Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix (French: Astérix or Astérix le Gaulois [asteʁiks lə ɡolwa]) is a series of French comics about Gaulish warriors, who have adventures and fight the Roman Empire during the era of Julius Caesar. The series first appeared in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Pilote on 29 October 1959. It was written by René Goscinny and illustrated by Albert Uderzo until the death of Goscinny in 1977. Uderzo then took over the writing until 2009, when he sold the rights to publishing company Hachette. In 2013, a new team consisting of Jean-Yves Ferri (script) and Didier Conrad (artwork) took over. As of 2019[update], 38 volumes have been released, with the most recent released in October 2019.
Each Asterix comic starts with the following introduction:
The year is 50 BC. Gaul is entirely occupied by the Romans. Well, not entirely... One small village of indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium... 
The series follows the adventures of a village of Gauls as they resist Roman occupation in 50 BCE. They do so by means of a magic potion, brewed by their druid Getafix (Panoramix in the French version), which temporarily gives the recipient superhuman strength. The protagonists, the title character Asterix and his friend Obelix, have various adventures. The "-ix" ending of both names (as well as all the other pseudo-Gaulish "-ix" names in the series) alludes to the "-rix" suffix (meaning "king") present in the names of many real Gaulish chieftains such as Vercingetorix, Orgetorix, and Dumnorix.
In many of the stories, they travel to foreign countries, though other tales are set in and around their village. For much of the history of the series (Volumes 4 through 29), settings in Gaul and abroad alternated, with even-numbered volumes set abroad and odd-numbered volumes set in Gaul, mostly in the village.
The success of the series has led to the adaptation of its books into 13 films: nine animated, and four live action (one of which, Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra, was a major box office success in France). There have also been a number of games based on the characters, and a theme park near Paris, Parc Astérix. The very first French satellite, Astérix, launched in 1965, was also named after the comics character. As of 2017, 370 million copies of Asterix books have been sold worldwide, with co-creators René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo being France's best-selling authors abroad.
Prior to creating the Asterix series, Goscinny and Uderzo had previously had success with their series Oumpah-pah, which was published in Tintin magazine.Astérix was originally serialised in Pilote magazine, debuting in the first issue on 29 October 1959. In 1961 the first book was put together, titled Asterix the Gaul. From then on, books were released generally on a yearly basis. Their success was exponential; the first book sold 6,000 copies in its year of publication; a year later, the second sold 20,000. In 1963, the third sold 40,000; the fourth, released in 1964, sold 150,000. A year later, the fifth sold 300,000; 1966's Asterix and the Big Fight sold 400,000 upon initial publication. The ninth Asterix volume, when first released in 1967, sold 1.2 million copies in two days.
Uderzo's first preliminary sketches portrayed Asterix as a huge and strong traditional Gaulish warrior. But Goscinny had a different picture in his mind, visualizing Asterix as a shrewd, compact warrior who would possess intelligence and wit more than raw strength. However, Uderzo felt that the downsized hero needed a strong but dim companion, to which Goscinny agreed. Hence, Obelix was born. Despite the growing popularity of Asterix with the readers, the financial backing for the publication Pilote ceased. Pilote was taken over by Georges Dargaud.
When Goscinny died in 1977, Uderzo continued the series by popular demand of the readers, who implored him to continue. He continued to issue new volumes of the series, but on a less-frequent basis. Many critics and fans of the series prefer the earlier collaborations with Goscinny. Uderzo created his own publishing company, Les Editions Albert-René, which published every album drawn and written by Uderzo alone since then. However, Dargaud, the initial publisher of the series, kept the publishing rights on the 24 first albums made by both Uderzo and Goscinny. In 1990, the Uderzo and Goscinny families decided to sue Dargaud to take over the rights. In 1998, after a long trial, Dargaud lost the rights to publish and sell the albums. Uderzo decided to sell these rights to Hachette instead of Albert-René, but the publishing rights on new albums were still owned by Albert Uderzo (40%), Sylvie Uderzo (20%) and Anne Goscinny (40%).
