ordered in any of the Bricklin factory colours. List price was $550.00. The serial number of each mini-Bricklin was the same as that of the buyer's full-size car.
In the mediaEdit
- The Bricklin Story was a 30-minute 1974 film produced by In-Sight Productions and funded by Bricklin as a self-promotion piece. It aired nationally on CBC and was roundly panned by critics.:87
- History Television and Barna-Alper produced a documentary, The Premier, The Promoter & Their Car, for its Turning Points of History series. The documentary explores the political fiasco that surrounded the Bricklin vehicle.
- Film company Cojak Productions and director Chris LeBlanc produced a dramatized retelling of the Bricklin saga titled La Légende Bricklin. Malcolm Bricklin returned to New Brunswick to shoot scenes where he played himself. Three Bricklins once owned by the Irving family were discovered in Halifax and were purchased for use in the film. The film aired on RDI and Radio-Canada on April 15, 2006.
- As part of its series "Tout le monde en parlait", Société Radio-Canada presented a 30-minute documentary on the car that focused on its economic impact in 2013.
- Bricklin International member and New Brunswick resident Charlie Russell wrote a two-part song, "The Bricklin", which takes a satirical view of the history of the car.
- In 2010, Theatre New Brunswick and The Playhouse (Fredericton) produced a musical, The Bricklin: An Automotive Fantasy, portraying the Bricklin story through funk music. An orange-colored Bricklin similar to Hatfield's was used on stage during the show.
- "BRICKLIN SPECIFICATIONS (continued)". website.nbm-mnb.ca.
- "Bricklin SV1: Brick to the Wall". Classic & Sports Car. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Ernst, Kurt (December 26, 2013). "Cars of Futures Past – Bricklin SV1". Hemmings Motor News.
- Vance, Bill (30 January 2012). "Classic car showcase: Bricklin". thechronicleherald.ca. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "History of the Bricklin Car". www.bricklinautosport.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Georgano, Nick (2001). The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Volume 1: A-F. Chicago Illinois: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
- Miller, Tim (8 November 2012). "Canadian-built Bricklin was banned back home". www.wheels.ca.
- "Where are they now?". bricklin.org. Bricklin International (club website). Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- "Richard Hatfield". 21 January 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
- Fredericks, H. A.; Chambers, Allan (1977). Bricklin. Brunswick Press. ISBN 978-0887900877.
- Auto Editors of Consumers Guide. "The First Bricklin Concept Car". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Monroe, Tom (1 August 1996). Engine Builder's Handbook. HP Books. ISBN 978-1557882455.
- "Artist: Herb Grasse". www.moaad.org. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Bricklin designs by Herb Grasse". HerbGrasseDesign.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- "History of the bricklin Car". Bricklinautosport.com. 1975-09-26. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- Merksamer, Gregg D. (November 2001). "The Museum of Automobile History in Syracuse, N.Y., has everything, except cars". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- Stratton, Steven (28 October 2008). "[DeTomaso] Bricklin Tail Lights and Other Questions..." server.detomasolist.com/mailman/listinfo/detomaso. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Smit, Dylan (24 November 2015). "Guess the taillight donor - DeTomaso Pantera". www.carthrottle.com. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- McManus, Dave (31 December 2017). "[DeTomaso] Maserati and Pantera tail lights". Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Bricklin Prototypes Page 1". bricklin-sv-1-build-history.com. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- "Bricklin Prototypes Page 1". bricklin-sv-1-build-history.com. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- Snow, Bill (1 August 2005). "The Composite Car That Should Have Been". www.compositesworld.com. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Vuic, Jason (2 March 2010). The Yugo: The Rise and Fall of the Worst Car in History. Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0809098910.
- DOUGHERTY, PHILIP H. (17 June 1974). "Advertising: New Bricklin Auto". New York Times. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- "Byers buys Bricklin assets after receivership / banckruptcy - End of the line snapshot". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Auto Editors of Consumers Guide. "Production of the 1974 and 1975 Bricklin SV-1". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Sherman, Don (May 1975). "Chevrolet Corvette Stingray vs. Bricklin SV-1 - Road Test". Car and Driver. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "Bricklin SV-1, 1975, Sports Car". www.canadianpostagestamps.ca. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Oziewicz, Estanislao (5 June 2003). "Issuing of Bricklin coin stirs controversy for mint". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Color Codes - Bricklin Paint Cross-Reference". www.paintref.com. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Bricklin SV-1 Specifications". 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Tech Tips Brake System" (PDF). Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "1974 Bricklin SV-1 (AMC engine) (man. 4) engine Horsepower / Torque Curve". Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "1975 Bricklin SV-1 automatic (Ford Windsor engine) (aut. 3) engine Horsepower / Torque Curve". Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Hoschek, Gero (26 July 1975). "Bricklin SV1". Autocar. Vol. 143 no. 4107. pp. 56–57.
- Dan, Niel (2007-09-07). "The 50 Worst Cars of All Time: 1975 Bricklin SV1". Time.
- Orlove, Raphael. "Why One Police Department Wasn't Happy With Its Gullwing Future Cars". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
- Tanner, Terry (1991). "The Chairman Car" (PDF). The Brickline. Bricklin International. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Bricklin VIN #1339 - "The Chairman"". www.bricklinpartsva.com. 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "The Mini Bricklin". bricklin-sv-1-build-history.com. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- Pedersen, Andy (21 February 2005). "Bricklin's Wild Ride". CBC.ca.
- "The Bricklin Song". Bricklin.org. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "The Bricklin: An Automotive Fantasy". Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Pickens, Stillman "Still" (1977). How to Brickle The New Brunswick Funny Book - Interduction [sic] by Still Pickens. Fredericton: Omega Publishing Division of Omega Management Services. ISBN 978-0969073208.
- Pickens, Stillman "Still" (1978). Bricklemanship The New Brunswick Grief Book - Interduction [sic] by Still Pickens. Fredericton: Omega Publishing Division of Omega Management Services. ISBN 978-0969073215.
- Clarke, R. M. (18 July 1995). Bricklin 1974-1975 Gold Portfolio. Brooklands Book Ltd. ISBN 978-1855203099.
- Cranswick, Marc (15 December 2011). The Cars of American Motors: An Illustrated History. McFarland Publishing. ISBN 978-0786446728.
- Ledoux, Paul; Cole, Allen (20 May 2015). The Bricklin: An Automotive Fantasy. Scirocco Drama. ISBN 978-1927922149.
- Vuic, Jason (2 March 2010). The Yugo: The Rise and Fall of the Worst Car in History. Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0809098910.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bricklin SV-1.|
- Bricklin International, club website
- Brochure Pages From The Bricklin at The Old Car Manual Project
- 1974-1975 Bricklin SV-1 at HowStuffWorks.com
- "In search of the Canadian Car - Bricklin SV-1", an online exhibition of the Virtual Museum of Canada
- Bricklin SV-1 in movies and TV series at the Internet Movie Cars Database