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David[a] is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah,

David
King of Israel
David SM Maggiore.jpg
Statue of King David by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Reign c. 1000 BCE
Predecessor Saul
Ish-bosheth
Successor Solomon
Born Bethlehem, Judah, Israel
Died Jerusalem, Judah, Israel
Burial City of David (Jerusalem)
Consort Michal
Ahinoam
Abigail
Maachah
Haggith
Abital
Eglah
Bathsheba
Issue Amnon
Chileab
Absalom
Adonijah
Shephatiah
Ithream
Shammua
Shobab
Nathan
Solomon
Ibhar
Elishua
Nepheg
Japhia
Elishama
Eliada
Eliphalet
Tamar
House House of David
Father Jesse
Mother Nitzevet (Talmud)

In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who first gains fame as a musician and later by killing Goliath. He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul. As king, David arranges the death of Uriah the Hittite to cover his adultery with Bathsheba. The text does not state whether she consented to sex. According to the same biblical text, God denies David the opportunity to build the temple and his son, Absalom, tries to overthrow him. David flees Jerusalem during Absalom's rebellion, but after Absalom's death he returns to the city to rule Israel. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon as his successor. He is mentioned in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and an ancestor of a future Messiah, and many psalms are ascribed to him.

Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David probably existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. There is no direct evidence outside of the Bible concerning David, but the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד‎, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". Ancient Near East historians generally doubt that the united monarchy as described in the Bible existed.

David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, and is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus in light of the references to the Messiah and to David; Jesus is described as being descended from David. David is discussed in the Quran and figures in Islamic oral and written tradition as well. The biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in fictional literature over centuries.


Contents

Biblical accountEdit

FamilyEdit

 
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE
 
Saul threatening David, by José Leonardo
 
Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor, 1866

The first book of Samuel portrays David as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael.[2] When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail. The Book of Ruth (possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite.

David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage.[3] He is described as having eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal; Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba.

The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah.[4] By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada.[5] Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is a key character in the incident of her rape by one of her half-brothers.

NarrativeEdit

God is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice[6] and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill all of the Amalekites, but to destroy also their confiscated property.[7] Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint a shepherd, David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead.[8]

God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul's courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king.[9]

War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat.[10] David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath.[11] Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour,[12] he kills Goliath with his sling.[13] Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father.[14]

Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?").[15] Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David sees that he is in danger there.[16] He goes next to the cave of Adullam, where his family join him.[17] From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth,[18] and then to Keilah, where is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants.[19] From there he takes refuge in the mountainous Wilderness of Ziph.[20]

Jonathan meets with David again and confirms his loyalty to David as the future king. The people of Ziph notify Saul that David is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi.[21] Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David and enters the cave where, as it happens, David and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his needs". David realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David as his successor.[22] Anglican theologian Donald Spence Jones holds that, "one of the most beautiful characteristics of David’s many-sided nature was this enduring loyalty to Saul and to Saul’s house".[23]

Alternatively, or (in the opinion of some commentators) subsequently,[24] Saul and David were reconciled following a similar occurrence when David was able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lay asleep. In this account (1 Samuel 26), David is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David declines, saying he will not "stretch out [his] hand against the Lord’s anointed".[25] David shows, by removing Saul's spear, that he had chance to take Saul's life but did not do so. Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David, blesses him and promises that he "will do great things and surely triumph".[26] David prays that his own protection will be like his protection of Saul. The New King James Version and the New International Version both identify this episode as a second reconciliation between Saul and David[27] (with no account of any intervening dispute) but theologian Albert Barnes says the incident "is of a nature unlikely to have occurred more than once". This, it seems, was their last interview; after this they saw each other no more.[28]

 
Abishai saving David's life from the Philistine giant Ishbi-benob, engraving by Gustave Doré
 
David staring at Bathsheba bathing
 
David mourning the death of Absalom, by Gustave Doré

A different tradition is recalled in 1 Samuel 27:1–4, namely that Saul ceased to pursue David because David took refuge a second time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath.[29] Robert Jamieson, in the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary, suggests that Saul and David had "become irreconcilable" despite the reconciliations described in 1 Samuel 24 and 1 Samuel 26.[30] Achish permits David to reside in Ziklag, close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites, but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the Kenites. Achish believes that David had become a loyal vassal, but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath and at their request Achish instructs David to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul.[31] David returns to Ziklag.[32] Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle,[33] and David is anointed king over Judah.[34] In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered.[35]

With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all of Israel.[36] He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital.[37] He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city,[38] intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of his sons.[39] Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David stating, "your throne shall be established forever".[40] David wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah pay tribute after being defeated.[41]