In December 2008, Uderzo sold his stake to Hachette, which took over the company. In a letter published in the French newspaper Le Monde in 2009, Uderzo's daughter, Sylvie, attacked her father's decision to sell the family publishing firm and the rights to produce new Astérix adventures after his death. She said:
However, René Goscinny's daughter, Anne, also gave her agreement to the continuation of the series and sold her rights at the same time. She is reported to have said that "Asterix has already had two lives: one during my father's lifetime and one after it. Why not a third?". A few months later, Uderzo appointed three illustrators, who had been his assistants for many years, to continue the series. In 2011, Uderzo announced that a new Asterix album was due out in 2013, with Jean-Yves Ferri writing the story and Frédéric Mébarki drawing it. A year later, in 2012, the publisher Albert-René announced that Frédéric Mébarki had withdrawn from drawing the new album, due to the pressure he felt in following in the steps of Uderzo. Comic artist Didier Conrad was officially announced to take over drawing duties from Mébarki, with the due date of the new album in 2013 unchanged.
In January 2015, after the murders of seven cartoonists at the satirical Paris weekly Charlie Hebdo, Astérix creator Albert Uderzo came out of retirement to draw two Astérix pictures honouring the memories of the victims.
List of titlesEdit
- Asterix the Gaul (1961)
- Asterix and the Golden Sickle (1962)
- Asterix and the Goths (1963)
- Asterix the Gladiator (1964)
- Asterix and the Banquet (1965)
- Asterix and Cleopatra (1965)
- Asterix and the Big Fight (1966)
- Asterix in Britain (1966)
- Asterix and the Normans (1966)
- Asterix the Legionary (1967)
- Asterix and the Chieftain's Shield (1968)
- Asterix at the Olympic Games (1968)
- Asterix and the Cauldron (1969)
- Asterix in Spain (1969)
- Asterix and the Roman Agent (1970)
- Asterix in Switzerland (1970)
- The Mansions of the Gods (1971)
- Asterix and the Laurel Wreath (1972)
- Asterix and the Soothsayer (1972)
- Asterix in Corsica (1973)
- Asterix and Caesar's Gift (1974)
- Asterix and the Great Crossing (1975)
- Obelix and Co. (1976)
- Asterix in Belgium (1979)
- Asterix and the Great Divide (1980)
- Asterix and the Black Gold (1981)
- Asterix and Son (1983)
- Asterix and the Magic Carpet (1987)
- Asterix and the Secret Weapon (1991)
- Asterix and Obelix All at Sea (1996)
- Asterix and the Actress (2001)
- Asterix and the Class Act (2003)
- Asterix and the Falling Sky (2005)
- Asterix and Obelix's Birthday: The Golden Book (2009)
- Asterix and the Picts (2013)
- Asterix and the Missing Scroll (2015)
- Asterix and the Chariot Race (2017)
- Asterix and the Chieftain's Daughter (2019)
- Non-canonical volumes:
- Asterix Conquers Rome, to be the 23rd volume, before Obelix and Co. (1976) - comic
- How Obelix Fell into the Magic Potion When he was a Little Boy (1989) - special issue album
- The Twelve Tasks of Asterix (2016) - special issue album
- Uderzo Croqué par ses Amis - a comic (1996)
Asterix Conquers Rome is a comics adaptation of the animated film The Twelve Tasks of Asterix. It was released in 1976, and was the 23rd volume to be published, but it has been rarely reprinted and is not considered to be canonical to the series. The only English translations ever to be published were in the Asterix Annual 1980 and never an English standalone volume. A picture-book version of the same story was published in English translation as The Twelve Tasks of Asterix by Hodder & Stoughton in 1978.
In 1996, a tribute album in honour of Albert Uderzo was released titled "Uderzo Croqué par ses Amis", a volume containing 21 short stories with Uderzo in Ancient Gaul. This volume was published by Soleil Productions and has not been translated into English
In 2007, Les Editions Albert René released a tribute volume titled Astérix et ses Amis, a 60-page volume of one-to-four-page short stories. It was a tribute to Albert Uderzo on his 80th birthday by 34 European cartoonists. The volume was translated into nine languages. As of 2016[update], it has not been translated into English.
In 2016, the French publisher Hachette, along with Anne Goscinny and Albert Uderzo decided to make the special issue album The XII Tasks of Asterix for the 40th anniversary of the film The Twelve Tasks of Asterix. There was no English edition.
