Common Era or Current Era (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, i.e., since AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as a secular alternative to the Dionysian era system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[a] The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union.
The expression has been traced back to Latin usage to 1615, as vulgaris aerae, and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era".[b] The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish academics. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications, and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to emphasize secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians, by not explicitly referencing Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus ("Lord"), shortened from anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year of Our Lord Jesus Christ").
The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an initial reference date ("epoch"), an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi".
Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero.[c] In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.
The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era"[d] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae[e] discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. Kepler uses it again in a 1616 table of ephemerides, and again in 1617. A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found usage of Vulgar Era in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity".
The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase æræ Christianæ appeared in the title of an English almanac. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".
The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews. The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German. The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously. In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", and also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) in at least one article[where?] reports all three terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the early 20th century.
The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome". When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ".
An adapted translation of Common Era into pseudo-Latin as Era Vulgaris (in Latin this means Common Mistress) was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.
History of the use of the CE/BCE abbreviationEdit
As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar.
Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more than a century". Some Jewish academics were already using the CE and BCE abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when Rabbi and historian Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his book Post-Biblical History of The Jews.[f]
The ratio of usage of BCE to BC, CE to AD, Common Era to Anno Domini, and Before Common Era to Before Christ in books has changed dramatically between the years 1800 and 2008, particularly since 1980, with the CE-related variants increasing in usage.
More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world: The Smithsonian Institution prefers Common Era usage, though individual museums are not required to use it. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News.
In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing. Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests, and by the Norton Anthology of English Literature. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism.
In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state’s new Program of Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level.
Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation. The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity.
The use of CE in Jewish scholarship was historically motivated by the desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation AD. Although other aspects of dating systems are based in Christian origins, AD is a direct reference to Jesus as Lord.
Proponents of the Common Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but who are not themselves Christian.
[T]he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era.
Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the conception or birth of Jesus, some Christians are offended by the removal of the reference to him in era notation. The Southern Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations.
There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system [that is, the method of numbering years] itself, given its Christian basis." The short lived French Republican Calendar, for example, began with the first year of the French First Republic and rejected the seven-day week (with its connections to the Book of Genesis) for a ten-day week. Priest and writer on interfaith issues Raimon Panikkar contends that using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the calendar to be a "common era".
According to a Los Angeles Times report, it was a student's use of BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within Wikipedia, which prompted the teacher and politician Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia, a cultural conservative wiki.One of its "Conservapedia Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis" of the dating system.
Conventions in style guidesEdit
The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all). Thus, the current year is written as 2017 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as 2017 CE, or as AD 2017), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods (e.g., "BCE" or "C.E."). Style guides for academic texts on religion generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD.
The terms "Common Era", "Anno Domini", "Before the Common Era", and "Before Christ" in contemporary English can be applied to dates that rely on either the Julian calendar or the Gregorian calendar. Modern dates are understood in the Western world to be in the Gregorian calendar, but for older dates writers can specify the calendar used. Dates in the Gregorian calendar in the Western world have always used the era designated in English as Anno Domini or Common Era.
Similar conventions in other languagesEdit
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Several languages other than English also have both religious and non-religious ways of identifying the era used in dates. In some communist states during the Cold War period, usage of non-religious notation was mandated.
- In Angola, the abbreviations "E.C." ("Era Comum", Common Era) and "A.E.C." ("Antes da Era Comum", Before Common Era) is generally used.
- In Arabic, بعد الميلاد (After the Birth) corresponds to CE, while قبل الميلاد (Before the Birth) corresponds to BCE. The "Birth" referenced is that of Jesus. This system is in widespread use in all Arab countries, but is accompanied by the Hijri system. Dates are often given in both in that order. In Saudi Arabia, however, the Hijri system is predominant.
- In Brazil, the AD is common use, used as DC "Depois de Cristo (After Christ)" and BC as AC "antes de Cristo"
- In the Chinese language, common era (公元, gong yuan) has been predominantly used to refer to the western calendar without any religious connotation.
- In Czech, př.Kr. (před Kristem) and l.P. (léta Páně) were partially replaced (especially l.P., being in conflict with LP record, remaining mostly on signs and cover art, used similarly to est.) by př.n.l. and n.l., meaning před naším letopočtem and našeho letopočtu, literally "before / of our year numbering"). Slovak has the ending -om instead of -em and unaccented leta and pred, allowing use of the same abbreviations.