During a siege against the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David remains in Jerusalem. He spies a woman, Bathsheba, bathing on a nearby rooftop and summons her; she becomes pregnant.[42][43][44] The text in the Bible does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba consented or not for sex.[45][46][47] Larry Richards and Lawrence O. Richards state that the biblical text supports the innocence of Bathsheba, that David took the initiative to find out her identity and summon her, and that she was alone at the time and had no way to refuse the requests of a king.[42] David J. Zucker writes that "She is a victim of 'power rape'".[44] Andrew J. Schmutzer stated that "David's "taking" Bathsheba makes him responsible for her coming to him."[48] Antony F. Campbell states "The 'violation of Bathsheba' may be the least unsatisfactory terminology, especially given the ambivalence of the text's storytelling."[45] David calls her husband, Uriah the Hittite, back from the battle to rest, hoping that he will go home to his wife and the child will be presumed to be his. Uriah does not visit his wife, however, so David conspires to have him killed in the heat of battle. David then marries the widowed Bathsheba.[49] In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that will fall upon him, stating "the sword shall never depart from your house."[50] When David acknowledges that he has sinned,[51] Nathan advises him that his sin is forgiven and he will not die,[52] but the child will.[53]

In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son Absalom rebels.[54] Absalom's forces are routed at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, and he is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree where, contrary to David's order, he is killed by Joab, the commander of David's army.[55] David laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"[56] until Joab persuades him to recover from "the extravagance of his grief"[57] and to fulfil his duty to his people.[58] David returns to Gilgal and is escorted across the River Jordan and back to Jerusalem by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.[59]

When David is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king.[60] Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son Solomon as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down.[61] David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years,[62] and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies.[63]

David in history, archeology and literatureEdit

The Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד‎, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David".[64] Other scholars, such as Anson Rainey have challenged this reading,[65][66] but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah which traced its ancestry to a founder named David.[64] The Mesha Stele from Moab, dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David in two places, although this is less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan inscription.[67]

Apart from these, all that is known of David comes from the biblical literature. The Books of Samuel were substantially composed during the time of King Josiah at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE, although further editing was done even after then—the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel in 1 Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period".[68] The authors and editors of Samuel drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" (1 Samuel 16:14–2 Samuel 5:10), and the "succession narrative" (2 Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2).[69] The Book of Chronicles, which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel as its source.[70]

The authors and editors of Samuel and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David that is concrete and undisputed.[71] The archaeological evidence indicates that in the 10th century BCE, the time of David, Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem was no more than a small village; over the following century it slowly evolved from a highland chiefdom to a kingdom, but always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north.[72] The biblical evidence likewise indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him negid, for example, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than melek, meaning "king"; the biblical David sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around Hebron.[73]

Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. The late John Bright, in his History of Israel (1981), takes Samuel at face value. Donald B. Redford, however, sees all reconstructions from biblical sources for the United Monarchy period as examples of "academic wishful thinking".[74] Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative: "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings."[75] Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Dan, Tel Rehov, Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, the United Monarchy can be described as a "state in development".[76]

Some studies of David have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath;[77] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital.[78] Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible at Rhodes College and author of King David: A Biography, states the belief that David actually came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons.[79]

 
Matteo Rosselli, The triumphant David.

Critical Bible scholarship holds that the biblical account of David's rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.[80]

Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman reject the idea that David ruled over a united monarchy, suggesting instead that he ruled only as a chieftain over the southern kingdom of Judah, much smaller than the northern kingdom of Israel at that time.[81] They posit that Israel and Judah were still polytheistic in the time of David and Solomon, and that much later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs.[82] They note a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel.[83][84][85]

Jacob L. Wright, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible at Emory University, has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods.[86]

David as psalmist and musicianEdit

 
David praying, The Art Bible (1896)

The Book of Samuel calls David a skillful harp (lyre) player[87] and "the sweet psalmist of Israel."[88] Yet, while almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (also translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life (e.g., Psalms 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142),[89] the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty.[79]

Psalm 34 is attributed to David on the occasion of his escape from Abimelech (or King Achish) by pretending to be insane.[90] According to the parallel narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David to depart, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"[91]

Rabbinic JudaismEdit

David is an important figure in Rabbinic Judaism. Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school.

David's adultery with Bathsheba was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King.[92] However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God ultimately forgave David and Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture.[93]

According to midrashim, Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David.[94] Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.