Synopsis and charactersEdit
The main setting for the series is an unnamed coastal village (rumoured to be inspired by Erquy) in Armorica (present-day Brittany), a province of Gaul (modern France), in the year 50 BC. Julius Caesar has conquered nearly all of Gaul for the Roman Empire. The little Armorican village, however, has held out because the villagers can gain temporary superhuman strength by drinking a magic potion brewed by the local village druid, Getafix. His chief is Vitalstatistix.
The main protagonist and hero of the village is Asterix, who, because of his shrewdness, is usually entrusted with the most important affairs of the village. He is aided in his adventures by his rather corpulent and slower thinking friend, Obelix, who, because he fell into the druid's cauldron of the potion as a baby, has permanent superhuman strength (because of this, Getafix steadily refuses to allow Obelix to drink the potion, as doing so would have a dangerous and unpredictable result). Obelix is usually accompanied by Dogmatix, his little dog. (Except for Asterix and Obelix, the names of the characters change with the language. For example, Obelix's dog's name is "Dogmatix" in English, but "Idéfix" in the original French edition.)
Asterix and Obelix (and sometimes other members of the village) go on various adventures both within the village and in far away lands. Places visited in the series include parts of Gaul (Lutetia, Corsica etc.), neighbouring nations (Belgium, Spain, Britain, Germany etc.), and far away lands (North America, Middle East, India etc.).
The series employs science-fiction and fantasy elements in the more recent books; for instance, the use of extraterrestrials in Asterix and the Falling Sky and the city of Atlantis in Asterix and Obelix All at Sea.
The humour encountered in the Asterix comics often centers around puns, caricatures, and tongue-in-cheek stereotypes of contemporary European nations and French regions. Much of the humour in the initial Asterix books was French-specific, which delayed the translation of the books into other languages for fear of losing the jokes and the spirit of the story. Some translations have actually added local humour: In the Italian translation, the Roman legionaries are made to speak in 20th-century Roman dialect, and Obelix's famous Ils sont fous ces romains ("These Romans are crazy") is translated as Sono pazzi questi romani, humorously alluding to the Roman abbreviation SPQR. In another example: Hiccups are written onomatopoeically in French as hips, but in English as "hic", allowing Roman legionaries in more than one of the English translations to decline their hiccups absurdly in Latin (hic, haec, hoc). The newer albums share a more universal humour, both written and visual.
All the fictional characters in Asterix have names which are puns on their roles or personalities, and which follow certain patterns specific to nationality. Certain rules are followed (most of the time) such as Gauls (and their neighbours) having an "-ix" suffix for the men and ending in "-a" for the women; for example, Chief Vitalstatistix (so called due to his portly stature) and his wife Impedimenta (often at odds with the chief). The male Roman names end in "-us", echoing Latin nominative male singular form, as in Gluteus Maximus, a muscle-bound athlete whose name is literally the butt of the joke. Gothic names (present-day Germany) end in "-ic", after Gothic chiefs such as Alaric and Theoderic; for example Rhetoric the interpreter. Greek names end in "-os" or "-es"; for example, Thermos the restaurateur. British names end in "-ax" and are often puns on the taxation associated with the later United Kingdom; examples include Valuaddedtax the druid, and Selectivemploymentax the mercenary. Other nationalities are treated to Pidgin translations from their language, like Huevos y Bacon, a Spanish chieftain (whose name, meaning eggs and bacon, is often guidebook Spanish for tourists), or literary and other popular media references, like Dubbelosix (a sly reference to James Bond's codename "007").
Most of these jokes, and hence the names of the characters, are specific to the translation; for example, the druid named Getafix in English translation is Panoramix in the original French and Miraculix in German. Even so, occasionally the wordplay has been preserved: Obelix's dog, known in the original French as Idéfix (from idée fixe, a "fixed idea" or obsession), is called Dogmatix in English, which not only renders the original meaning strikingly closely ("dogmatic") but in fact adds another layer of wordplay with the syllable "Dog-" at the beginning of the name.
