At-Tawbah

  (Redirected from At-Tawba)

At-Tawbah (Arabic: ٱلتَّوْبَة‎, at-Tawbah, "The Repentance"),[1] also known as Bara'ah (Arabic: بَرَاءَة‎, Barāʾah, "Repudiation"),[2][3] is the ninth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It contains 129 verses (āyāt) and is one of the last Medinan surah.

Sura 9 of the Quran
ٱلتَّوْبَة
At-Tawbah
The Repentance
ClassificationMedinan
Other namesBara'ah ("Repudiation")
PositionJuzʼ 10 to 11
Hizb no.19 to 21
No. of Rukus16
No. of verses129
No. of Sajdahsnone
← Quran 8

This Surah is reported to have been revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk in Madinah in the 9th year of the Hijrah. The Sanaa manuscript preserves some verses, on parchment radiocarbon dated to between 578/44bh and 669/49ah.[4][5]

It is the only Surah of the Quran that does not begin with Bismillah. It deals with almost the same topics as those dealt with in Surat al-Anfal. It is the only surah in the Qur'an which does not begin with the usual opening formula, In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate. In contrast to all other surahs, prophet Muhammad, did not order that this formula should be put at the beginning of this surah.[6]

NameEdit

This Surah is known by two names - At-Taubah and Al-Bara'at. It is called At-Taubah in light of the fact that it articulates taubah (atonement) and informs about the conditions of its acceptance.(vv. 102. 118). The second name Bara'at (Release) is taken from the opening word of the Surah.[citation needed]

Oversight of BismillahEdit

Out of all 114 Surahs of the Quran this is the only one to which Bismillah isn't prefixed.[6][7] Among the explanations put forward for his not doing so, the most commonly accepted according Unal is that, like the Islamic salutation, Peace be upon you, the expression, In the Name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate conveys security and giving of quarter to those addressed.[6] However, Surat at-Tawbah begins with an ultimatum to certain polytheists in Arabia. It deals, for the most part, with a re-evaluation of the relations with the polytheists who were frequently violating their agreements, the campaign to Tabuk, a disclosure of the intrigues of the hypocrites in Madinah(9:64-67, 101), the importance of jihad in God's cause(9:24), and relationships with the People of the Book.[8]

Periods of revelationEdit

This Surah includes three Discourses :-

From opening up to the 37th ayat, the initial talk[9], was uncovered in Zil-Qa'adah A.H. 9. As the significance of the subject of the talk required its affirmation on the event of Hajj Muhammad dispatched Ali to follow Abu Bakr, who had just left for Makkah to lead the Pilgrims to the Ka'abah. He trained Ali to convey the talk before the representatives of the various clans of Arabia in order to advise them regarding the new policy guidelines pertinent to the mushriks.

Starting from ayat 38 up to 72nd ayat the subsequent talk[10] was revealed during Rajab A.H. 9 or a little before this, when Muhammad was occupied with getting ready for the Campaign of Tabuk. The Believers were encouraged to take a dynamic part in Jihad, and the shirkers were seriously reproached for keeping down their riches and for wavering to forfeit their lives in the path for Allah due to their hypocrisy, powerless belief(iman) or carelessness.

The final section of ayaat 73rd to last,[11] was uncovered on his return from the Campaign of Tabuk. There are a few pieces revealed in different events during the same time frame and were incorporated by Muhammad into the Surah as per instructions from Allah. This talk cautions the hypocrites of their malevolent deeds and censures those Believers who had remained behind in the Campaign of Tabuk. At that point in the wake of berating them, Allah exculpates those genuine Believers who had not partaken in the Jihad in the Way of Allah for one explanation or the other.[citation needed]

ContentsEdit

According to Zayd ibn Thabit, when the Qu'ran was first being compiled, he found the last verses of this Surah in the possession of Abu al-h al-Ansari and no one else.[12][13] In another account, Ubay ibn Ka'b informed Zayd that Muhammad taught him the end of this sūrah and recited the same verses.[14] Some, like Ibn Hazm, suggested that Abu Khuzayma was the only one to have the last verses in written form, as Zayd and others had memorized them.[14] In a continuum of Surah Al-Anfal, this Surah additionally manages the issues of harmony and war and puts together the subject with respect to the Tabuk Expedition.The Significant Issues, Divine Laws and pieces of Guidance incorporated in this surah are as follows

  1. Policy guidelines for Muslims pertaining the mushriks.
  2. Instructions to participate in Jihad.
  3. Guidelines about hypocrisy, feeble faith, and carelessness.
  4. Battle of Tabuk.
  5. Foundation of a Dar-ul-Islam (an Islamic state).
  6. Stretching out the impact of Islam to abutting nations.
  7. Pulverizing the underhandedness of the hypocrites.
  8. Setting up the Muslims for a battle in the reason for Islam.