ChristianityEdit

King David the Prophet
 
King David in Prayer, by Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)
Holy Monarch, Prophet, Reformer, Spiritual Poet and Musician, Vicegerent of God, Psalm-Receiver
Born Bethlehem
Died Jerusalem
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Feast December 29 – Roman Catholicism
Attributes Psalms, Harp, Head of Goliath

The concept of the Messiah is important in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man".[95] The early Church believed that "the life of David [foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah."[96] In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him".[97] The linking of David to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus.

Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December.[98] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.

Middle AgesEdit

 
Coat of arms attributed to King David by mediaeval heralds[99] (identical to the arms of Ireland)

In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.

David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers.[100] The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him.[101] Likewise, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym.[100]

IslamEdit

David (Arabic داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Quran, often with his son Solomon. The actual Arabic equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd. In the Qur'an: David killed Goliath (2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (38:20). David was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (38:26) and God further gave David sound judgment (21:78; 37:21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms, regarded as books of divine wisdom (4:163; 17:55). The birds and mountains united with David in uttering praise to God (21:79; 34:10; 38:18), while God made iron soft for David (34:10), God also instructed David in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (21:80); an indication of the first use of Wrought iron, this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (21:78) and David judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative.[102]

Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting.[103] Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.[104]

Modern art and literatureEdit

LiteratureEdit

Literary works about David include:

  • 1681–82 Dryden's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis.
  • 1893 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used the story of David and Bathsheba as the main structure for the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. The betrayal of the Crooked Man is paralleled with David's betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win Bathsheba.
  • 1928 Elmer Davis's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead.
  • 1936 William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon.
  • 1939 In Agatha Christie's novel/play And Then There Were None (also known as Ten Little Indians), one character compares his own predicament to the story of David and Uriah.
  • 1941 In Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships, a Christian missionary is hosted by the early Danish King Harald Bluetooth and his son Sweyn Forkbeard and recounts to them the life of King David including the story of Absalom's rebellion—a sensitive subject since the Danish King suspects his own son of intending to launch a rebellion.
  • 1946 Gladys Schmitt's novel David the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character.
  • 1966 Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career.
  • 1970 Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon.
  • 1972 Stefan Heym wrote The King David Report in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time.
  • 1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann's biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it.
  • 1980 Malachi Martin's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon.
  • 1984 Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on David called God Knows, published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible.
  • 1993 Madeleine L'Engle's novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga.
  • 1995 Allan Massie wrote King David, a novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan as sexual.[105]
  • 2007, 2010 "Occupation Duty," a short alternate history story by Harry Turtledove, published in Time Twisters, (eds. Jean Rabe and Martin H. Greenberg), and in Atlantis and Other Places, is set in modern times in a world in which Goliath defeated David, resulting in the state of "Philistinia" having the same function in that world as the State of Israel has in ours.
  • 2015 Pulitzer Prize–winning author Geraldine Brooks published a novel about King David, The Secret Chord.[106]
  • 2016 New York Times – bestselling author Eric Shaw Quinn published a novel about King David, The Prince's Psalm with a special emphasis on the passionate love and devotion between the youthful David and Jonathan, Crown Prince of Israel and son of King Saul. Their friendship and developing love forge both men into legends, while the enmity of the Royal Court, jealous wives, or King Saul himself can keep the purity and intrinsic love they feel from expressing itself in war, peace, or even death.

PaintingsEdit

SculpturesEdit

FilmEdit

David has been depicted several times in films; these are some of the best-known:

MusicEdit

  • 1738 George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul features David as one of its main characters.[107]
  • 1921 Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David with a libretto by René Morax, instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire.
  • 1984 "Flash of the Blade" by Iron Maiden mentions David in the line "You're St. George or you're David and you always killed the beast".
  • 1984 Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses.
  • 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs").
  • 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting's the album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective.[108]
  • 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge[109].

Musical theaterEdit

TelevisionEdit

Playing cardsEdit

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology.[110][111] In this context, the King of Spades was often known as "David".