The name Asterix, French Astérix, comes from astérisque, meaning "asterisk", which is the typographical symbol * indicating a footnote, from the Greek word αστήρ (aster), meaning a "star". His name is usually left unchanged in translations, aside from accents and the use of local alphabets. For example, in Esperanto, Polish, Slovene, Latvian, and Turkish it is Asteriks (in Turkish he was first named Bücür meaning "shorty", but the name was then standardised). Two exceptions include Icelandic, in which he is known as Ástríkur ("Rich of love"), and Sinhala, where he is known as සූර පප්පා (Soora Pappa), which can be interpreted as "Hero".
For explanations of some of the other names, see List of Asterix characters.
Many of the Asterix adventures take place in other countries away from their homeland in Gaul. In every album that takes place abroad, the characters meet (usually modern-day) stereotypes for each country, as seen by the French.
- Italics (Italians) are the inhabitants of Italy. In the adventures of Asterix, the term "Romans" is used by non-Italics to refer to all inhabitants of Italy, who at that time had extended their dominion over a large part of the Mediterranean basin. But as can be seen in Asterix and the Chariot Race, in the Italic peninsula this term is used only to the people from the capital, with many Italics preferring to identify themselves as Umbrians, Etruscans, Venetians, etc. Various topics from this country are explored, as in this example, Italian gastronomy (pasta, pizza, wine), art, famous people (Pavarotti, Berlusconi, Mona Lisa), and even the controversial issue of political corruption.
- Goths (Germans) are disciplined and militaristic, they are composed of many factions that fight amongst each other (which is a reference to Germany before Otto von Bismarck, and to East and West Germany after the Second World War), and they wear the Pickelhaube helmet common during the German Empire.
- Helvetians (Swiss) are neutral, eat fondue, and are obsessed with cleaning, accurate time-keeping, and banks.
- The Britons (English) are phlegmatic, and speak with early 20th-century aristocratic slang (similar to Bertie Wooster). They stop for Tea every day (making it with hot water and a drop of milk until Asterix brings them actual tea leaves), drink lukewarm beer (Bitter), eat tasteless foods with mint sauce (Rosbif), and live in streets containing rows of identical houses.
- Hibernians (Irish) inhabit Hibernia, the Latin name of Ireland and they fight against the Romans alongside the Britons to defend the British Isles.
- Iberians (Spanish) are filled with pride and have rather choleric tempers. They produce olive oil, they provide very slow aid for chariot problems on the Roman roads and (due to Asterix's actions) adopt bullfighting as a tradition.
- When the Gauls visited North America in Asterix and the Great Crossing, Obelix punches one of the attacking Native Americans with a knockout blow. The warrior first hallucinates American-style emblematic eagles; the second time, he sees stars in the formation of the Stars and Stripes; the third time, he sees stars shaped like the United States Air Force roundel. Asterix's inspired idea for getting the attention of a nearby Viking ship (which could take them back to Gaul) is to hold up a torch; this refers to the Statue of Liberty (which was a gift from France).
- Corsicans are proud, patriotic, and easily aroused but lazy, making decisions by using pre-filled ballot boxes. They harbour vendettas against each other, and always take their siesta.
- Greeks are chauvinists and consider Romans, Gauls, and all others to be barbarians. They eat stuffed grape leaves (dolma), drink retsina, and are hospitable to tourists. Most seem to be related by blood, and often suggest some cousin appropriate for a job.
- Normans (Vikings) drink endlessly, they don't know what fear is (which they're trying to discover), and in their home territory (Scandinavia), the night lasts for 6 months.
- Cimbres (Danes) are very similar to the Normans. But while Asterix and Obelix were unable to communicate with them, they are perfectly able to understand the Cimbres. Their names end in "-ten", perhaps similar to those of the Normans, whose names end in "-sen".
- Belgians speak with a funny accent, snub the Gauls, and always eat sliced roots deep-fried in bear fat. They also tell Belgian jokes.
- Lusitanians (Portuguese) are short in stature and polite (Uderzo said all the Portuguese who he had met were like that).
- Sumerians, Assyrians, Hittites, Akkadians, and Babylonians are perpetually at war with each other and attack strangers because they confuse them with their enemies, but they later apologize when they realize that the strangers are not their enemies. This is likely a criticism of the constant conflicts among the Middle Eastern peoples.
- The Jews are all depicted as Yemenite Jews, with dark skin, black eyes, and beards, a tribute to Marc Chagall, the famous painter whose painting of King David hangs at the Knesset (Israeli Parliament).