ExegesisEdit

Verses 9:2 - 9:6Edit

The Quran, chapter 9 (At-Tawba), verses 2–6:[15]

So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months (2) ... So if you repent, that is best for you; ... And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment. (3) ... Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term [has ended]. (4) ... And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. (5) ... And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know. (6)
— translated by Sahih International

Quran 9:5 is termed as the Sword Verse. The journalist Arun Shourie has criticized this and many other verses from the Quran contending that the Sunnah and the Hadith are equally evocative in their support of Jihad.[16] Many mainstream Islamic scholars, however, assert that this verse relates to a very specific event in early Islamic history i.e. the covenant that was made and consecutively broken by the polytheist tribes of Mecca.[17]:74-91 According to Asma Afsaruddin, citing various early exegetes' opinions regarding the Arab polytheists, the consensus among the earliest commentators has been that this does not translate into indiscriminate killing.[17]:88-89

Mujāhid said that this verse guarantees the safety of people in general (insān) who came to listen to the Prophet recite from the Qurān until they had returned to the place of refuge whence they came.
The Tanwīr al-miqbās says that the verse commands the Prophet to grant safe conduct to anyone from among the polytheists who asks for it, so that he may hear the recitation of the speech of God. If he does not believe (sc. embrace Islam), then he is to be granted safe passage back to his land (waṭanahu). This is so because they are people ignorant of the commandments of God and His oneness.

— Asma Afsaruddin, Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought, 2013, pp. 88-89

Similarly, Western Islam-scholar Rudolph Peters also asserts that indiscriminate killing is not supported in this verse.[18]

Verse 9:29Edit

At-Tawbah also contains:

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.[1]

Al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210), on this occasion quoted an early exegetical authority, Abū Rawq (d. 140/757), who explained that this verse was not a unilateral condemnation of all Jews and Christians, but those "who do not heed the prescriptions contained in the Torah and the Gospel, respectively". Similarly Al-Qurṭubī (d. 671/1273) "did not read into Qurān 9:29 a wholesale denunciation of the People of the Book as an undifferentiated collectivity".[17]:278[19] Modern Muslim scholars like Muhammad Abduh shared similar views, agreeing that this verse was revealed on the occasion of the military campaign in Tabuk, and this verse specifically deals with the People of the Book", and also that "the only kind of legitimate war on which there is unanimity among Muslim scholars is the defensive war when proclaimed by the Imām in the event of an attack upon Muslim territory". The Grand Imam of al-Azhar from 1935 to 1945, Mustafa Al-Maraghi, notes that 9:29 means: "fight those mentioned when the conditions which necessitate fighting are present, namely, aggression against you or your country, oppression and persecution against you on account of your faith, or threatening your safety and security, as was committed against you by the Byzantines, which was what lead to Tabuk.[20]

Verse 9:103Edit

In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq has narrated that Imams are not needy to what people own but rather collect religious tax on accord that Allah said, "Take from their wealth (religious tax) and charity by which you purify them and cause them to increase and invoke blessings upon them." Therefore, it is the people who need that the Imam accepts from them.[21]

Sanaa manuscript folio 22, Q9:122-129Edit

Verses 122-129 are preserved in Folio 22 of the Sanaa manuscript. The sequence of Sanaa 1 chapters do not follow any other known quranic order and folio 22 is shared with Chapter 19 (Mary).[22] Saudi-based experts in Quranic history emphasize that while the prophet Muhammad was alive, Quranic texts did not follow any standard sequence of surahs.[23]


