The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशोकावदान; IAST: Aśokāvadāna; "Narrative of Ashoka") is an Indian Sanskrit-language text that describes the birth and reign of the Maurya Emperor Ashoka. It contains legends as well as historical narratives, and glorifies Ashoka as a Buddhist emperor whose only ambition was to spread Buddhism far and wide.
|Author||possibly the Buddhist monks of Mathura region|
|Subject||Life of King Ashoka|
|possibly 2nd century common era|
Ashokavadana, also known as Ashokarajavadana, is one of the avadana texts contained in the Divyavadana (Divyāvadāna, "Divine Narrative"), an anthology of several Buddhist legends and narratives. According to Jean Przyluski, the text was composed by the Buddhist monks of the Mathura region, as it highly praises the city of Mathura, its monasteries and its monks.
Annotated sections of the Ashokavadana are part of Rajendralala Mitra's (1822–91) "The Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal". Mitra extensively uses the translation made by M. E. Burnouf.
Date of compositionEdit
There are several versions of Ashokavadana, dating from 5th century CE to 16th century CE. Some date the earliest finished form of the text back to 2nd century CE, although its oral origins may go back to 2nd century BCE.
Life of UpaguptaEdit
The text begins with the stories about the Buddhist monk Upagupta, described as the spiritual teacher of Ashoka. It first describes his past lives, his birth and his youth in Mathura. It then goes on to given an account of his encounters with a courtesan named Vasavadatta and his ordination as a monk. Ashokavadana further tells of his conversion of Mara.
Early life of AshokaEdit
One of the legends in the text describes an incident the previous birth of Ashoka, when he was named Jaya. It states that Jaya met Gautama Buddha as a young boy, and gave him a bowl of dirt, dreaming that the dirt is food. The Buddha then predicted that several years after his parinirvana, the boy would be born as a chakravarti king ruling from Pataliputra.
The Ashokavadana states that Ashoka's father did not like him because he was ugly. Ashoka killed his step-brother and the legitimate heir by tricking him into entering a pit with live coals, and became the king. He became notorious for his bad temper, and had 500 of his ministers killed because he believed that they were not loyal enough. He also had the women in his harem burnt to death when some of them insulted him. He built an elaborate torture chamber, termed as the "hell on earth" or Ashoka's Hell. Once he encountered a Buddhist monk, who was not troubled by any of the sufferings. Impressed by the monk, Ashoka converted to Buddhism, became a pious man and built 84,000 stupas. Like other Buddhist legends, the text intends to dramatize the change resulting from the Ashoka's conversion, and therefore, exaggerates Ashoka's past wickedness and his piousness after the conversion.
Ashoka's Buddhist kingshipEdit
The text describes in detail the efforts of Ashoka towards the expansion of Buddhism. According to Ashokavadana, Ashoka first converted his brother Vitashoka to Buddhism. Next, he taught his minister Yashas to honor the Buddhist monks.Then, accompanied by Upagupta, he went on a pilgrimage to the holy places associated with the Buddha's life. He held a grand pancavarsika (quinquennial) festival for the Buddhist monks, during which he encountered Pindola Bharadvaja.
The text also tells of Ashoka's son Kunala, who became a blind beggar due to a plot hatched by Ashoka's young queen Tisyaraksita. Kunala achieved enlightenment and was later united with his father. It makes no mention of Mahinda, the son of Ashoka who introduced Buddhism to Sri Lanka according to Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa.
Ashokavadana mentions two incidents of Ashoka turning towards violence after adopting Buddhism. In one instance, a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra (identified with Mahavira, the founder of Jainism). On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashoka issued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana. Around 18,000 followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order. Sometime later, another Nirgrantha follower in Pataliputra drew a similar picture. Ashoka burnt him and his entire family alive in their house. He also announced an award of one dinara (silver coin) to anyone who brought him the head of a Nirgrantha heretic. According to Ashokavadana, as a result of this order, his own brother, Vitashoka, was mistaken for a heretic and killed by a cowherd. Their ministers advised him that "this is an example of the suffering that is being inflicted even on those who are free from desire" and that he "should guarantee the security of all beings". After this, Ashoka stopped giving orders for executions. According to K.T.S. Sarao and Benimadhab Barua, stories of persecutions of rival sects by Ashoka appear to be a clear fabrication arising out of sectarian propaganda.
According to the text, Ashoka started giving away his empire's resources to the sangha during his last days. His ministers denied him the access to the state treasury amidst fears that he would empty it. Ashoka then gave away all of his personal possessions and died in peace.
Description of PushyamitraEdit
The Ashokavadana ends with the story of Pushyamitra (185–151 BCE), the Shunga king whose rule succeeded the Mauryan empire. However, the text wrongly mentions him as a member of the Maurya family. It has often been quoted for its disparaging description of Pushyamitra as an enemy of the Buddhist faith, which before him had been officially supported by the Mauryan empire:
... Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama. ... Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk.
Like other portions of the text, these accounts are regarded by many historians as being exaggerated.
- Kenneth Pletcher (15 August 2010). The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-61530-122-5. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- Jean Przyluski (1923). La légende de l'empereur Açoka (Açoka-Avadâna) dans les textes indiens et chinois (in French). 1924. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- Upinder Singh (1 September 2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 332. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- John S. Strong 1989, p. 16.
- "The Legend of King Asoka". Princeton University Press. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal, Introd. Dr. Alok Ray, Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Calcutta 1882
- Kurt A. Behrendt, ed. (2007). The Art of Gandhara in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 44. ISBN 9781588392244.
- Coleman, Simon and John Elsner (1995), Pilgrimage: Past and Present in the World Religions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Page 173.
- John S. Strong 1989, p. 17.
- John S. Strong 1989, p. 18.
- John S. Strong 1989, p. 232.
- Beni Madhab Barua (5 May 2010). The Ajivikas. General Books. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-152-74433-2. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- John S. Strong 1989.
- Steven L. Danver, ed. (22 December 2010). Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating History's Intriguing Questions: Investigating History's Intriguing Questions. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-59884-078-0. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Le Phuoc (March 2010). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-9844043-0-8. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Benimadhab Barua (5 May 2010). The Ajivikas. University of Calcutta. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-152-74433-2. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- John S. Strong 1989, p. 293.
- Nayanjot Lahiri (2015). Ashoka in Ancient India. Harvard University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-674-91525-1.
- Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya (2007). Class and Religion in Ancient India. Anthem Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-84331-727-2. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- John S. Strong (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0. Retrieved 30 October 2012.