- Numidians, contrary to the Berber inhabitants of ancient Numidia (located in North Africa), are obviously Africans from sub-Saharan Africa. The names end in "-tha", similar to the historical king Jugurtha of Numidia.
- The Picts (Scots) wear typical dress with a kilt (skirt), have the habit of drinking "malt water" (whisky) and throwing logs (caber tossing) as a popular sport and their names all start with "Mac-".
- Sarmatians (Russians), inhabit the North Black Sea area, which represents present-day Russia. Their names end in "-ov", like many Russian surnames.
When the Gauls see foreigners speaking their foreign languages, these have different representation in the cartoon speech bubbles:
- Iberian: Same as Spanish, with inversion of exclamation marks ('¡') and question marks ("¿")
- Goth language: Gothic script (incomprehensible to the Gauls, except Getafix)
- Viking (Normans and Cimbres): "Ø" and "Å" instead of "O" and "A" (incomprehensible to the Gauls)
- Amerindian: Pictograms and sign language (generally incomprehensible to the Gauls)
- Egyptians and Kushites: Hieroglyphics with explanatory footnotes (incomprehensible to the Gauls)
- Greek: Straight letters, carved as if in stone
- Sarmatian: In their speech balloons, some letters (E, F, N, R ...) are written in a mirror-reversed form, which evokes the modern Cyrillic alphabet.
The various volumes have been translated into more than 100 languages and dialects. Besides the original French language, most albums are available in Estonian, English, Czech, Dutch, German, Galician, Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish, Catalan, Basque, Portuguese, Italian, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Turkish, Slovene, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian, Latvian, Welsh, as well as Latin.
Selected albums have also been translated into languages such as Esperanto, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Indonesian, Persian, Mandarin, Korean, Japanese, Bengali, Afrikaans, Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Frisian, Romansch, Vietnamese, Sinhala, Ancient Greek, and Luxembourgish.
In Europe, several volumes were translated into a variety of regional languages and dialects, such as Alsatian, Breton, Chtimi (Picard), and Corsican in France; Bavarian, Swabian, and Low German in Germany; and Savo, Karelia, Rauma, and Helsinki slang dialects in Finland. Also, in Portugal, a special edition of the first volume, Asterix the Gaul, was translated into local language Mirandese. In Greece, a number of volumes have appeared in the Cretan Greek, Cypriot Greek, and Pontic Greek dialects. In the Italian version, while the Gauls speak standard Italian, the legionaries speak in the Romanesque dialect. In the former Yugoslavia, the "Forum" publishing house translated Corsican text in Asterix in Corsica into the Montenegrin dialect of Serbo-Croatian (today called Montenegrin).
In the Netherlands, several volumes were translated into West Frisian, a Germanic language spoken in the province of Friesland; into Limburgish, a regional language spoken not only in Dutch Limburg but also in Belgian Limburg and North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany; and into Tweants, a dialect in the region of Twente in the eastern province of Overijssel. Hungarian-language books have been published in Yugoslavia for the Hungarian minority living in Serbia. Although not translated into a fully autonomous dialect, the books differ slightly from the language of the books issued in Hungary. In Sri Lanka, the cartoon series was adapted into Sinhala as Sura Pappa.
Before Asterix became famous, translations of some strips were published in British comics including Valiant, Ranger, and Look & Learn, under names Little Fred and Big Ed and Beric the Bold, set in Roman-occupied Britain. These were included in an exhibition on Goscinny's life and career, and Asterix, in London's Jewish Museum in 2018.
The translation of the books into English has been done by Derek Hockridge and Anthea Bell, and their English language rendition has been widely praised for maintaining the spirit and humour of the original French version. Derek Hockridge died in 2013 and Anthea Bell retired in 2016 for health reasons. Bell died in 2018. Adriana Hunter is the present translator.
The series has been adapted into various media. There are 14 films, 15 board games, 40 video games, and 1 theme park.
- Deux Romains en Gaule, 1967 black and white television film, mixed media, live-action with Asterix and Obelix animated. Released on DVD in 2002.
- Asterix the Gaul, 1967, animated, based on the album Asterix the Gaul.
- Asterix and the Golden Sickle, 1967, animated, based upon the album Asterix and the Golden Sickle, incomplete and never released.