- In Danish, the terms f.Kr. (før Kristus, before Christ) and e.Kr. (efter Kristus, after Christ) have traditionally been used. They are now in free variation with f.v.t. and e.v.t. (før/efter vor tidsregning, before/after our chronology).
- In Dutch the terms v.C. or v.Chr. (voor Christus, before Christ) and n.C. or n.Chr. (na Christus, after Christ) have traditionally been used. There are alternatives v.g.j. and g.j. ([vóór] gangbare/gewone jaartelling, [before] conventional/ordinary chronology), v.o.j. and n.o.j. (vóór/na onze jaartelling, before/after our chronology) and v.d.g.j. and n.d.g.j. (vóór/na de gewone jaartelling, before/after the ordinary chronology), but there is still no generally accepted alternative for the Christian notation. The notation v.Chr./n.Chr. remains generally used by the media and scientists.
- In Finland, the terms eKr. (ennen Kristusta, before Christ) and jKr. (jälkeen Kristuksen, after Christ) were largely used until the 1980s but have been mostly replaced during the last couple of decades with terms eaa. (ennen ajanlaskun alkua, before start of chronology) and jaa. (jälkeen ajanlaskun alun, after start of chronology).
- In Germany, Jews in Berlin seem to have already been using "(Before the) Common Era" in the 18th century, while others like Moses Mendelssohn opposed this usage as it would hinder the integration of Jews into German society. The formulation seems to have persisted among German Jews in the 19th century in forms like vor der gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung (before the common chronology.)
- In 1938 Nazi Germany, the use of this convention was also prescribed by the National Socialist Teachers League.
- However, it was soon discovered that many German Jews had been using the convention ever since the 18th century, and they found it ironic to see "Aryans following Jewish example nearly 200 years later".
- The German Democratic Republic (1949–1990) introduced the convention of v. u. Z. (vor unserer Zeitrechnung, before our chronology) and u. Z. (unserer Zeitrechnung, of our chronology) instead of v. Chr. (vor Christus, before Christ) and n. Chr. (nach Christus/Christi Geburt, after Christ/the Nativity of Christ). The use of these terms persists in contemporary German to some extent, differing regionally and ideologically. In Jewish contexts mostly "v. d. Z." ("vor der Zeitenwende") and "n. d. Z." ("nach der Zeitenwende") is used.
- In Hebrew, the most common term used to refer to BCE/CE is simply לספירה (according to the count) for CE, and לפני הספירה (before the count) for BCE. An alternative term, expressing an ideological (sometimes religious) approach aimed at distancing oneself from the source of the count, is למניינם (according to their count). The later is sometimes added after the former, especially in the case of BCE (e.g., שנת 150 לפני הספירה למנינם), due to technical linguistic reasons.
- In Hungary, similarly to the Bulgarian case, i. e. (időszámításunk előtt, before our era) and i. sz. (időszámításunk szerint, according to our era) are still widely used instead of traditional Kr. e. (Krisztus előtt, Before Christ) and Kr. u. (Krisztus után, After Christ), which were unofficially reinstituted after the Communist period.
- In Indonesia, the terms SM (Sebelum Masehi, before Masehi, from Arabic Masih, referring to Jesus) and M (Masehi, after Masehi) were generally used. The terms "STU" ("SebelumTarikh Umum") and "TU" ("Tarikh Umum") were used to translate "BCE" ("Before Common Era") and "CE" ("Common Era")
- In Italy, e.v. ("Era Volgare" from Latin expression "Aera Vulgaris") and p.e.v. ("Prima dell'Era Volgare", before the vulgar era) may be used (both in lower case), but the historical A.C./D.C. (Avanti Cristo/Dopo Cristo, before Christ/after Christ) are much more frequent.
- In Japanese, years reckoned by the Western calendar as opposed to the Japanese Imperial eras are indicated by, for example, 西暦2013年, where 西暦 (seireki) literally means "Western calendar" which carries no religious connotation, aside from the fact that Christianity is a Western religion. 紀元前 (kigenzen) is used to mean "before the common era (BCE)" "AD", and less commonly, "CE", are also occasionally seen, but the typical Japanese person would not care about the religious connotations.