Image galleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ (/ˈdvɪd/; Hebrew: דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian   Dāwîḏ (Dawith) ; Dawid; Ancient Greek: Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin: Davidus, David; Ge'ez: ዳዊት?, Dawit; Classical Armenian: Դաւիթ, Dawitʿ; Old Church Slavonic: Давíдъ, Davidŭ; possibly meaning "beloved one"[1])

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren (1977). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8028-2327-4. 
  2. ^ Talmud Tractate Bava Batra 91a
  3. ^ Lemaire, Andre. in Ancient Israel, (Hershel Shanks, ed.), Biblical Archaeology Society; Revised edition (1999), ISBN 978-1880317549
  4. ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1–3
  5. ^ 2 Samuel 5:14–16
  6. ^ 1 Sam 13:8–14
  7. ^ 1 Sam 15:1–28
  8. ^ 1 Sam 16:1–13
  9. ^ 1 Sam 16:14–23
  10. ^ 1 Sam 17:1–11
  11. ^ 1 Sam 17:17–37
  12. ^ 1 Sam 17:38–39
  13. ^ 1 Sam 17:49–50
  14. ^ 1 Sam 17:55–56
  15. ^ 1 Sam 18:5–9
  16. ^ 1 Samuel 21:10–11
  17. ^ 1 Samuel 22:1
  18. ^ 1 Samuel 22:5
  19. ^ 1 Samuel 23:1–13
  20. ^ 1 Samuel 23:14
  21. ^ 1 Samuel 23:27–29
  22. ^ 1 Samuel 24:1–22
  23. ^ Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on 1 Samuel 24, accessed 25 May 2017
  24. ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F., Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 1 Samuel, Note VII, accessed 31 May 2017
  25. ^ 1 Samuel 26:11
  26. ^ 1 Samuel 26:25, NIV text
  27. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: 1 Samuel 26 - New King James Version". Bible Gateway. 
  28. ^ Barnes' Notes on 1 Samuel 26, accessed 27 May 2017
  29. ^ cf. 1 Samuel 21:10–15
  30. ^ Jamieson, R., Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 27, accessed 31 May 2017
  31. ^ 1 Sam 29:1–11
  32. ^ 1 Samuel 30:1
  33. ^ 1 Sam 31:1–13
  34. ^ 2 Sam 2:1–4
  35. ^ 2 Sam 2:8–11
  36. ^ 2 Sam 5:1–3
  37. ^ 2 Sam 5:6–7
  38. ^ 2 Sam 6:1–12
  39. ^ 2 Sam 7:1–13
  40. ^ 2 Sam 7:16
  41. ^ 2 Sam 8:1–14
  42. ^ a b Lawrence O. Richards (2002). Bible Reader's Companion. David C Cook. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-7814-3879-7. 
  43. ^ Carlos Wilton (June 2004). Lectionary Preaching Workbook: For All Users of the Revised Common, the Roman Catholic, and the Episcopal Lectionaries. Series VIII. CSS Publishing. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-7880-2371-2. 
  44. ^ a b David J. Zucker (10 December 2013). The Bible's Prophets: An Introduction for Christians and Jews. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-1-63087-102-4. 
  45. ^ a b Antony F. Campbell (2005). 2 Samuel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2813-2. 
  46. ^ Sara M. Koenig (8 November 2011). Isn't This Bathsheba?: A Study in Characterization. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-60899-427-4. 
  47. ^ Antony F. Campbell (2004). Joshua to Chronicles: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-664-25751-4. 
  48. ^ Andrew J. Schmutzer (1 October 2011). The Long Journey Home: Understanding and Ministering to the Sexually Abused. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-1-60899-395-6. 
  49. ^ 2 Sam 11:14–17
  50. ^ Some commentators believe this meant during David's lifetime. Others say it included his posterity. 2 Sam 12:8-12:10
  51. ^ 2 Samuel 12:13
  52. ^ Adultery was a capital crime under Mosaic law: Leviticus 20:10
  53. ^ 2 Samuel 12:14: NIV translation
  54. ^ 2 Sam 15:1–12
  55. ^ 2 Sam 18:1–15
  56. ^ 2 Sam 18:33
  57. ^ Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 2 Samuel 19, accessed 12 August 2017
  58. ^ 2 Samuel 19:1–8
  59. ^ 2 Samuel 19:15–17
  60. ^ 1 Kings 1:1–5
  61. ^ 1 Kings 1:11–31
  62. ^ 2 Sam 5:4
  63. ^ 1 Kings 2:1–9
  64. ^ a b Pioske 2015, p. 180.
  65. ^ Pioske, Daniel (2015-02-11). "4: David's Jerusalem: The Early 10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community". David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and History. Routledge Studies in Religion. 45. Routledge (published 2015). p. 180. ISBN 9781317548911. Retrieved 2016-09-17. [...] the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an eponymous David or the kingdom of Judah. 
  66. ^ Rainey, Anson F., The 'House of David' and the House of the Deconstructionists. Biblical Archaeology Review 20/6 (November/December 1994): p. 47
  67. ^ Pioske 2015, p. 210, fn.18.
  68. ^ Auld 2003, p. 219.
  69. ^ Knight 1991, p. 853.
  70. ^ McKenzie 2004, p. 32.
  71. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 232–233.
  72. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2007, pp. 26–27.
  73. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 220–221.
  74. ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 pp. 301–307.
  75. ^ Thompson TL. "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine". 
  76. ^ Mazar A. Archaeology and the biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy (PDF). 
  77. ^ Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001. Review of Baruch Halpern's "David's Secret Demons".
  78. ^ Finkelstein and Silberman, "David and Solomon", 2006. See review "Archaeology" magazine.
  79. ^ a b Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee Archived 2012-06-21 at the Wayback Machine..