- Asterix and Cleopatra, 1968, animated, based on the album Asterix and Cleopatra.
- The Dogmatix Movie, 1973, animated, a unique story based on Dogmatix and his animal friends, Albert Uderzo created a comic version (consisting of eight comics, as the films is a combination of 8 different stories) of the never released movie in 2003.
- The Twelve Tasks of Asterix, 1976, animated, a unique story not based on an existing comic.
- Asterix Versus Caesar, 1985, animated, based on both Asterix the Legionary and Asterix the Gladiator.
- Asterix in Britain, 1986, animated, based upon the album Asterix in Britain.
- Asterix and the Big Fight, 1989, animated, based on both Asterix and the Big Fight and Asterix and the Soothsayer.
- Asterix Conquers America, 1994, animated, loosely based upon the album Asterix and the Great Crossing.
- Asterix & Obelix: Take on Caesar, 1999, live-action, based primarily upon Asterix the Gaul, Asterix and the Soothsayer, Asterix and the Goths, Asterix the Legionary, and Asterix the Gladiator.
- Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra, 2002, live-action, based upon the album Asterix and Cleopatra.
- Asterix and Obelix in Spain, 2004, live-action, based upon the album Asterix in Spain, incomplete and never released because of disagreement with the team behind the movie and the creator of the comics.
- Asterix and the Vikings, 2006, animated, loosely based upon the album Asterix and the Normans.
- Asterix at the Olympic Games, 2008, live-action, loosely based upon the album Asterix at the Olympic Games.
- Asterix and Obelix: God Save Britannia, 2012, live-action, loosely based upon the album Asterix in Britain and Asterix and the Normans.
- Asterix: The Mansions of the Gods, 2014, computer-animated, based upon the album The Mansions of the Gods and is the first animated Asterix movie in stereoscopic 3D.
- Asterix: The Secret of the Magic Potion, 2018, computer-animated, original story.
Parc Astérix, a theme park 22 miles north of Paris, based upon the series, was opened in 1989. It is one of the most visited sites in France, with around 1.6 million visitors per year.
Influence in popular cultureEdit
- The first French satellite, which was launched in 1965, was named Astérix-1 in honour of Asterix. Asteroids 29401 Asterix and 29402 Obelix were also named in honour of the characters. Coincidentally, the word Asterix/Asterisk originates from the Greek for Little Star.
- During the campaign for Paris to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, Asterix appeared in many posters over the Eiffel Tower.
- The French company Belin introduced a series of Asterix crisps shaped in the forms of Roman shields, gourds, wild boar, and bones.
- In the UK in 1995, Asterix coins were presented free in every Nutella jar.
- In 1991, Asterix and Obelix appeared on the cover of Time for a special edition about France, art directed by Mirko Ilic. In a 2009 issue of the same magazine, Asterix is described as being seen by some as a symbol for France's independence and defiance of globalisation. Despite this, Asterix has made several promotional appearances for fast food chain McDonald's, including one advertisement which featured members of the village enjoying the traditional story-ending feast at a McDonald's restaurant.
- Version 4.0 of the operating system OpenBSD features a parody of an Asterix story.
- Action Comics Number 579, published by DC Comics in 1986, written by Lofficier and Illustrated by Keith Giffen, featured an homage to Asterix where Superman and Jimmy Olsen are drawn back in time to a small village of indomitable Gauls.
- In 2005, the Mirror World Asterix exhibition was held in Brussels. The Belgian post office also released a set of stamps to coincide with the exhibition. A book was released to coincide with the exhibition, containing sections in French, Dutch and English.
- On 29 October 2009, the Google homepage of a great number of countries displayed a logo (called Google Doodle) commemorating 50 years of Asterix.
- Although they have since changed, the #2 and #3 heralds in the Society for Creative Anachronism's Kingdom of Ansteorra were the Asterisk and Obelisk Heralds.
- Asterix and Obelix were the official mascots of the 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships, jointly hosted by France and Germany.
- In 2019, France issued a commemorative €2 coin to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Asterix.