Folio 22, recto [24] Visible Traces Reconstruction Standard Text
Quran 9 (al-Tawbah), Verse 122
Line 3, p. 62
ما [كـ]ﺎ ﮞ مَا كَانَ وَمَا كَانَ
Quran 9:122
Line 4
مں كل ا ﻣﻪ مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ
Quran 9:124
Line 9
و ا د ا ا ٮر لٮ وَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ وَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ
Quran 9:125
Line 12
ڡی ٯلو ٮهم ر حس فِى قُلُوبِهِم رِجْسٌ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَرَضٌ
Quran 9:125
Line 13
ر حر ا ا لی ر ﺣﺴ[ﻬ]ـﻢ رِجزاً إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْ رِجساً إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْ
Quran 9:125
Line 13
و ما ٮو ا و هم ڡـ(ـﺴٯـ)[ـﻮ] ﮞ وَمَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ فَـٰسِقُونَ وَمَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Quran 9:126
Line 13
ا [و] / / ٮر و أَوَلَا يَرَوْ أَوَلَا يَرَوْنَ
Quran 9:126
Line 15
و لا ٮـ(ـٮـ)ـﺪ كر و ﮞ وَلَا يَتَذَكَّرُونَ وَلَا هُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
Quran 9:127
Line 15
و ا د ا ا [ٮـ]ـﺮ (ﻟ)ـٮ وَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ وَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ
Quran 9:127
Line 16
هل ٮر ٮٮا هَلْ يَرَىٰنَا هَلْ يَرَىٰكُم
Quran 9:127
Line 17
ڡا ٮـ[ـﺼ](ـﺮ) ڡـ(ـﻮ) ا فَـﭑنصَرَفُوا ثُمَّ انصَرَفُوا
Quran 9:127
Line 17
ڡصر ڡ ا ﻟـﻠـﻪ فَــصَرَفَ اللهُ صَرَفَ ٱللَّـهُ
Quran 9:127
Line 17
د لک ٮـ(ﺎ ٮـ)//[ـﻢ] (ٯـ)ـﻮ م لا ٮڡٯهو ﮞ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ
Quran 9:128
Line 18
و لٯد حا کم وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ
Quran 9:128
Line 18
ر سو ل ﻣٮـ(ﮑ)ـﻢ رَسولٌ مِنْكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِکُمْ
Quran 9:128
Line 19
عر ٮر (ﻋ)ﻠ[ـٮـ](ﻪ) ما عٮٮکم عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنَّتَكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ
Quran 9:129
Line 20
ڡا / / (ٮـ)ـﻮ لو ا [ﻋ](ـٮـ)ـﮏ فَإن تَوَلَّوْا عَنْكَ فَإن تَوَلَّوْا
Quran 9:129
Line 21
ا لد ی لا ا ﻟ[ﻪ] ا لا ﻫﻮ الَّذي لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ

HadithEdit

The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad.[25] Ḥadīth (حديث) is literally "speech" or "report", that is a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Aishah,[26][27] the life of Prophet Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an.[28][29][30] Therefore, higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective. This surah was held in special esteem in hadith, which can be observed by these related narratives.