- In Korean, 기원전(紀元前, giwonjeon), which means "preceding the [Western] era", is used to indicate years BCE. 서기(西紀, seogi), "Western era", short for 서력기원(西暦紀元, seoryeokgiwon), meaning "[from] the origin year of the Western calendar", is used to indicate years CE. Christians use 주후 (juhu), meaning "after [the birth of] the Lord", as a shorthand calque of Anno Domini.
- In Macedonian, п.н.е. – пред наша ера (p.n.e. – pred nasha era), meaning before our era, and н.е. – наша ера (n.e. – nasha era), meaning our era, are used the same way as BCE and CE, respectively.
- In Poland the only term generally used is naszej ery/przed naszą erą (of our era/before our era). The terms przed Chrystusem/po Chrystusie (before Christ/after Christ) and roku Pańskiego (year of the Lord) are possible but almost never used in contemporary Poland.
- In Serbia, the common and official terms are p.n.e. ("pre nove ere", Before the new era), and n.e. ("nove ere", new era).
- In Romania, throughout most of the communist period, the preferred standard was to use the secularised î. e. n. (înaintea erei noastre, before our era) and e. n. (era noastră, our era). After the downfall of communism in the Romanian Revolution, the original convention using î. Hr. (înainte de Hristos, before Christ) and d. Hr. (după Hristos, after Christ) has become more widespread. Alternatively, î. Cr. and d. Cr. are used, mainly due to an alternative spelling of Hristos (Christ) as Cristos, the latter being preferred by the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches.
- In Russia, the terms до н.э. (до нашей эры, before our era) and н.э. (нашей эры, our era) are often used. Their use was nearly universal during Soviet rule, and while their use in mass media has to some extent been replaced by their Christian equivalents, the BCE/CE terms remain the strongly preferred version in scientific literature, business magazines and other "serious" texts.
- In Spanish, EC (Era Común) is used for CE, while AEC (antes de la Era Común) is equivalent to BCE.
- In Swedish the terms f.Kr. (före Kristus, before Christ) and e.Kr. (efter Kristus, after Christ) have traditionally been used. They are seldom replaced by f.v.t. and e.v.t. (före/enligt vår tidräkning, before/according to our chronology).
- In Turkish, the terms M.Ö. (Milattan Önce, before the birth (of Jesus)) and M.S. (Milattan Sonra, after the birth (of Jesus)) are commonly used. İ.Ö. (İsa'dan Önce, before Jesus) and İ.S. (İsa'dan Sonra, after Jesus) can also be seen in academic writing.
- In Welsh, OC can be expanded to equivalents of both AD (Oed Crist) and CE (Oes Cyffredin); for dates before the Common Era, CC (traditionally, Cyn Crist) is used exclusively, as Cyn yr Oes Cyffredin would abbreviate to a mild obscenity.
- Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard, do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however, whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of either the Gregorian or Julian calendars.
- The word "Vulgar" (from Latin vulgaris) originally meant ordinary, common-place, or not regal or regnal. (See wiktionary:vulgar)
- As noted in History of the zero, the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the twelfth century.
- from the Latin word vulgus, the common people, i.e., those who are not royalty.
- In Latin, Common Era is written as Vulgaris Aerae. It also occasionally appears as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas.
- The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.
- BBC Team (8 February 2005). "History of Judaism 63 BCE – 1086 CE". BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- "Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord
- "Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation/". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "Common Era". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992.
- "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1615)". Retrieved 2011-05-18.Johannes Kepler (1615). Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum. (in Latin). Francofurti:Tampach.
anno aerae nostrae vulgaris
- first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). Printed for H. Rhodes. 1708. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513.
- Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001). History of the World Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN 0-567-08866-9. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason the terms common era and before the common era, abbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research.
- Andrew Herrmann (27 May 2006). "BCE date designation called more sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
Herrmann observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians"
- McKim, Donald K (1996). Common Era entry. Westminster dictionary of theological terms. ISBN 978-0-664-25511-4. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church". In Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.). The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar. Vatican Observatory. p. 50. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, 2.1
- Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780-802837813. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
- Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
- "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Kepler, Johann (1616). Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1616). Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Kepler, Johann (1616). Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis... Plancus.
- Kepler, Johannes; Fabricus, David (1617). Third use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). sumptibus authoris, excudebat Iohannes Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler, Jakob Bartsch (1617). Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI]... Johannes Plancus.
Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX.* Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636
- Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English (1635). Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johann Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq (1635). Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633...
- Clerc, Jean Le (1701). vulgar era in English (1701). Retrieved 2011-05-18. John LeClerc, ed. (1701). The Harmony of the Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5.
Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6
- Prideaux, Humphrey (1799). Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716) (reprint ed.). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
reckoning it backward from the vulgar era of Christ's incarnationHumphrey Prideaux, D.D. (1716) [from Oxford University Press 1799 (1716 edition not online, 1749 online is Vol 2)]. The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. 1. Edinburgh. p. 1.
This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation.
- Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham); Newton, Sir Isaac; Falconer, Thomas (1796). "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Rev. Robert Walker; Isaac Newton; Thomas Falconer (1796). Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to ... London: T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10.
Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years.
- "1584 Latin use of aerae christianae". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Grynaeus, Johann Jacob; Beumler, Marcus (1584). De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit ; accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit. (in Latin) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. OCLC 123471534.
4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584
- "1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book – 1st usage found in English". Retrieved 2011-05-18. WING, Vincent (1649). Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. London: J.L. for the Company of Stationers.
anni æræ Christianæ, 1649
- first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652). Retrieved 2016-11-02. Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers.
- Gregory, David; John Nicholson; John Morphew (1715). The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. 1. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of ChristBefore Christ and Christian Era appear on the same page 252, while Vulgar Era appears on page 250
- Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). 1759 use of common æra. Printed for C. Bathurst. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time. 13. London: C. Bathurst [etc.] p. 130.
at which time they fixed that for their common eraIn this case, their refers to the Jews.
- Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr; Hooper, William (1770). First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with "vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770). Printed by G. Scott, for J. Robson and B. Law. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hooper, William; Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Erudition: Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and Belles Lettres. 2. London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63.
in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63)
- MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "vulgar era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era
MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "common era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death.
George Gleig, ed. (1797). Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes). Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P.
- Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 16–20. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Foremost among these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living".
- Encyclopedia, Popular (1874). "common era of the Jews" (1874). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760A. Whitelaw, ed. (1874). Conversations Lexicon. The Popular Encyclopedia. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207.
- "common era of the Jews" (1858). Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt. 1858. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology.Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA (1858). The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God. London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176.
- Gumpach, Johannes von (1856). "common era of the Mahometans" (1856). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet.Johannes von Gumpach (1856). Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar. Oxford University. p. 4.
- Jones, William (1801). "common era of the world" (1801). F. and C. Rivington. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jones, William (1801). The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones. London: Rivington.
- Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON (1854). "common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854). Retrieved 2011-05-18. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (1854). Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Boston: Fetridge and Company. p. 284.
- Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1833). "common era of the Incarnation" (1833). A. & C. Black. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. p. 711.
- Todd, James Henthorn (1864). "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864). Hodges, Smith & co. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord.James Henthorn Todd (1864). St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497.
- "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). printed by A.J. Valpy for T. Payne. 1812. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Heneage Elsley (1812). Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition) (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi.
- C.f. every good Latin dictionary, e.g., perseus.tufts.edu , freedict.com, pons (English/German), pons (German) or auxilium-online.net (German)
- "What is Thelema?". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Tracey R Rich. "Judaism 101". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Jews do not generally use the words "A.D." and "B.C." to refer to the years on the Gregorian calendar. "A.D." means "the year of our L-rd," and we do not believe Jesus is the L-rd. Instead, we use the abbreviations C.E. (Common or Christian Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era).
- "Plymouth, England Tombstone inscriptions". Jewish Communities & Records. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Here is buried his honour Judah ben his honour Joseph, a prince and honoured amongst philanthropists, who executed good deeds, died in his house in the City of Bath, Tuesday, and was buried here on Sunday, 19 Sivan in the year 5585. In memory of Lyon Joseph Esq (merchant of Falmouth, Cornwall). who died at Bath June AM 5585/VE 1825. Beloved and respected.[19 Sivan 5585 AM is June 5, 1825. VE is likely an abbreviation for Vulgar Era.]
- Gormley, Michael (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces changing times". Houston Chronicle. p. A–13. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Post-Biblical History of The Jews. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=r7CbDH5hTe8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=CE+BCE.
- Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Search for era in this book. Moss & Brother. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Google Ngram Viewer". Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Google Ngram Viewer". Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- See, for example, the Society for Historical Archaeology states in its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P. (before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." (In section I 5 the Society explains how to use "years B.P." in connection with radiocarbon ages.) Society for Historical Archaeology (December 2006). "Style Guide" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-01-16. whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach calling for "C.E." and "B.C.E." American Anthropological Society (2009). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- Smithsonian Institution. "World History Standards". Smithsonian Education. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-09-09.
- "Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon". The Ostracon – Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however.
- "Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual" (PDF). Maryland Church News. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "AP: World History". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Jerusalem Timeline". History Channel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.;"Jerusalem: Biographies". History Channel. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "AD and BC become CE/BCE". 9 February 2002. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy". Family Foundation of Kentucky. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Kentucky Board of Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of Jesus to be removed as reference point for dates in school history books". Daily Mail. London. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "AD/BC rock solid in curriculum". The Age. Melbourne. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- The American and English Encyclopedia of Law and Practice. 1910. p. 1116.
It has been said of the Latin words anno Domini, meaning in the year of our Lord [...]
- Michael McDowell; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). World Religions At Your Fingertips. Penguin. p. 38. ISBN 9781101014691.
Marked by the turn of the Common Era, C.E., originally referred to as A.D., an abbreviation of the Latin Anno Domini, meaning "Year of our God/Lord." This was a shortening of Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, meaning "Year of our God/Lord Jesus Christ."
- "Comments on the use of CE and BCE to identify dates in history". ReligiousTolerance.com. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Lefevere, Patricia (1998-12-11). "Annan: 'Peace is never a perfect achievement' – United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 2008-02-26.[dead link]
- Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations) (28 June 1999). "Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our diversity, we need to discover our shared values". Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Whitney, Susan (2 December 2006). "Altering history? Changes have some asking 'Before what?'". The Deseret News. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
I find this attempt to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C. and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication. Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact.[dead link]
- "On Retaining The Traditional Method Of Calendar Dating (B.C./A.D.)". Southern Baptist Convention. June 2000. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
This practice [of BCE/CE] is the result of the secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness pervasive in our society... retention [of BC/AD] is a reminder to those in this secular age of the importance of Christ's life and mission and emphasizes to all that history is ultimately His Story.
- Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
A.D. appears either before or after the number of the year... although conservative use has long preferred before only; B.C. always follows the number of the year.... Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don't use B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis.
- Panikkar, Raimon (2004). "Christophany: The Fullness of Man". Maryville, NY: Orbis Books: 173. ISBN 978-1-57075-564-4. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Here is an example of the incarnation's historical-sociological implications among those who feel themselves furthest from Christianity. In certain North American academic circles one can see a return-with repercussions elsewhere-to the most bigoted Christian colonialism, along with the good intention of overcoming it. It has been suggested that the terminology of the Western calendar, Christian in origin, be replaced by one that presumably would be neutral and universal. It is understandable that some would protest the use of A.D. (anno Domini), but by eliminating B.C. (before Christ) and substituting B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) scholars betray the depths of the cultural impact of the historico-Christian event. After all, Jesus was not born in the year 1. We select a single event but without any value judgment. To call our age "the Common Era," even though for the Jews, the Chinese, the Tamil, the Muslims, and many others it is not a common era, constitutes the acme of colonialism.
- Simon, Stephanie (22 June 2007). "A conservative's answer to Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Conservapedia Commandments at Conservapedia
- "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option.
- SBL Handbook of Style Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2 ERAS - The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C. follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see §18.104.22.168.)"
- "GERMANY: Jewish Joke". Time. 7 March 1938. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse, II. Jahrgang, No. 60, Leipzig, 19. Mai 1838 (19 May 1838). See page 175 in Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums: Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse in Betreff von Politik, Religion, Literatur, Geschichte, Sprachkunde und Belletristik, Volume 2 (Leipzig 1838).
- Julius Fürst, Geschichte des Karäerthums von 900 bis 1575 der gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung (Leipzig 1862–1869).
- See page 149 in Weiße Blätter issue May 1938
- "Writing Dates in Spanish". Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "Welsh-Termau-Cymraeg Archives". JISCMail. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- The dictionary definition of Common_Era#Translations at Wiktionary
- Whatever happened to B.C. and A.D., and why? (United Church of Christ)
- Response by Awake! to a reader upset by the use of B.C.E. and C.E. (Jehovah's Witnesses)