- "Richie's World>The World of Asterix>Introduction". www.angelfire.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- "Asterix (Comic Book)". TV Tropes. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- Cendrowicz, Leo (19 November 2009). "Asterix at 50: The Comic Hero Conquers the World". Time. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Ye, Sonia (19 October 2017). "With the crazy 'Italics', Asterix returns for 37th adventure". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- volumes-sold (8 October 2009). "Asterix the Gaul rises sky high". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
- Sonal Panse. "Goscinny and Uderzo". Buzzle.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Luminais Musée des beaux-arts. Dominique Dussol: Evariste Vital. 2002. p. 32.
- "René Goscinny". Comic creator. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- BDoubliées. "Pilote année 1959" (in French). Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
- Kessler, Peter (2 November 1995). Asterix Complete Guide (First ed.). Hodder Children's Books. ISBN 978-0-340-65346-3.
- Hugh Schofield (22 October 2009). "Should Asterix hang up his sword ?". BBC News. London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Lezard, Nicholas (January 16, 2009), Asterix has sold out to the Empire Archived 19 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine," The Guardian (retrieved June 21, 2016)
- Shirbon, Estelle (14 January 2009). "Asterix battles new Romans in publishing dispute". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- "Divisions emerge in Asterix camp". BBC News Online. London. 15 January 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- "Anne Goscinny: "Astérix a eu déjà eu deux vies, du vivant de mon père et après. Pourquoi pas une troisième?"" (in French). Bodoï. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009.
- "Asterix attraction coming to the UK". BBC News. BBC News Online. 12 October 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Rich Johnston (15 October 2012). "Didier Conrad Is The New Artist For Asterix". Bleeding Cool. Avatar Press. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- AFP (10 October 2012). "Astérix change encore de dessinateur" [Asterix switches drawing artist again]. lefigaro.fr (in French). Le Figaro. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Asterix creator comes out of retirement to declare 'Moi aussi je suis un Charlie'". The Independent. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- Kessler, Peter (1997). The Complete Guide to Asterix (The Adventures of Asterix and Obelix). Distribooks Inc. ISBN 978-0-340-65346-3.
- "October 2009 Is Asterix'S 50th Birthday". Teenlibrarian.co.uk. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Les albums hors collection - Astérix et ses Amis - Hommage à Albert Uderzo". Asterix.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "The vital statistics of Asterix". BBC News. London. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- "A to Z of Asterix: Getafix". Asterix the official website. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Asterix around the World". asterix-obelix-nl.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- "Accueil - Astérix - le site officiel". Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Translations". Asterix.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- "List of Asterix comics published in Greece by Mamouth Comix" (in Greek). Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- "Astérix le Breton: Little Fred & Big Ed (part 1)". ComicOrama en Français. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- Mark Brown (11 May 2018). "The Ancient Brit with Bags of Grit? How anglicised Asterix came to UK". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- "Astérix in Britain: The Life and Work of René Goscinny". The Jewish Museum London. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- Flood, Alison (18 October 2018). "Anthea Bell, 'magnificent' translator of Asterix and Kafka, dies aged 82". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
- "Astérix & Obélix: Mission Cléopâtre". Soundtrack collectors. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Astérix aux jeux olympiques". IMD. 2008. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Imanuel Marcus: Asterix: The European Comic Character with a Personality. The Berlin Spectator, 9 October 2019
- Cendrowicz, Leo (21 October 2009). "Asterix at 50: The Comic Hero Conquers the World". TIME. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Asterix the Gaul seen feasting at McDonald's restaurant". www.meeja.com.au. 19 August 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- "OpenBSD 4.0 homepage". Openbsd.org. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "The Mirror World exhibition official site". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Google (29 October 2009). "Asterix's anniversary". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- "KINGDOM OF ANSTEORRA ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK FOR THE COLLEGE OF HERALDS" (PDF). July 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Starck, Jeff (25 June 2019). "France issues €2 of cartoon figure Asterix". Coin World. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Astérix.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Asterix|
- Official site
- Asterix the Gaul at Don Markstein's Toonopedia, from the original on 6 April 2012.
- Asterix around the World – The many languages
- Alea Jacta Est (Asterix for grown-ups) Each Asterix book is examined in detail
- Les allusions culturelles dans Astérix - Cultural allusions (in French)
- The Asterix Annotations – album-by-album explanations of all the historical references and obscure in-jokes