  • Abu Ishaq said that he heard al-Bara' b. 'Azib (Allah be pleased with him) say: The last complete sura revealed (in the Holy Qur'an) is Sura At-Tawbah (i e. al-Bara'at, ix.), and the last verse revealed is that pertaining to Kalala.[31]
  • Narrated Sa'id ibn Jubayr: I asked Ibn `Abbas about Surat At-Tawbah, and he said, "Surat Al-Tauba? It is exposure (of all the evils of the infidels and the hypocrites). And it continued revealing (that the oft-repeated expression): '...and of them ...and of them.' till they started thinking that none would be left unmentioned therein." I said, "What about) SuratAl-Anfal?" He replied, "Surat Al-Anfal was revealed in connection with the Battle of Badr." I said, "(What about) Surat Al-Hashr?" He replied, "It was revealed in connection with Banu Nadir."[32][33]
  • Narrated Zayd ibn Thabit Al-Ansari: who was one of those who used to write the Divine Revelation: Abu Bakr sent for me after the (heavy) casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of Qurra' were killed). `Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said, `Umar has come to me and said, The people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be more casualties among the Qurra' (those who know the Qur'an by heart) at other battle-fields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost, unless you collect it. And I am of the opinion that you should collect the Qur'an." Abu Bakr added, "I said to `Umar, 'How can I do something which Allah's Apostle has not done?' `Umar said (to me), 'By Allah, it is (really) a good thing.' So `Umar kept on pressing, trying to persuade me to accept his proposal, till Allah opened my bosom for it and I had the same opinion as `Umar." (Zaid bin Thabit added:) `Umar was sitting with him (Abu Bakr) and was not speaking. me). "You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or of forgetfulness): and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. Therefore, look for the Qur'an and collect it (in one manuscript). " By Allah, if he (Abu Bakr) had ordered me to shift one of the mountains (from its place) it would not have been harder for me than what he had ordered me concerning the collection of the Qur'an. I said to both of them, "How dare you do a thing which the Prophet has not done?" Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, it is (really) a good thing. So I kept on arguing with him about it till Allah opened my bosom for that which He had opened the bosoms of Abu Bakr and `Umar. So I started locating Qur'anic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leaf-stalks of date palms and from the memories of men (who knew it by heart). I found with Khuza`ima two Verses of Surat At-Tawbah which I had not found with anybody else, (and they were):-- "Verily there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty He (Muhammad) is ardently anxious over you (to be rightly guided)" (9.128) The manuscript on which the Qur'an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with `Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa, `Umar's daughter.[34][35][36][37][38]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Tawbah". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2015). The Study Qur'an. New York: HarperCollins. p. 503. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  3. ^ The 1698 Maracci Quran notes some chapters have two or more titles, occasioned by the existence of different copies in the Arabic.(George Sale Preliminary discourse 3)
  4. ^ "Birmingham Qur'an manuscript dated among the oldest in the world". University of Birmingham. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  5. ^ "'Oldest' Koran fragments found in Birmingham University". BBC. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Ünal, Ali. (2008). The Qurʼan with annotated interpretation in modern English. Somerset, N.J.: Tughra Books. p. 385. ISBN 978-1-59784-144-3. OCLC 234244740.
  7. ^ Despite the fact that the reporters have given various explanations behind this, the right one that which has been given by Imam Razi:
  8. ^ Saheeh International. (2012). The Qur'ān : English meanings and notes. Al-Muntada Al-Islami Trust. pp. Surah 9: at–Tawbah. ISBN 978-9960-792-63-7. OCLC 840114255.
  9. ^ (vv. 1-37)
  10. ^ (vv., 38-72)
  11. ^ (vv. 73-129)
  12. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl Bukhārī, Sahih al-Bukhari, Peace Vision, 1971 p.1727.
  13. ^ F. E. Peters, A Reader on Classical Islam, Princeton University Press 1993 p.180.
  14. ^ a b Ahmad Ali Al-Imam, Variant Readings of the Qurʼan: A Critical Study of Their Historical and Linguistic Origins, International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006 pp.28-29.
  15. ^ The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
  16. ^ Shourie, Arun. Indian Controversies, Essays in Religion and Politics, ASA Publications, New Delhi-110021
  17. ^ a b c Afsaruddin, Asma (2013-06-27). Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought. OUP USA. ISBN 978-0-19-973093-3.
  18. ^ Peters, Rudolph (2005). Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam.
  19. ^ Tafsir al-Kabir, al-Razi, التفسير الكبير.
  20. ^ Mustafa, al-Maraghi. Tafsir al-Maraghi. 10. p. 95. محمد مصطفى المراغي.
  21. ^ Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
  22. ^ Sadeghi & Goudarzi 2012.
  23. ^ "Experts doubt oldest Quran claim". Saudi Gazette. 27 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  24. ^ Sadeghi & Goudarzi 2012, p. 62. The hypothetical interpolation of texts for the missing parts in this and the next row are based on Sadeghi & Goudarzi's fn. 216 and 218.
  25. ^ Şatibi, El-muvafakat
  26. ^ Grade : Sahih (Al-Albani) صحيح (الألباني) حكم : Reference : Sunan Abi Dawud 1342 In-book reference : Book 5, Hadith 93 English translation : Book 5, Hadith 1337
  27. ^ Al-Adab al-Mufrad » Dealings with people and good character - كتاب English reference : Book 14, Hadith 308 Arabic reference : Book 1, Hadith 308
  28. ^ Sahih Al- Jami' AI-Saghir, No.4811
  29. ^ Sunan Ibn Majah 2333 In-book reference : Book 13, Hadith 26 English translation : Vol. 3, Book 13, Hadith 2333
  30. ^ Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) Reference : Sunan an-Nasa'i 1601 In-book reference : Book 20, Hadith 4 English translation : Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 1602
  31. ^ Sahih Muslim The Book of the Rules of Inheritance. (3)Chapter: The Last Verse To Be Revealed Was The Verse Of Kalalah 1618 c In-book reference : Book 23, Hadith 15 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 11, Hadith 3941 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  32. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari » Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh)) USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 404 Arabic reference : Book 65, Hadith 4882
  33. ^ Sahih Muslim » The Book of Commentary on the Qur'an 3031 In-book reference : Book 56, Hadith 35 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 43, Hadith 7185 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  34. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari » Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh)) USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 201 Arabic reference : Book 65, Hadith 4679
  35. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Judgments (Ahkaam) (37)Chapter: It is desirable that a scribe should be honest and wise 7191 In-book reference : Book 93, Hadith 53 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 9, Book 89, Hadith 301 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  36. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Virtues of the Qur'an (3)Chapter: The collection of the Qur'an 4986 In-book reference : Book 66, Hadith 8 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 6, Book 61, Hadith 509 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  37. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 7425 In-book reference : Book 97, Hadith 53 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 521 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  38. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 4989 In-book reference : Book 66, Hadith 11 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 6, Book 61, Hadith 511 (deprecated numbering scheme)

External linksEdit