  80. ^ Baden, Joel (2014-07-29). The Historical David: The Real Life of an Invented Hero. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780062188373. 
  81. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) [2001]. "8. In the Shadow of Empire (842–720 BCE)". The Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts (First Touchstone Edition 2002 ed.). New York: Touchstone. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1. Archaeologically and historically, the redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy based in Jerusalem and suggests that David and Solomon were, in political terms, little more than hill country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly local level, restricted to the hill country. 
  82. ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6. the narrative of the Bible was uniquely suited to further the religious reform and territorial ambitions of Judah. 
  83. ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6. we still have no hard archaeological evidence—despite the unparalleled biblical description of its grandeur—that Jerusalem was anything more than a modest highland village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam. 
  84. ^ "Table Two" (Finklestein and Silberman, 2002: 131).
  85. ^ Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous." (Finkelstein and Silberman 2002: 181).
  86. ^ "David, King of Judah (Not Israel)". bibleinterp.com. July 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  87. ^ 1 Samuel 16:15–18
  88. ^ Other translations say, "the hero of Israel's songs," "the favorite singer of Israel," "the contented psalm writer of Israel," and "Israel's beloved singer of songs." 2 Samuel 23:1.
  89. ^ Commentary on II Samuel 22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-06808-5
  90. ^ Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament, Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan:Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-40200-X
  91. ^ 1 Samuel 21:15
  92. ^ "David". jewishencyclopedia.com. 
  93. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin. p. 107a. 
  94. ^ Zohar Bereishis 91b
  95. ^ "David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  96. ^ John Corbett (1911) King David The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company)
  97. ^ McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 101. 
  98. ^ Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.
  99. ^ Lindsay of the Mount, Sir David (1542). Lindsay of the Mount Roll. 
  100. ^ a b Garipzanov, Ildar H. The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c. 751–877). Brill. pp. 128, 225. ISBN 9004166696. 
  101. ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr. (1997). Imagining History at the Crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. p. 528. 
  102. ^ A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, David
  103. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Dawud
  104. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of David
  105. ^ O'Kane, Martin (1999). "The Biblical King David and His Artistic and Literary Afterlives". In Exum, Jo Cheryl. Beyond the Biblical Horizon: The Bible and the Arts. p. 86. ISBN 9004112901. Retrieved 15 August 2015. 
  106. ^ Gilbert, Matthew (3 October 2015). "'The Secret Chord' by Geraldine Brooks". Boston Globe. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  107. ^ "G. F. Handel's Compositions". The Handel Institute. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  108. ^ "Mad About You". Sting.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 
  109. ^ "Lyrics Database". Little Feat website. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  110. ^ "snopes.com: Four Kings in Deck of Cards". snopes.com. 
  111. ^ "Courts on playing cards", by David Madore, with illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Alexander, David; Alexander, Pat, eds. (1983). Eerdmans' handbook to the Bible ([New, rev.]. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-3486-8. 
  • Bright, John (1981). A history of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-21381-2. 
  • Bruce, F. F. (1963). Israel and the Nations. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 
  • Julia Fridman, "The Naked Truth about King David, the 8th Son," Haaretz, February 20, 2014, http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/.premium-1.575418
  • Harrison, R.K. (1969). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 
  • Kidner, Derek (1973). The Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-868-8. 
  • Noll, K. L. (1997). The faces of David. Sheffield: Sheffield Acad. Press. ISBN 1-85075-659-7. 
  • Thompson, J.A. (1986). Handbook of life in Bible times. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-949-8. 
  • Green, Adam (2007). King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah. Cambridge, UK: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830741. 

External linksEdit

  Media related to David at Wikimedia Commons
  Quotations related to David at Wikiquote

David of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah
Regnal titles
New title
Rebellion from Israel under Ish-bosheth
King of Judah
1010 BC–1003 BC
Succeeded by
Solomon
Preceded by
Ish-bosheth
King of the United
Kingdom of Israel and Judah

1003 BC–970 BC